click links in text for more info

Sogndal Fotball

Sogndal Fotball is the association football department of Norwegian sports club Sogndal IL from Sogndal in Vestland. The club was founded in 1926; the men's team plays in 1. Divisjon, the second tier of the Norwegian football league system; the club's home matches. In 1976, the men's team were runners-up in the Norwegian Cup, losing 2–1 against SK Brann. Sogndal became the first third tier side to play a Norwegian Cup final; the 2017 season is Sogndal's most recent in the top division. Eirik Bakke is the current head coach of the club since taking over on 1 January 2019. Sogndal IL was founded 19 February 1926; the club's breakthrough in Norwegian football came in 1976, when they as a third tier side reached the final of the 1976 Norwegian Cup. Sogndal lost the final against Brann at Ullevaal Stadion with the score 2–1, Knut Christiansen scored Sogndal's goal, they played their first top division season in 1982, a season which the team ended the season in 11th position and relegation back to the second tier.

In the 1988 season, Sogndal's second season in the first tier, Sogndal finished in sixth place, their best finishing position. The club was relegated to the second tier in the following 1989 season. Sogndal won group A in the 1990 2. Divisjon and won promotion. During the 1990s, Sogndal played five season in the first tier. In 1999, Sogndal received a trensfer fee reported to be around NOK 40 million when Eirik Bakke was sold to Leeds United. From 2001 to 2004, Sogndal played four consecutive seasons in the top division, an achievement they repeated in the seasons 2011–14; the men's team was promoted to the 2011 Tippeligaen after winning the 2010 1. Divisjon. In 2015, Sogndal won the 1. Divisjon, their sixth second tier title. HamKam and Lyn are the other clubs with six Norwegian second tier titles. In 2017, Sogndal relegated from Eliteserien, their eighth relegation from the top division, after losing the relegation play-offs on a penlty shoot-out against Ranheim; the club's stadium is Fosshaugane Campus.

The stadium was renovated and reopened in 2006 and the name Campus was added because the local Sogn og Fjordane University College and high school is located in the stadium. The capacity is 5,622; the attendance record of 7,025 spectators dates from the 1976 Norwegian Cup quarter-final against Start. Eliteserien 6th place: 1988 8th place: 2001, 2003 Norwegian Cup Runners-up: 1976 As of 1 January 2020Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Most appearances: 611, Asle Hillestad Most goals: 321, Svein Bakke Most goals, Eliteserien: 46, Håvard Flo Biggest win, Eliteserien: 5–0 vs. Odd, 15 June 2003 Biggest defeat, Eliteserien: 0–9 vs. Stabæk, 25 October 2009 Ingvar Stadheim Harald Aabrekk Michael Speight Torbjørn Glomnes Jan Halvor Halvorsen Trond Fylling Stig Nord Karl Oskar Emberland Harald Aabrekk Jonas Olsson Eirik Bakke Official website Saftkokaradn supporter site

1842 in Wales

This article is about the particular significance of the year 1842 to Wales and its people. Prince of Wales – Albert Edward Princess of Wales – vacant 12 April – Chartist Convention meets in London to arrange to submit another petition to parliament. Delegates include Morgan Williams, who brings with him a petition signed by 36,000 people from south Wales. 7 May – John Bennion of Flintshire, his wife Elizabeth, arrive in Nauvoo on the John Cummins to join the Mormon community. 12 June – The first Welsh language service in Waukesha County, USA, is held at Bronyberllan, home of Richard "King" Jones. July The Rebecca Riots, which had seen sporadic outbreaks in 1839, begin in earnest. Boughrood bridge completed over the River Wye. August – Workers at Cyfarthfa and Penydarren ironworks join the general strike. 30 August – Sir William Nott defeats the Afghans at Ghazni. 10 October – The Town Dock at Newport is opened. Date unknown Missionary Thomas Jones produces his first Khasi Reader and his translation of a Welsh-language work Rhodd Mam into the Khasi language.

A Royal Commission chaired by Robert Hugh Franks reports on the employment of children in the coal industry in South Wales. They find. A stone viaduct is built to carry the Glyncorrwg Railway. Henry Robertson arrives in Wales to work as an engineer, he settles near Wrexham and builds Palé Hall. John Cory and his family open a ship's chandlery business. Henry Hussey Vivian takes over the management of the Liverpool branch of the firm of Vivian and Sons. A Calvinistic Methodist mission to "the Welsh people in France" is established by Rev James Williams and his wife in Brittany. Two explosions at the Blackvein Colliery in Crosskeys result in a total of five deaths. Charles James Apperley – The Life of a Sportsman Anne Beale – Poems Thomas Price – A History of Wales to the Death of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, vol. 14 John Orlando Parry – Anticipations of Switzerland 12 February – Megan Watts Hughes, singer 11 March – Sarah Edith Wynne, singer 15 April – John Hughes, minister 14 June – William Abraham, politician 28 September – William John Parry, quarrymen's leader 31 October – Moses Owen Jones, musician 19 December – Daniel Thomas Phillips and American consul 26 May – Benjamin Heath Malkin and author, 73 September – William Ouseley, orientalist, 73 10 November – John Jones of Ystrad, politician, 65 22 December – Thomas Phillips and writer, 70

Vitznau–Rigi Railway

The Vitznau–Rigi Railway, called the Rigibahn until 1969, is a Swiss standard gauge rack railway that runs from Vitznau on the shore of Lake Lucerne to Rigi. Together with the Arth–Rigi Railway, which runs on the other side of the mountain, the Weggis–Rigi Kaltbad cable car, it has formed the Rigi Railways since 1992; the Vitznau–Rigi railway was opened on 21 May 1871 as the Rigibahn and the first mountain railway in Europe. The first rack railway of Europe had been opened in the quarry of Ostermundigen in 1870; the quarry was opened for marketing reasons only in October 1871. The Vitznau–Rigi Railway was built by the engineers Niklaus Riggenbach, Ferdinand Adolf Naeff and Olivier Zschokke. At first it ran only from Vitznau via Kaltbad to Rigi Staffelhöhe. On 27 June 1873, the railway was extended to Rigi Kulm; this section is located in the canton of Schwyz. The track belonged to the ARB and was leased by the VRB; the line is single track, but the line has been double-track since 1874 from the request stop of Freibergen to Rigi Kaltbad-First.

The Rigibahn was only open in the summer in the early years. Winter sports developed and operations in the winter commenced; the narrow-gauge Rigi–Scheidegg railway to Rigi Scheidegg, completed in 1875, began in Kaltbad. This railway was closed in 1931 and abandoned in 1942; the Weggis–Rigi Kaltbad cable car from Weggis operated by the Rigi Railways, has ended in Kaltbad since 1968. The Vitznau–Rigi Railway connects in Rigi Staffel with the tracks of the Arth–Rigi Railway, which has operated from Arth-Goldau since 1875; the VRB used a track that ran parallel with the track of the ARB to the common terminus in Rigi Kulm. Both railways were once separated and competitors; the only connection was a transfer table in front of the joint depot building on Rigi Kulm. It was not until 1990 that a connecting track was built between the VRB in Rigi Staffel; this was the beginning of the merger, completed in 1992. The VRB switched to electric traction in 1937 and an overhead line was erected on the Vitznau–Rigi Kulm line.

The traverser in Freibergen was replaced by a rack railway set of points in 1959. These sets of points were replaced by new systems in 2000 and 2012. In 2012, the station complex in Kaltbad was renewed and a second platform track was installed; the station building in Kaltbad was demolished. The new Kaltbad station building was inaugurated on 1 March 2015; the railway has the following technical data: 1 electric locomotive of 331 kW 4 electric motor cars of 330 kW 1 electric motor cars of 752 kW 2 electric push-pull sets of 824 kW 1 snow plough of 309 kW 2 steam locomotives of 340 kW 9 passenger cars 13 freight wagons, official vehicles, snow ploughs etc. Kronauer, J H. "Bücherschau. Die Rigi-Eisenbahn mit Zahnradbetrieb". Allgemeine Bauzeitung. XXXVI. Pp. 423–426. Theiler, J.. "Einige Bemerkungen über das Riggenbach'sche Eisenbahnsystem in seiner Anwendung". Allgemeine Bauzeitung. XXXVII. Pp. 386 ff. Inäbnit, Florian. Rigi-Bahnen. Zahnradbahn Vitznau–Rigi. Leissigen: Prellbock Druck & Verlag. ISBN 3-907579-19-4

Ordinary income

Under the United States Internal Revenue Code, the type of income is defined by its character. Ordinary income is characterized as income other than long-term capital gains. Ordinary income can consist of income from wages, tips, commissions and other types of compensation from employment, dividends, or net income from a sole proprietorship, partnership or LLC. Rents and royalties, after certain deductions, depreciation or depletion allowances, gambling winnings are treated as ordinary income. A "short term capital gain", or gain on the sale of an asset held for less than one year of the capital gains holding period, is taxed as ordinary income. Ordinary income stands in contrast to capital gain, defined as gain from the sale or exchange of a capital asset. A personal residence is a capital asset to the homeowner. By contrast, a land developer who had many houses for sale on many lots would treat each of those lots as inventory when they are sold. For the developer, each lot and home would not be a capital asset.

Clothing held by a retail store for sale in the ordinary course of business would be inventory -- and not a capital asset -- for the store. Another case where income is not taxed as ordinary income is the case of qualified dividends; the general rule taxes dividends as ordinary income. A change allowing use of the same tax rates as is used for long term capital gains rates for qualified dividends was made with the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003. Qualified dividends are dividends paid by domestic corporations or by corporations from foreign countries that have a tax treaty with the United States; this rule applies under the condition that the corporation has included the dividends in its own taxable income. Thus pass-through corporations like REITs and REMICs would not distribute qualified dividends, the dividends from those entities would be taxed at the ordinary income rates. In the United States, ordinary income is taxed at the marginal tax rates; as of 2006, there are six "tax brackets" ranging from 10% to 35%.

Ordinary income is taxed within the particular tax bracket listed on the rate schedules or tax tables as a percentage for each dollar within that bracket. However, after the 2003 Tax Cut, qualified dividends and long-term capital gains are taxed at the same rate of 15%. Internal Revenue Service Taxation in the United States 2007 U. S. Master Tax Guide. CCH, 2006 2006 Federal Tax Rate Schedules

Fire knife

The fire knife is a traditional Samoan cultural implement, used in ceremonial dances. It was composed of a machete wrapped in towels on both ends with a portion of the blade exposed in the middle. Tribal performers of fire knife dancing dance while twirling the knife and doing other acrobatic stunts; the towels are set afire during the dances thus explaining the name. The Siva Afi was performed with the Nifo Oti, dangerous as the steel of the Nifo oti heats up and burns; the modern fire knife dance has its roots in the ancient Samoan exhibition called "ailao" – the flashy demonstration of a Samoan warrior's battle prowess through artful twirling and catching, dancing with a war club. The'ailao could be performed with any warclub, some colonial accounts confirm that women performed'ailao at the head of ceremonial processions daughters of high chiefs. During night dances torches were twirled and swung about by dancers, although a warclub was the usual implement used for'ailao. Before the introduction of metals, the most common clubs that were wielded and displayed in the'ailao fashion were elaborately carved heirloom clubs called "anava".

These'anava were carved with serrated edges and jagged "teeth" which characterized the unique Samoan weapon called the "nifo'oti". When European and American whalers and traders began commercial ventures in Samoa, they introduced the natives to the long-handled blubber knife and the hooked cane knife; the characteristic metal hook of these tools was incorporated into the Samoan wooden nifo'oti, which bears the unique hooked element whether carved from wood or forged from steel. One common claim is that the word "nifo'oti" means "tooth of death", but this is not linguistically accurate as Samoan syntax places the modifier after the subject. One more linguistic issue remains to be worked out in regards to'oti and "oti"; when pronounced with the glottal stop, the word'oti does not mean "death" at all. Therefore, the most probable derivation of the term "nifo'oti" stems from the resemblance of the weapon's hook to the curved horn of a goat, or from the serrated teeth that formed the weapon's cutting edge.

The young man Tavita Vaoifi revived the Samoan ailao Siva Afi dance, to bring it home to Samoa. He had won a scholarship from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints; this was while WWII was being fought in his beloved South Pacific. When he was able to come to America he went to school and danced. After he read this information, in his spare time, he researched anything that he could find about his homeland; this story stuck him because he had never heard of this from his elders. He was determined to incorporate this treasure into his island dance routine. After many cuts and narrow escapes he was able to perfect this dance to the point where he performed it nightly at clubs and shows throughout, not only the San Francisco area but the entire country. Fire was added to the knife in 1946 by a Samoan knife dancer named Freddie Letuli to become Paramount Chief Letuli Olo Misilagi. Letuli was performing in San Francisco and noticed a Hindu Fire eater and a little girl with lighted batons; the fire eater loaned him some fuel, he wrapped some towels around his knife, the fire knife dance was born.

Although today many commercial performers perform the dance with short staffs or unbladed knives, this is not authentic fire knife dance and is unacceptable in the Samoas except for training purposes. The knives used by performers in American Samoa are still made of machetes, although they are dulled for younger dancers. Traditional competitions were hotly contested, their exhibitionists would rather die than seek medical care for injuries incurred while performing. Today, modern competitions are held annually at the Polynesian Cultural Center to name the World Fireknife Champion; the competition is always held during the third week of May. In 2007, the championships were expanded to welcome competitors in a duet category and a women's category. In 2010 the event expanded to four nights including a three-person final competition. Champions by year are: 2017: Falaniko Penesa 2016: Mikaele Oloa 2015: Joseph Cadousteau 2014: Viavia Tiumalu,Jr. 2013: Joseph Cadousteau 2012: Joseph Cadousteau 2011: Viavia Tiumalu, Jr. 2010: Mikaele Oloa 2009: Mikaele Oloa 2008: Viavia Tiumalu, Jr. 2007: Andrew "Umi" Sexton 2006: Mikaele Oloa 2005: Mikaele Oloa 2004: Alex Galeai 2003: David Galeai 2002: Pati Levasa 2001: Pati Levasa 2000: David Galeai 1999: David Galeai 1998: Pati Levasa 1997: Pati Levasa 1996: Ifi Soo 1995: Ifi Soo 1994: Ifi Soo 1993: Tauasa Sielu Avea The Samoan Siva Afi has become an integral part of any Polynesian Luau or show.

Many other Polynesian Islands have implemented the Siva Afi into their own Island shows in the Islands of Tahiti, Hawai'i, Cook Islands Fiji and Tonga. Because of the close familial Tribal ties with the aforementioned Islands and the Samoa

Cornelia Sollfrank

Cornelia Sollfrank is an artist who pioneered Net Art and Cyberfeminism in the 1990s. In 1997 Sollfrank hacked the "world's first" net art competition, organized by the Hamburg Art Museum in Germany, her work titled Female Extension involved the creation of 289 computer-generated websites created by combing the Internet and combining fragments of HTML into exquisite corpse-like websites. Each website was submitted under the name of a different artificial female artist. No women were awarded prizes, but press releases distributed by Sollfrank received widespread attention for her intervention, overshadowing the gallery's own awards. Cornelia Sollfrank founded the organization Old Boys Network. In 1997, it organized the Cyberfeminist International at documenta x in Germany. Old Boys Network published First Cyberfeminist International in 1998 followed by next Cyberfeminist International in 1999. Associated with Cyberfeminism, Sollfrank has expressed reservations that it limits the perception of her work as "womens issues".

Solfrank has founded the artist groups frauen-und-technik and -Innen. Women Hackers was an essay on hackers, focusing on the lack of recognition of female hackers. In 2004 Cornelia Sollfrank's monograph titled generator was published by Verlag für moderne Kunst Nürnberg. Sollfrank is a member of the Chaos Computer Club. Old Boys Network Blog Cornelia Sollfrank in the Video Data Bank