The Pacific Surfliner is a 350-mile passenger train service operated by Amtrak, serving the communities on the coast of Southern California between San Diego and San Luis Obispo. The service carried 2,924,117 passengers during fiscal year 2016, a 3.4% increase from FY2015. Total revenue during FY2016 was $73,020,267, an increase of 3.6% over FY2015. The Pacific Surfliner is Amtrak's third-busiest service, the busiest outside the Northeast Corridor; the route is the successor of the San Diegan, a Los Angeles-San Diego service, one of the premier trains of the Santa Fe Railway until Amtrak took over operations in 1971. There were three daily trips, but the schedule was expanded to six round trips during the 1970s with funding from the state of California. In 1988 the service was extended to Santa Barbara, followed in 1995 with one trip a day going all the way to San Luis Obispo; as the name "San Diegan" no longer reflected the extent of the route, it was renamed the Pacific Surfliner in 2000. The route is named after the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway's Surf Line.
Like all regional trains in California, the Pacific Surfliner is operated by a joint powers authority. The Los Angeles – San Diego – San Luis Obispo Rail Corridor Agency is governed by a board that includes eleven elected representatives from the six counties the train travels through. LOSSAN contracts with the Orange County Transportation Authority to provide day-to-day management of the service and with contracts with Amtrak to operate the service and maintain the rolling stock; the California Department of Transportation provides the funding to operate the service and owns some of the rolling stock. The Surfliner coaches used on the Pacific Surfliner, are named after it; the 350-mile San Luis Obispo-San Diego trip takes 8½ hours with an average speed of 41.2 miles per hour. Much of the Pacific Surfliner's scenic route follows the Pacific coast, with the tracks being less than 100 feet from the ocean in some locations. However, trains travel inland through expansive farmlands in Ventura County and industrial backlots in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley, parts of Orange County.
The Pacific Surfliner operates 12 daily round trips between San Diego. Five round trips run north of Los Angeles: two to San Luis Obispo, three to Goleta with Thruway Motorcoach connections to San Luis Obispo. Thruway Motorcoach connections are available to San Pedro; because the San Luis Obispo and Goleta stations are not equipped to turn equipment, the San Diego station requires a time consuming deadhead movement into a wye located about 16 miles to the north in Miramar, trains are operated in push-pull mode. The locomotive is at the rear of the train, pushing the train from Goleta, San Luis Obispo or San Diego to Los Angeles. At Los Angeles, the train reverses at the station, the locomotive pulls the train to San Diego or Goleta/San Luis Obispo, respectively. A project is being prepared for run-through tracks at Union Station in Los Angeles. Stops at Orange and Laguna Niguel/Mission Viejo were added in 2007 but dropped in 2012. On October 7, 2013, stops were added at Coaster stations at Carlsbad Village, Carlsbad Poinsettia and Sorrento Valley.
The Carlsbad Poinsettia and Encinitas stops were dropped on October 2017 due to low ridership. The Carlsbad Village and Sorrento Valley stops were dropped on October 8, 2018 due to changes with the cross-ticketing arrangement with Coaster. Local agencies along with the host railroads formed the Los Angeles–San Diego-San Luis Obispo Rail Corridor Agency in 1989; the Pacific Surfliner is operated by Amtrak under the Amtrak California brand with funding provided by the California Department of Transportation. Serious discussions were held in 2009 regarding the local agencies administering the service rather than Caltrans. California Senate Bill No. 1225, passed in 2014, allowed LOSSAN to amend the joint powers agreement and become the sponsor of state-supported intercity passenger rail service in the corridor. In mid-2015, LOSSAN assumed oversight for the Surfliner, they are working with Caltrans to assess rail operations from Los Angeles to San Diego to develop better connections, close gaps in the schedule, optimize the assets of the railroad.
The Pacific Surfliner runs on track owned by several private railroads and public agencies: Union Pacific Railroad: San Luis Obispo – Moorpark Southern California Regional Rail Authority: Moorpark – Los Angeles BNSF Railway: Los Angeles – Fullerton Southern California Regional Rail Authority: Fullerton – Orange County/San Diego County line North County Transit District: Orange County/San Diego County line – San Diego San Luis Obispo Grover Beach Guadalupe Lompoc–Surf Goleta Santa Barbara Carpinteria Ventura Oxnard Camarillo Moorpark Simi Valley Chatsworth Van Nuys Hollywood Burbank Airport Glendale Los Angeles Union Station Fullerton Anaheim Santa Ana Irvine San Juan Capistrano San Clemente Pier Oceanside Solana Beach San Diego–Old Town San Diego Santa Fe Depot The Pacific Surfliner uses push-pull trainsets with a diesel locomotive at one end and a cab car at the other. Eight of the nine trainsets used for regular service use a fleet of 49 bilevel Surfliner coaches, plus nine leased Amtrak Superliner long-distance coaches modified for push-pull operation.
A typical six-car set has a business class c
Geographic Names Information System
The Geographic Names Information System is a database that contains name and locative information about more than two million physical and cultural features located throughout the United States of America and its territories. It is a type of gazetteer. GNIS was developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the United States Board on Geographic Names to promote the standardization of feature names; the database is part of a system that includes bibliographic references. The names of books and historic maps that confirm the feature or place name are cited. Variant names, alternatives to official federal names for a feature, are recorded; each feature receives a permanent, unique feature record identifier, sometimes called the GNIS identifier. The database never removes an entry, "except in cases of obvious duplication." The GNIS accepts proposals for new or changed names for U. S. geographical features. The general public can make proposals at the GNIS web site and can review the justifications and supporters of the proposals.
The Bureau of the Census defines Census Designated Places as a subset of locations in the National Geographic Names Database. U. S. Postal Service Publication 28 gives standards for addressing mail. In this publication, the postal service defines two-letter state abbreviations, street identifiers such as boulevard and street, secondary identifiers such as suite. Canadian Geographical Names Data Base, a similar, but non-public-domain, database for locations within Canada only GEOnet Names Server, a similar database for locations outside the United States United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey, National Mapping Division, Digital Gazeteer: Users Manual. Least Heat Moon, Blue Highways: A Journey Into America. ISBN 0-316-35329-9 Jouris, All Over The Map, ISBN 0-89815-649-1 Report: "Countries, Areas of Special Sovereignty, Their Principal Administrative Divisions," Federal Information Processing Standards, FIPS 10-4.
Standard was withdrawn in September 2008, See Federal Register Notice: Vol. 73, No. 170, page 51276 Report: "Principles and Procedures: Domestic Geographic Names," U. S. Board on Geographic Names, 1997. U. S. Postal Service Publication 28. U. S. Board on Geographic Names website Geographic Names Information System Proposals from the general public Meeting minutes
1990 United States Census
The Twenty-first United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, was the first census to be directed by a woman, Barbara Everitt Bryant. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 248,709,873, an increase of 9.8 percent over the 226,545,805 persons enumerated during the 1980 Census. 16 percent of households received a "long form" of the 1990 census, which contained over 100 questions. Full documentation on the 1990 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, it was the first census to designate "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander" as a racial group separate from Asians. To increase black participation in the 1990 United States Census, the bureau recruited Bill Cosby, Magic Johnson, Alfre Woodard, Miss America Debbye Turner as spokespeople; the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System.
Identifiable information will be available in 2062. This was the first census since 1890 in which Chicago was not the second-largest city, having been overtaken by Los Angeles; as of the 2020 Census, Los Angeles is expected to remain the nation's second-largest city. The results of the 1990 census determined the number of seats that each state receives in the United States House of Representatives starting with the 1992 elections; this affected the number of votes each state has in the Electoral College for the 1992 presidential election. Because of population changes, twenty-one states had changes in their number of seats. Eight states gained at least one seat, thirteen states lost at least one seat; the final result involved 19 seats being switched. U. S. Census Bureau 1990 Census page Historic US Census data Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1990 Contains 1990 Census results Booknotes interview with Sam Roberts on Who We Are: A Portrait of America, June 19, 1994. 1991 U. S Census Report Contains 1990 Census results
Cardiff-by-the-Sea, Encinitas, California
Cardiff-by-the-Sea referred to as Cardiff, is a beach community located in Encinitas in San Diego County, California. The Pacific Ocean is to the west of Cardiff, the rest of Encinitas on its east and north, a beach and lagoon on its south. With a population of under 12,000, Cardiff-by-the-Sea operates as part of the city of Encinitas, but unlike the other communities that comprise Encinitas, has its own ZIP code. Cardiff is home to a few well-known surf spots, such as Swami's and Cardiff Reef. In 1911 this former farming community began to develop when Boston developer J. Frank Cullen broke ground to build new homes. Frank Cullen's wife, a native of Cardiff, persuaded him to name the community "Cardiff", as well as many streets, such as "Birmingham", "Oxford", "Chesterfield" and "Manchester", despite heavy Spanish influence in the area. In 1986, "Cardiff" joined with the nearby communities of Leucadia and Encinitas to form the incorporated city of Encinitas. Cardiff is part of the city of Encinitas, governed by a five-member city council, elected at-large to staggered four-year terms at two-year intervals.
In the California State Legislature, Cardiff is in the 36th Senate District, represented by Republican Patricia Bates, in the 76th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Tasha Boerner Horvath. In the United States House of Representatives, Cardiff is in California's 49th congressional district, represented by Democrat Mike Levin. Cardiff has a school district consisting of two schools: Cardiff Elementary Ada Harris Elementary Cardiff Reef is a popular surf spot in Cardiff that produces waves both professional and novice surfers enjoy year round. Surfing at The Reef has progressed from just a few surfers in the 1950s to become one of the most popular surfing spots in San Diego County. Cardiff Reef and nearby surf spot, are famous for their smooth and consistent wave shape; when the tide is low, a flat rock reef is revealed. Exploring these tide pools is a popular activity for visitors of Cardiff. According to the 2010 Census, Cardiff-by-the-Sea is 72% white, 20% Hispanic, 3% Asian, 1% African-American and 4% Other Mark Allen, former professional triathlete Scott Eastwood, actor Jon Foreman, singer/guitarist for Switchfoot Lyn-Z Adams Hawkins, professional skateboarder Chalmers Johnson and author of the Blowback trilogy Jonathan Jones, singer for the bands Waking Ashland and We Shot the Moon Frances Lee, silent film actress Rob Machado, professional surfer Kirk McCaskill, retired major league baseball pitcher Emily Ratajkowski, actress Lukas Gage, actor Marion Ross, actress Darren Hardy, publisher of Success Magazine Bob Haro, former freestyle BMX rider turned artist and business executive.
He was one of the most important early innovators of BMX freestyle. John Humphreys, doubles badminton champion Guenter Seidel, 3 time Olympic Bronze Medalist Dressage Kendra Scruggs, daughter of Baxter. Cardiff Kook Cardiff Crack CardiffByTheSea.org - Information center and chamber of commerce. Cardiff By The Sea Weather - Cardiff By The Sea Weather U. S. Census Bureau Fact Sheet for Cardiff-by-the-Sea
Desiderio Alberto Arnaz y de Acha III, better known as Desi Arnaz, was a Cuban-born American actor and television producer. He is best remembered for his role as Ricky Ricardo on the American television series sitcom I Love Lucy, he co-starred on that show with dramatic and comedic actress Lucille Ball, to whom he was married at the time. He and Ball are credited as the innovators of the syndicated rerun, which they pioneered with the I Love Lucy series. Arnaz and Lucille Ball co-founded and ran the television production company Desilu Productions to market I Love Lucy to television networks. After I Love Lucy ended, Arnaz went on to produce several other television series, at first with Desilu Productions, independently, examples of which included The Ann Sothern Show and The Untouchables, he was renowned for leading his Latin music band, the Desi Arnaz Orchestra. Arnaz was born Desiderio Alberto Arnaz y de Acha, III, in Santiago de Cuba to Desiderio Alberto Arnaz y de Alberni II and his wife Dolores de Acha.
His father was Santiago's youngest mayor and served in the Cuban House of Representatives. His maternal grandfather was an executive at rum producer Bacardi & Co.. Arnaz describes the opulent family life of his early youth in his autobiography, A Book —the family owned three ranches, a palatial home, a vacation mansion on a private island in Santiago Bay, Cuba. Following the Cuban Revolution of 1933, led by Fulgencio Batista, which overthrew President Gerardo Machado, Alberto Arnaz was jailed and all of his property was confiscated, he was released after six months. The family fled to Miami, where Desi attended St. Patrick Catholic High School. In the summer of 1934, he attended Saint Leo Prep to help improve his English; when he moved to the United States, Desi Arnaz turned to show business to support himself. In 1939, he starred on Broadway in the musical Too Many Girls, he went to Hollywood the next year to appear in the show's movie version at RKO, which starred Lucille Ball. Arnaz and Ball eloped on November 30, 1940.
Arnaz played guitar for Xavier Cugat. Arnaz appeared in several movies in the 1940s such as Bataan. Many consider his portrayal of the Jive loving California National Guardsman Felix Ramirez to be his best early role, he received his draft notice. He completed his recruit training, but was classified for limited service in the United States Army during World War II, he was assigned to direct United Service Organization programs at a military hospital in the San Fernando Valley. Discovering the first thing the wounded soldiers requested was a glass of cold milk, he arranged for movie starlets to meet them and pour the milk for them. Following his discharge from the Army, he formed another orchestra, successful in live appearances and recordings, he sang for troops in Birmingham Hospital with John Macchia and hired his childhood friend Marco Rizo to play piano and arrange for the orchestra. When he became successful in television, he kept the orchestra on his payroll, Rizo arranged and orchestrated the music for I Love Lucy.
On October 15, 1951, Arnaz co-starred in the premiere of I Love Lucy, in which he played a fictionalized version of himself, Cuban orchestra leader Enrique "Ricky" Ricardo. His co-star was Lucille Ball, who played Ricky's wife, Lucy. Television executives had been pursuing Ball to adapt her popular radio series My Favorite Husband for television. Ball insisted on Arnaz playing her on-air spouse so the two would be able to spend more time together. CBS wanted Ball's Husband co-star Richard Denning; the original premise was for the couple to portray Lucy and Larry Lopez, a successful show business couple whose glamorous careers interfered with their efforts to maintain a normal marriage. Market research indicated, that this scenario would not be popular, so Jess Oppenheimer changed it to make Ricky Ricardo a struggling young orchestra leader and Lucy an ordinary housewife who had show business fantasies but no talent; the character name "Larry Lopez" was dropped because of a real-life bandleader named Vincent Lopez, was replaced with "Ricky Ricardo".
Ricky appeared at, owned, the Tropicana Club, which under his ownership he renamed Club Babalu. The idea of having Ball and the distinctly Latin American Arnaz portray a married couple encountered resistance as they were told that Desi's Cuban accent and Latin style would not be agreeable to American viewers; the couple overcame these objections, however, by touring together, during the summer of 1950, in a live vaudeville act they developed with the help of Spanish clown Pepito Pérez, together with Ball's radio show writers. Much of the material from their vaudeville act, including Lucy's memorable seal routine, was used in the pilot episode of I Love Lucy. Segments of the pilot were recreated in the sixth episode of the show's first season. During his time on the show and Ball became TV's most successful entrepreneurs. With Ball, Arnaz founded Desilu Productions. At that time, most television programs were broadcast live, as the largest markets were in New York, the rest of the country received only kinescope images.
Karl Freund, Arnaz's cameraman, Arnaz himself have been credited with the development of the multiple-camera setup production style using adjacent sets in front of a live audience that became the standard for subsequent situation comedies. The use of film enabled every station around the country to broadcast high-quality images of the
Roman Catholic Diocese of San Diego
The Roman Catholic Diocese of San Diego is a particular church of the Latin Church of the Roman Catholic Church in the western region of the United States. Its ecclesiastic territory includes all of San Diego and Imperial Counties in Southern California, with a Catholic population of 1 million; the diocese is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Los Angeles. On January 4, 2012, Bishop Cirilo Flores was appointed as coadjutor bishop with immediate right of succession to Bishop Robert Henry Brom already 75, who had served since January 1990. Bishop Brom had submitted his resignation when he turned 75, as all Roman Catholic bishops must, Pope Francis accepted it on September 18, 2013, making Coadjutor Bishop Flores the Bishop of San Diego. Bishop Flores died on September 2014 after a stroke and a battle with cancer. In March 2015, Pope Francis appointed Bishop Robert McElroy as the bishop of the diocese. There are 233 priests, 118 active deacons, 213 religious sisters and 30 religious brothers in the diocese.
The first Roman Catholic churches in the current territory of the Diocese of San Diego were two of the twenty-one "California Missions". The area was first included in a diocese in 1840, with the creation of the Diocese of Both Californias. After the conquest of Alta California by the United States, that diocese was divided, with the American portion becoming the Diocese of Monterey renamed the Diocese of Monterey-Los Angeles. In 1922, the diocese was again divided, with the southern portion becoming the Diocese of Los Angeles-San Diego; the current diocese was created as a result of the division of the Diocese of Los Angeles-San Diego. The Diocese of San Diego was established on July 11, 1936, at which time it included San Diego County, Imperial County, Riverside County, San Bernardino County. In 1978, the Diocese of San Diego was itself divided, with Riverside County and San Bernardino County becoming the Diocese of San Bernardino; the Diocese of San Diego includes 99 parishes and 16 missions, serving San Diego County and Imperial County.
In addition, the diocese includes 5 high schools and 2 universities. On February 28, 2007, the diocese filed for bankruptcy protection after the diocese was unable to reach a settlement agreement with numerous plaintiffs suing over alleged clergy abuse. On September 7, 2007, the diocese agreed to pay $198.1 million to settle 144 claims of child sexual abuse by clergy, the 2nd-largest settlement payment by a Roman Catholic diocese in U. S. history. Perpetrators included one lay coordinator of altar boys. In September 2018, eight more priests were added to this list as well. On December 17, 2018, Father Juan Garcia Castillo, who served as a priest at the Diocese's St. Patrick’s Parish in Carlsbad, was convicted of sexually assaulting an underage seminarian and illegally supplying him with alcohol; the lists of ordinaries of the diocese and their years of service: Charles Francis Buddy Francis James Furey, appointed Archbishop of San Antonio Leo Thomas Maher Robert Henry Brom Cirilo Flores Robert W. McElroy Richard Henry Ackerman, C.
S. Sp. Appointed Bishop of Covington John R. Quinn, appointed Bishop of Oklahoma City-Tulsa and Archbishop of Oklahoma City and Archbishop of San Francisco Gilbert Espinosa Chávez Salvatore J. Cordileone, appointed Bishop of Oakland and Archbishop of San Francisco John P. Dolan Academy of Our Lady of Peace, Normal Heights, San Diego, administered by the Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet Cathedral Catholic High School*, Carmel Valley, San Diego Mater Dei Catholic High School**, Chula Vista St. Augustine High School, North Park, San Diego, administered by the Augustinians Vincent Memorial Catholic High School, Calexico. Saint Joseph Academy***, San Marcos* Formerly the University of San Diego High School ** Formerly Marian Catholic High School *** Catholic school not associated with Diocese known as Sierra Madre Academy All Hallows Academy Blessed Sacrament Parish School Nativity Catholic School Good Shepherd Catholic School Holy Family Catholic School Holy Trinity Catholic School Stella Maris Academy Mater Dei, Juan Diego Academy Nazareth School Notre Dame Academy Our Lady of Angels Our Lady of Grace Catholic School Our Lady of Guadalupe Catholic School, Chula Vista Our Lady of Guadalupe, El Centro Our Lady's School Our Lady of Mt. Carmel Catholic School, San Ysidro Our Lady of Perpetual Help, Brawley Sacred Heart, Coronado Santa Sophia Academy St. Charles Borromeo Catholic School St. Charles Catholic School, Imperial Beach St. Columba Catholic School St. Didacus Catholic School St. Francis of Assisi Catholic School St. Gregory the Great Catholic School St. James Catholic School St. John of the Cross Catholic School St. John the Evangelist Catholic School, Encinitas St. Martin of Tours Catholic School, La Mesa St. Mary Magdalene Catholic School St. Mary Star of the Sea Catholic School, Oceanside St. Mary Catholic School St. Michael Catholic School, Poway St. Michael Catholic School, San Diego St. Patrick Catholic School, Carlsbad St. Patrick Catholic School, San Diego St. Peter Catholic School St. Pius X Catholic School St. Rita Catholic School St. Rose of Lima Catholic School St. Therese Academy St. Vincent de Paul Catholic School Catholic Church by country Catholic Church hierarchy Chaldean Catholic
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry and housing. A metro area comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, boroughs, towns, suburbs, districts and nations like the eurodistricts; as social and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include one or more urban areas, as well as satellite cities and intervening rural areas that are socioeconomically tied to the urban core measured by commuting patterns. In the United States, the concept of the metropolitan statistical area has gained prominence. Metropolitan areas may themselves be part of larger megalopolises. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In the United States, the term micropolitan statistical area is used. A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration with zones not urban in character, but bound to the center by employment or other commerce; these outlying zones are sometimes known as a commuter belt, may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For example, New York on Long Island is considered part of the New York metropolitan area. In practice, the parameters of metropolitan areas, in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Sometimes they are little different from an urban area, in other cases they cover broad regions that have little relation to a single urban settlement. Population figures given for one metro area can vary by millions. There has been no significant change in the basic concept of metropolitan areas since its adoption in 1950, although significant changes in geographic distributions have occurred since and more are expected; because of the fluidity of the term "metropolitan statistical area," the term used colloquially is more "metro service area," "metro area," or "MSA" taken to include not only a city, but surrounding suburban and sometimes rural areas, all which it is presumed to influence.
A polycentric metropolitan area contains multiple urban agglomerations not connected by continuous development. In defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that a city or cities form a nucleus with which other areas have a high degree of integration. See the many lists of metropolitan areas itemized at § Lists of metropolitan areas; the Australian Bureau of Statistics defines Greater Capital City Statistical Areas as the areas of functional extent of the seven state capitals and the Australian Capital Territory. GCCSAs replaced "Statistical Divisions" used until 2011. In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called "metropolitan regions"; each State defines its own legislation for the creation and organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a metropolitan region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics uses them in its reports, their main purpose is to allow for a better management of public policies of common interest to all cities involved.
They don't have political, electoral or jurisdictional power whatsoever, so citizens living in a metropolitan region do not elect representatives for them. Statistics Canada defines a census metropolitan area as an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core. To form a CMA, the metropolitan area must have a population of at least 100,000, at least half within the urban core. To be included in the CMA, adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the core, as measured by commuter flows derived from census data. In Chinese, there used to be no clear distinction between "megalopolis" and "metropolitan area" until National Development and Reform Commission issued Guidelines on the Cultivation and Development of Modern Metropolitan Areas on Feb 19, 2019, in which a metropolitan area was defined as "an urbanized spatial form in a megalopolis dominated by supercity or megacity, or a large metropolis playing a leading part, within the basic range of 1-hour commute area."
The European Union's statistical agency, has created a concept named Larger Urban Zone. The LUZ represents an attempt at a harmonised definition of the metropolitan area, the goal was to have an area from a significant share of the resident commute into the city, a concept known as the "functional urban region". France's national statistics institute, the INSEE, names an urban core and its surrounding area of commuter influence an aire urbaine; this statistical method applies to agglomerations of all sizes, but the INSEE sometimes uses the term aire métropolitaine to refer to France's largest aires urbaines. In German definition, metropolian areas are eleven most densely populated areas in the Federal Republic of Germany, they comprise the major German cities and their surrounding catchment areas and form the political and cultural centres of the country. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the Regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In India, a metropolitan city is defin