Soil science

Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation and mapping. Sometimes terms which refer to branches of soil science, such as pedology and edaphology, are used as if synonymous with soil science; the diversity of names associated with this discipline is related to the various associations concerned. Indeed, agronomists, geologists, physical geographers, biologists, silviculturists, sanitarians and specialists in regional planning, all contribute to further knowledge of soils and the advancement of the soil sciences. Soil scientists have raised concerns about how to preserve soil and arable land in a world with a growing population, possible future water crisis, increasing per capita food consumption, land degradation. Soil occupies the pedosphere, one of Earth's spheres that the geosciences use to organize the Earth conceptually; this is the conceptual perspective of pedology and edaphology, the two main branches of soil science. Pedology is the study of soil in its natural setting.

Edaphology is the study of soil in relation to soil-dependent uses. Both branches apply a combination of soil physics, soil chemistry, soil biology. Due to the numerous interactions between the biosphere and hydrosphere that are hosted within the pedosphere, more integrated, less soil-centric concepts are valuable. Many concepts essential to understanding soil come from individuals not identifiable as soil scientists; this highlights the interdisciplinary nature of soil concepts. Dependence on and curiosity about soil, exploring the diversity and dynamics of this resource continues to yield fresh discoveries and insights. New avenues of soil research are compelled by a need to understand soil in the context of climate change, greenhouse gases, carbon sequestration. Interest in maintaining the planet's biodiversity and in exploring past cultures has stimulated renewed interest in achieving a more refined understanding of soil. Most empirical knowledge of soil in nature comes from soil survey efforts.

Soil survey, or soil mapping, is the process of determining the soil types or other properties of the soil cover over a landscape, mapping them for others to understand and use. It relies on distinguishing the individual influences of the five classic soil forming factors; this effort draws upon geomorphology, physical geography, analysis of vegetation and land-use patterns. Primary data for the soil survey are supported by remote sensing; as of 2006, the World Reference Base for Soil Resources, via its Land & Water Development division, is the pre-eminent soil classification system. It replaces the previous FAO soil classification; the WRB borrows from modern soil classification concepts, including USDA soil taxonomy. The classification is based on soil morphology as an expression pedogenesis. A major difference with USDA soil taxonomy is that soil climate is not part of the system, except insofar as climate influences soil profile characteristics. Many other classification schemes exist, including vernacular systems.

The structure in vernacular systems are either nominal, giving unique names to soils or landscapes, or descriptive, naming soils by their characteristics such as red, fat, or sandy. Soils are distinguished by obvious characteristics, such as physical appearance and accompanying vegetation. A vernacular distinction familiar to many is classifying texture as light. Light soil content and better structure, take less effort to cultivate. Contrary to popular belief, light soils do not weigh less than heavy soils on an air dry basis nor do they have more porosity. Contemporaries Friedrich Albert Fallou, the German founder of modern soil science, Vasily Dokuchaev, the Russian founder of modern soil science, are both credited with being among the first to identify soil as a resource whose distinctness and complexity deserved to be separated conceptually from geology and crop production and treated as a whole; as a founding father of soil science Fallou has primacy in time. Fallou was working on the origins of soil before Dokuchaev was born, however Dokuchaev's work was more extensive and is considered to be the more significant to modern soil theory than Fallou's.

Soil had been considered a product of chemical transformations of rocks, a dead substrate from which plants derive nutritious elements. Soil and bedrock were in fact equated. Dokuchaev considers the soil as a natural body having its own genesis and its own history of development, a body with complex and multiform processes taking place within it; the soil is considered as different from bedrock. The latter becomes soil under the influence of a series of soil-formation factors. According to him, soil should be called the "daily" or outward horizons of rocks regardless of the type. A 1914 encyclopedic definition: "the different forms of earth on the surface of the rocks, formed by the breaking down or weathering of rocks". Serves to illustrate the historic view of soil. Dokuchaev's late 19th century soil concept developed in the 20th century to one of soil as earthy material, altered by living processes. A corollary conce

Centro de Estudios Superiores Royal

The Royal Higher Education Center known as Royal University, is a private university founded in August 2003 in the city of Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, México. The institute belongs to the royal educational system, cofounded by Juan de Dios González and Sandra González, in this system prevails the formation of ethical values and the teaching of english language; the university is associated with the UNESCO's Associated Schools Project Network, reason why the students learn a culture of peace and justice. The royal educational system was born in 1989 with the opening of the Royal English Academy, it was cofounded by Juan de Dios González and Sandra González; the system has been expanded piecemeal to include more levels of education, in 1991 the junior high school opened its doors and it is called "Colegio Bilingüe Real", in 1994 elementary and highschool were added, the highschool is called "Preparatoria Royal", since it has managed to break local and regional academic and cultural records. The Royal University was created on August 11, 2003, because of high local demand for quality education and having the intention of being the option to study in an excellent university without leaving the city and to form professionals with international vision, competitive spirit, a solid national culture.

As of 2009, the school offers kindergarten, middle-school and university. Today the university is well known for the bilingual professionals that graduate with an excellent formation and human values. Located in the same building of the university, the royal highschool "Preparatoria Royal" offers high school education in 3 years with the distinctiveness of the system, the royal quality and the teaching of english language; the Royal University offers bachelor's degrees in: Business Administration International Commerce Marketing and publicity Accountancy Organizational psychology Computer Systems engineering Centro de Estudios Superiores Royal Website Colegio Bilingue Real Official Website

Zafer Square

Zafer Square is a square in Ankara, Turkey. Zafer means "victory". Although it is traditionally called square it is no longer a junction point; the square is on Atatürk Boulevard at 39°55′29″N 32°51′17″E in Çankaya secondary municipality. It is between Sıhhiye Square. An underground bazaar of bookstores is to the east and an officer’s club is to the west of the square. At the center of the Atatürk Boulevard there is a statue of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Turkish Republic in marshal uniform; the monument was commissioned to Pietro Canonica, an Italian sculptor, who had created several other monuments in Turkey. It was erected on 4 November 1927; the building material is bronze with a marble base. The height of the base is 2 m and the height of the statue 1.75 m