Sogn og Fjordane was up to 1 January 2020 a county in western Norway, when it was merged to become part of Vestland county. Bordering previous counties Møre og Romsdal, Oppland and Hordaland, the county administration was in the village of Hermansverk in Leikanger municipality; the largest town in the county was Førde. Although Sogn og Fjordane has some industry, predominantly hydroelectricity and aluminium, it is predominantly an agricultural area. Sogn og Fjordane is home to the Urnes Stave Church and the Nærøyfjord, which are both listed by UNESCO as world heritage sites; the Western Norway University of Applied Sciences has campuses in Førde. The name Sogn og Fjordane was created in 1919; the first element is the name of the region of Sogn, located in the southern part of the county. The last element is the plural definite form of fjord, which refers to the two regions in the county called Nordfjord and Sunnfjord in the northern and central parts of the county. Prior to 1919, the name of the county was Nordre Bergenhus amt which meant " northern Bergenhus amt".
The coat of arms of Sogn og Fjordane was granted on 23 September 1983. The arms show the geographical layout of the county: three large blue fjords protruding into the white colored land; the three fjords represent the three regions of the county: Nordfjord and Sogn. Nearly all villages and towns are situated along one of these fjords and the name of the county is based on the fjords. Sogn og Fjordane is the only county in Norway in which all municipalities have declared Nynorsk to be their official written form of the Norwegian language; the county consists of the two historic counties: Firdafylke and Sygnafylke. These both were formed in the Middle Ages under the Gulating government, they were merged with Hordafylke and Sunnmørafylke to form the Bergenhus len in the late Middle Ages. The Bergenhus len was one of four len in Norway, it was administered from the Bergenhus Fortress in the city of Bergen. On 19 February 1662, a royal decree changed the name to Bergenhus amt; the Sunnmøre region was moved to Romsdalen amt in 1689.
In 1763, the amt was divided in half creating: Nordre Bergenhus and Søndre Bergenhus. On 1 January 1919, Nordre Bergenhus amt was renamed Sogn og Fjordane fylke during a period of time when many location names in Norway were changed. A county is the chief local administrative area in Norway; the country is divided into 19 counties. A county is an election area, with popular votes taking place every 4 years; the Sogn og Fjordane County Municipality is the government. It is a group of 39 members. Heading the Fylkesting is the county mayor. Since 2011, the Sogn og Fjordane County Municipality has been led by Åshild Kjelsnes, the county mayor, she replaced Nils R. Sandal, county mayor from 2003 until 2011; the county has a County Governor, the representative of the King and Government of Norway. Anne Karin Hamre has been the County Governor of Sogn og Fjordane since 2011. Oddvar Flæte was county governor from 1994 until 2011; the municipalities of Sogn og Fjordane are divided among three district courts: Sogn and Nordhordland.
Sogn og Fjordane is part of the Gulating Court of Appeal district based in Bergen. Sogn District Court: Aurland, Leikanger, Luster, Lærdal, Vik, Årdal Fjordane District Court: Askvoll, Eid, Flora, Førde, Gloppen, Hyllestad, Høyanger, Jølster, Selje, Stryn, Vågsøy Nordhordland District Court: Gulen All of the municipalities of Sogn og Fjordane except Gulen and Solund are part of the Sogn og Fjordane police district. Gulen and Solund are part of the Hordaland police district, it is a rural area with a scattered population. Sogn og Fjordane includes the largest glacier in mainland Norway, Jostedalsbreen, in the Breheimen mountain range, the deepest lake, Hornindalsvatnet. There are many famous waterfalls located in the area. Ramnefjellsfossen is the tallest in Norway and third tallest in the world and Vettisfossen is one of Norway's highest waterfalls with a vertical drop of 275 metres. Both are located in the Jotunheim mountains. Cruise ships visit Sogn og Fjordane all summer because of the unique vistas of high mountains and deep blue fjords.
The famous Nærøyfjord is located in the south of the county. This is a UNESCO listed fjord area. There are several archipelagos, including Bulandet and islands around Florø; the westernmost point in Norway proper is Holmebåen in Solund municipality. The island of Unst, part of Shetland Islands is around 300 kilometres west of Holmebåen; the terrain changes quite with smaller mountains on the coastline increasing to mountains reaching more than 2,000 metres. Because of the steep rise in elevation and fjords cutting through the terrain, the amount of precipitation is high. Low pressure systems meet the mountains and cause rain and snowfall. Transport is made more difficult because of the mountains; the fjords have to
The Quassapaug Sailing Center is a nonprofit educational institution located on Middlebury, Connecticut, on the shore of Lake Quassapaug. The Sailing Center provides educational and recreational sailing programs to those who wish to develop competent sailors skills for small boat racing, pleasure, or large boat sailing in coastal waters, as well as family sailing; the building was built in 1927 by the Whittemore family, of Middlebury as summer retreat for children from Waterbury. In 1945, it became the new location for the Lake Quassapaug Yacht Club as well as being used by the Waterbury Boys and Girls Club for a summer camp; the Yacht Club remained in the location until 2003. At that time, the newly formed Quassapaug Sailing Center, Inc. purchased the property. Quassapaug Sailing Center has fleets of Optimist and Snipe. Official website
Wei Yuan, born Wei Yuanda, courtesy names Moshen and Hanshi, was a Chinese scholar from Shaoyang, Hunan. He moved to Yangzhou in 1831. Wei obtained the provincial degree in the Imperial examinations and subsequently worked in the secretariat of several prominent statesmen, such as Lin Zexu. Wei was concerned with the crisis facing China in the early 19th century. From an early age, Wei espoused the New Text school of Confucianism and became a vocal member of the statecraft school, which advocated practical learning in opposition to the barren evidentiary scholarship as represented by scholars like Dai Zhen. Among other things, Wei advocated sea transport of grain to the capital instead of using the Grand Canal and he advocated a strengthening of the Qing Empire's frontier defense. In order to alleviate the demographic crisis in China proper, Wei spoke in favor of large scale emigration of Han Chinese into Xinjiang. In his career he became concerned with the threat from the Western powers and maritime defense.
He wrote A Military History of the Holy Dynasty, the last two chapters of which were translated by Edward Harper Parker as the Chinese Account of the Opium War. Wei wrote a separate narrative on the First Opium War. Today, he is known for his 1844 work, Illustrated Treatise on the Maritime Kingdoms, which contains Western material collected by Lin Zexu during and after the First Opium War. British India was suggested as a potential target by Wei Yuan after the Opium War; the creation of a government organ for translation was proposed by Wei