Sola Scriptura is a theological doctrine held by some Protestant Christian denominations that the Christian scriptures are the sole infallible source of authority for Christian faith and practice. While the scriptures' meaning is mediated through many kinds of subordinate authority, such as the ordinary teaching offices of a denominated church, the ecumenical creeds, the councils of the catholic church, so on - sola scriptura, on the other hand, rejects any original infallible authority other than the Bible. In this view, all subordinate authority is derived from the authority of the scriptures and is therefore subject to reform when compared to the teaching of the Bible. Church councils, Bible commentators, private revelation, or a message from an angel or an apostle are not an original authority alongside the Bible in the sola scriptura approach. Sola scriptura is a formal principle of many Protestant Christian denominations, one of the five solae, it was a foundational doctrinal principle of the Protestant Reformation held by many of the Reformers, who taught that authentication of scripture is governed by the discernible excellence of the text as well as the personal witness of the Holy Spirit to the heart of each man.
Some evangelical and Baptist denominations state the doctrine of sola scriptura more strongly: scripture is self-authenticating, clear to the rational reader, its own interpreter, sufficient of itself to be the final authority of Christian doctrine. By contrast and Methodism considered forms of Protestantism, uphold the doctrine of prima scriptura, with scripture being illumined by tradition and experience as well, thus completing the four sides of, in Methodism, the Wesleyan Quadrilateral; the Eastern Orthodox Church holds that to "accept the books of the canon is to accept the ongoing Spirit-led authority of the church's tradition, which recognizes, interprets and corrects itself by the witness of Holy Scripture". The Roman Catholic Church regards tradition and scripture as equal, as interpreted by the Roman magisterium; the Roman Catholic Church describes this as "one common source... with two distinct modes of transmission", while some Protestant authors call it "a dual source of revelation".
Sola scriptura is one of the five solae, considered by some Protestant groups to be the theological pillars of the Reformation. The key implication of the principle is that interpretations and applications of the scriptures do not have the same authority as the scriptures themselves. Martin Luther said, "a simple layman armed with Scripture is greater than the mightiest pope without it"; the intention of the Reformation was to correct what he asserted to be the errors of the Catholic Church by appeal to the uniqueness of the Bible's textual authority. Catholic doctrine is based in sacred tradition, as well as scripture. Sola scriptura rejected the assertion that infallible authority was given to the magisterium to interpret both scripture and tradition. Sola scriptura, does not ignore Christian history, tradition, or the church when seeking to understand the Bible. Rather, it sees the church as the Bible's interpreter, the regula fidei as the interpretive context, scripture as the only final authority in matters of faith and practice.
As Luther said, "The true rule is this: God's Word shall establish articles of faith, no one else, not an angel can do so." Lutheranism teaches that the Bible of the Old and New Testaments is the only divinely inspired book and the only source of divinely revealed knowledge. Scripture alone is the formal principle of the faith in Lutheranism, the final authority for all matters of faith and morals because of its inspiration, clarity and sufficiency. Lutheranism teaches that the Bible does not contain the Word of God, but every word of it is, because of verbal inspiration, the word of God. Most Lutheran traditions acknowledge that understanding scriptures is complex given that the Bible contains a collection of manuscripts and manuscript fragments that were written and collected over thousands of years. For example, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America teaches that "Lutheran Christians believe that the story of God’s steadfast love and mercy in Jesus is the heart and center of what the Scriptures have to say."As Lutherans confess in the Nicene Creed, the Holy Spirit "spoke through the prophets."
The Apology of the Augsburg Confession identifies "Holy Scripture" with the Word of God and calls the Holy Spirit the author of the Bible. Because of this, Lutherans confess in the Formula of Concord, "we receive and embrace with our whole heart the prophetic and apostolic Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as the pure, clear fountain of Israel"; the apocryphal books were not written by inspiration. The prophetic and apostolic scriptures are said by the Lutheran church to be authentic as written by the prophets and apostles, that a correct translation of their writings is God's Word because it has the same meaning as the original Biblical Hebrew and Koine Greek. A mistranslation is not God's word, no human authority can invest it with divine authority. Scripture, regarded as the word of God, carries the full authority of God in Lutheranism: every single statement of the Bible calls for instant and unrestricted acceptance; every doctrine of the Bible is the teaching of God and therefore requires fu
The Tiitinen list is a Finnish classified government document, given by West German Intelligence Service to the Finnish Security Police in 1990. The list consists of the names of 18 persons who are suspected to have been in contact with the East German security service Stasi; the people are popularly described as having been suspected of spying for the Eastern Bloc. The list is named after Seppo Tiitinen, the head of Supo in 1990. A copy of the list has been requested by journalist Susanna Reinboth and, in 2008, Supo was ordered to disclose the list by the Helsinki administrative court. In 2010, the ruling was overturned by the Supreme Court of Finland. One major argument in keeping the list classified has been that it only specifies individuals who have been in contact with Stasi, but not the nature of the contact; therefore being on the list would not constitute proof of or indicate breaking any Finnish laws. It was chosen not to shame innocent persons in the media. In October 2010, Julian Assange said in an interview that WikiLeaks had received a set of eight documents making up the Tiitinen list, that it was to be published by the website pending a factual review.
The list is", according to Assange. Notes General referencesJuha-Pekka Tikka, Ilta-Sanomat: This is what Tiitinen list is all about Stasi articles from a Finnish newspaper Aamulehti Der Einfluss der DDR auf Finnland Prof. Dr. Seppo Hentilä
Willie E. Jackson Jr. known as Little Willie Jackson, was an American jazz and rhythm and blues saxophonist and occasional vocalist. Jackson was born in Texas, he was blind, took up the saxophone and clarinet. By the mid 1930s he was based in San Diego, where he played with pianist Joe Liggins in the Creole Serenaders, he and Liggins moved to Los Angeles, in the early 1940s they formed the Honeydrippers, a band that took its name from the song "The Honeydripper", which became a number one R&B hit in 1945. Jackson was credited with both baritone saxophone on the recording. Jackson occasionally sang with the Honeydrippers, as on the 1946 single "Walkin'". Jackson recorded several tracks as bandleader with the Honeydrippers, for Modern Records in 1947, when the company needed to record material to issue during the 1948 American Federation of Musicians recording ban. According to critic Richie Unterberger, they "straddled the line between the swing and jump blues eras, with a hefty dose of boogie... Jackson was closer to jazz than most..."
Several of his recordings were versions of jazz songs first recorded in the 1920s or earlier, such as "I Ain't Got Nobody," and "St. Louis Blues," in a style similar to Cab Calloway. Jackson continued to perform with Liggins and to record in the 1950s and 1960s, though the band's style became outmoded with the advent of rock and roll, his final recordings were in 1969, with Liggins on tracks recorded for Johnny Otis' Blues Spectrum label. In 1983, Jackson appeared with Liggins at a "Legends of Rhythm & Blues" show recorded for TV in Los Angeles. A compilation of Jackson's recordings for Modern was issued by Ace Records in 2000, he died in Los Angeles in 2001. Little Willie Jackson at Discogs.com