Justificatio sola fide, meaning justification by faith alone, is a Christian theological doctrine held to distinguish many Protestant denominations from the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches. The doctrine asserts that it is on the basis of their faith that believers are forgiven their transgressions of the law of God rather than on the basis of good works which they have done; this forgiveness is known as "justification". In classical Lutheran and Reformed theologies, good works are seen to be evidence of faith, but the good works themselves do not determine salvation; the doctrine of sola fide asserts God's pardon for guilty sinners is granted to and received through faith alone, excluding all "works". Without God's input, Christianity asserts, is fallen and sinful meaning its actions and omissions are afflicted by the curse and most if not all would face God's wrath due to the fall of man. God, the faith holds, sent his only son, in human form, to be reborn in all mankind so through Jesus Christ alone sinners may receive pardon, received through faith.
Christ's righteousness, according to the followers of sola fide, is imputed by God to sinners coming to a state of true, loving belief. If so God's verdict and potential pardon is from genuinely held Christian faith rather than anything in the sinner; this contrasts with other supposed graces of salvation, such as priestly confession and rituals such as weekly taking of the sacrament. See the ordo salutis for more detail on the doctrine of salvation considered more broadly than justification by faith alone; the standalone sola fide justification of souls is a tenet of most Lutheran and Reformed sects but neither the Roman Catholic nor the Eastern Orthodox church. These Protestants exclude all human works from the legal verdict of justification. According to Martin Luther, justification by faith alone is the article on which the Church stands or falls. Thus, "faith alone" is foundational to Lutheranism and Reformed Christianity, as a formula distinguishes it from other Christian denominations.
From 1510 to 1520, Luther lectured on the Psalms and the books of Hebrews and Galatians. As he studied these portions of the Bible, he came to view the use of terms such as penance and righteousness by the Roman Catholic Church in new ways, he became convinced that the church was corrupt in its ways and had lost sight of what he saw as several of the central truths of Christianity, the most important of which, for Luther, was the doctrine of justification—God's act of declaring a sinner righteous—by faith alone through God's grace. He began to teach that salvation or redemption is a gift of God's grace, attainable only through faith in Jesus."This one and firm rock, which we call the doctrine of justification," insisted Martin Luther, "is the chief article of the whole Christian doctrine, which comprehends the understanding of all godliness." He called this doctrine the articulus stantis et cadentis ecclesiae: "…if this article stands, the Church stands. For Lutherans this doctrine is the material principle of theology in relation to the Bible, the formal principle.
They believe justification by grace alone through faith alone in Christ's righteousness alone is the gospel, the core of the Christian faith around which all other Christian doctrines are centered and based. Luther came to understand justification as the work of God; when God's righteousness is mentioned in the gospel, it is God's action of declaring righteous the unrighteous sinner who has faith in Jesus Christ. The righteousness by which the person is justified is not his own but that of Christ. "That is why faith alone makes someone just and fulfills the law," said Luther. "Faith is that which brings the Holy Spirit through the merits of Christ." Thus faith, for Luther, is a gift from God, "...a living, bold trust in God's grace, so certain of God's favor that it would risk death a thousand times trusting in it." This faith appropriates it for the believer. He explained his concept of "justification" in the Smalcald Articles: The first and chief article is this: Jesus Christ, our God and Lord, died for our sins and was raised again for our justification.
He alone is the Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world, God has laid on Him the iniquity of us all. All have sinned and are justified without their own works and merits, by His grace, through the redemption, in Christ Jesus, in His blood; this is necessary to believe. This can not be otherwise grasped by any work, law or merit. Therefore, it is clear and certain that this faith alone justifies us... Nothing of this article can be yielded or surrendered though heaven and earth and everything else falls. Traditionally, Lutherans have taught forensic justification, a divine verdict of acquittal pronounced on the believing sinner. God declares the sinner to be "not guilty" because Christ has taken his place, living a perfect life according to God's law and suffering for his sins. For Lutherans, justification is in no way dependent upon the thoughts and deeds of those justified through faith alone in Christ; the new obedience that the justified sinner renders
HM Prison Standford Hill is a Category D men's prison, located close to the village of Eastchurch on the Isle of Sheppey, Kent. Standford Hill forms part of the Sheppey prisons cluster, which includes HMP Elmley and HMP Swaleside; the prison is operated by Her Majesty's Prison Service. Standford Hill was opened on the site of an ex Royal Air Force station, was first used as a prison in 1950; the complex has been redeveloped since and the current buildings on the site date from 1986. In December 2004, an inspection report from Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Prisons stated that Standford Hill was not effective as a resettlement prison, did not offer inmates worthwhile skills; the report criticised the activities offered to prisoners. However inspectors did find "'significant' progress had been made in safety and respect" at the prison. Another inspection took place in December 2011 which found that outcomes were reasonable in most areas, yet there were still some significant areas of concern; the range of activities available was now considered to be good, but resettlement work was fragmented.
In January 2013 three inmates escaped from the prison. A further two prisoners absconded in June 2014. Another prisoner escaped in August 2014. Standford Hill is a Category D open prison for adult males serving any sentence, with a maximum of 5 years to their release, a maximum of 2 years to their parole eligibility date; the prison offers employment for inmates through its workshop and horticulture departments, offers full and part-time education classes. Jonathan Aitken Jim Devine Baron Taylor of Warwick Stephen Jackley Kenneth Noye Ministry of Justice pages on Standford Hill
Valaji or Valachi is a rāgam in Carnatic music. It is a pentatonic scale, it is a janya rāgam. The equivalent of Valaji in Hindustani music is Kalāvati. Valaji is a symmetric rāgam that does not contain madhyamam, it is a pentatonic scale. Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is as follows: ārohaṇa: S G₃ P D₂ N₂ Ṡ avarohaṇa: Ṡ N₂ D₂ P G₃ S Valaji is considered a janya rāgam of Chakravakam, the 16th Melakarta rāgam, though it can be derived from other melakarta rāgams, Vagadheeswari, Vachaspati or Nasikabhooshani, by dropping both rishabham and madhyamam. Since Chakravakam is lowest in ordinal number among these 6 melakarta scales, Valaji is associated with it. Valaji has only a few compositions in classical music, it has been used to score film music as well. Here are some popular kritis composed in Valaji. Jalandhara supithasthe japa kusuma bhasure by Muthiah Bhagavatar Santatam Ninne by G. N. Balasubramaniam Sri Gayatri, by Saint Gnanananda Tirtha Tândava Priyâ by Kalyani Varadarajan This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this rāgam.
Valaji's notes when shifted using Graha bhedam, yields another pentatonic rāgam Abhogi. Graha bhedam is the step taken in keeping the relative note frequencies same, while shifting the shadjam to the next note in the rāgam. For more details and illustration of this concept refer Graha bhedam on Abhogi. Malayamarutam is a rāgam which has shuddha rishabham in both ascending and descending scales in addition to the notes in Valaji, its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is S R₁ G₃ P D₂ N₂ Ṡ: Ṡ N₂ D₂ P G₃ R₁ S Nagasvaravali is a rāgam which has the shuddha madhyamam in place of the nishadam. Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is S G₃ M₁ P D₂ Ṡ: Ṡ D₂ P M₁ G₃ S Mohanam is a rāgam which has the chathusruti rishabham in place of the nishadam, its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is S R₂ G₃ P D₂ Ṡ: Ṡ D₂ P G₃ R₂ S