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Solar System

The Solar System is the gravitationally bound system of the Sun and the objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly. Of the objects that orbit the Sun directly, the largest are the eight planets, with the remainder being smaller objects, the dwarf planets and small Solar System bodies. Of the objects that orbit the Sun indirectly—the moons—two are larger than the smallest planet, Mercury; the Solar System formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud. The vast majority of the system's mass is in the Sun, with the majority of the remaining mass contained in Jupiter; the four smaller inner planets, Venus and Mars, are terrestrial planets, being composed of rock and metal. The four outer planets are giant planets, being more massive than the terrestrials; the two largest and Saturn, are gas giants, being composed of hydrogen and helium. All eight planets have circular orbits that lie within a nearly flat disc called the ecliptic; the Solar System contains smaller objects.

The asteroid belt, which lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter contains objects composed, like the terrestrial planets, of rock and metal. Beyond Neptune's orbit lie the Kuiper belt and scattered disc, which are populations of trans-Neptunian objects composed of ices, beyond them a newly discovered population of sednoids. Within these populations, some objects are large enough to have rounded under their own gravity, though there is considerable debate as to how many there will prove to be; such objects are categorized as dwarf planets. Identified or accepted dwarf planets include the asteroid Ceres and the trans-Neptunian objects Pluto and Eris. In addition to these two regions, various other small-body populations, including comets and interplanetary dust clouds travel between regions. Six of the planets, the six largest possible dwarf planets, many of the smaller bodies are orbited by natural satellites termed "moons" after the Moon; each of the outer planets is encircled by planetary rings of dust and other small objects.

The solar wind, a stream of charged particles flowing outwards from the Sun, creates a bubble-like region in the interstellar medium known as the heliosphere. The heliopause is the point at which pressure from the solar wind is equal to the opposing pressure of the interstellar medium; the Oort cloud, thought to be the source for long-period comets, may exist at a distance a thousand times further than the heliosphere. The Solar System is located in the Orion Arm, 26,000 light-years from the center of the Milky Way galaxy. For most of history, humanity did not understand the concept of the Solar System. Most people up to the Late Middle Ages–Renaissance believed Earth to be stationary at the centre of the universe and categorically different from the divine or ethereal objects that moved through the sky. Although the Greek philosopher Aristarchus of Samos had speculated on a heliocentric reordering of the cosmos, Nicolaus Copernicus was the first to develop a mathematically predictive heliocentric system.

In the 17th century, Galileo discovered that the Sun was marked with sunspots, that Jupiter had four satellites in orbit around it. Christiaan Huygens followed on from Galileo's discoveries by discovering Saturn's moon Titan and the shape of the rings of Saturn. Edmond Halley realised in 1705 that repeated sightings of a comet were recording the same object, returning once every 75–76 years; this was the first evidence that anything other than the planets orbited the Sun. Around this time, the term "Solar System" first appeared in English. In 1838, Friedrich Bessel measured a stellar parallax, an apparent shift in the position of a star created by Earth's motion around the Sun, providing the first direct, experimental proof of heliocentrism. Improvements in observational astronomy and the use of unmanned spacecraft have since enabled the detailed investigation of other bodies orbiting the Sun; the principal component of the Solar System is the Sun, a G2 main-sequence star that contains 99.86% of the system's known mass and dominates it gravitationally.

The Sun's four largest orbiting bodies, the giant planets, account for 99% of the remaining mass, with Jupiter and Saturn together comprising more than 90%. The remaining objects of the Solar System together comprise less than 0.002% of the Solar System's total mass. Most large objects in orbit around the Sun lie near the plane of Earth's orbit, known as the ecliptic; the planets are close to the ecliptic, whereas comets and Kuiper belt objects are at greater angles to it. As a result of the formation of the Solar System planets, most other objects, orbit the Sun in the same direction that the Sun is rotating. There are exceptions, such as Halley's Comet. Most of the larger moons orbit their planets in this prograde direction and most larger objects rotate themselves in the same direction; the overall structure of the charted regions of the Solar System consists of the Sun, four small inner planets surrounded by a belt of rocky asteroids, four giant planets surrounded by the Kuiper belt of icy objects.

Astronomers sometimes informally divide this structure into separate

Greenwood Lake Airport

Greenwood Lake Airport is a public use airport located one nautical mile east of the central business district of West Milford, in Passaic County, New Jersey, United States. The airport is owned by New Jersey Department of Transportation, it is included in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015, which categorized it as a general aviation facility. An old Lockheed Constellation sits on the ramp; this aircraft is no longer flyable, has been built into part of the terminal building and houses an office for Sky Training LLC. Greenwood Lake Airport covers an area of 150 acres at an elevation of 790 feet above mean sea level, it has one runway designated 6/24 with an asphalt surface measuring 3,471 by 60 feet. For the 12-month period ending March 25, 2010, the airport had 18,099 general aviation aircraft operations, an average of 49 per day. At that time there were 64 aircraft based at this airport: 91% single-engine, 6% multi-engine, 2% helicopter, 2% ultralight; when Jungle Habitat was opened in 1972, the on-field FBO offered aerial tours in Cessna 152 and Cessna 172 aircraft painted with tiger and leopard stripes while avoiding Mountain Hawks.

List of airports in New Jersey Greenwood Lake Airport from New Jersey DOT Airport Directory Aerial image as of April 1994 from USGS The National Map Satellite photo of Connie on the ramp Jetlink Aviation is a multiengine flight school based at 4N1 FAA Terminal Procedures for 4N1, effective February 27, 2020 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for 4N1 AirNav airport information for 4N1 FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker SkyVector aeronautical chart for 4N1

Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University

The Brody School of Medicine is the medical school at East Carolina University, located in Greenville, North Carolina, United States. It is the newest of the four medical schools in North Carolina and a national leader in family medicine. Brody is ranked No. 1 in North Carolina and No. 2 nationally in the percentage of graduates who choose careers in family medicine, based on the 2017 American Academy of Family Physicians report on MD-granting medical schools. Brody ranks in the top 10 percent of U. S. medical schools for graduating physicians who practice in the state, practice primary care and practice in rural and underserved areas. Brody graduates practice in 83 of North Carolina's 100 counties; the Brody School of Medicine was first appropriated funds from the General Assembly in 1974. Under the leadership of former Chancellor Leo Warren Jenkins, the first class of 28 students enrolled in 1977; the school's primary mission is "to increase the supply of primary care physicians to serve the state, to enhance the access of minority and disadvantaged students in obtaining a medical education and to improve health status of citizens in eastern North Carolina."

Under the leadership of Dean Mark Stacy, today Brody School of Medicine grants the M. D. and Doctor of Philosophy degrees, as well as a Master of Public Health degree. The school has a student body of around 450 faculty members and researchers. BSOM organizes research through more than a dozen research centers and institutes, receiving around US $30 million annually in externally funded grants and contracts. BSOM is ranked as a "top medical school" by U. S. News & World Report in primary care, rural medicine and family medicine. In time, East Carolina University was authorized to establish a health affairs division as a foundation for a medical program, a one-year medical school whose participants completed their medical education at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. In 1974, the General Assembly of North Carolina appropriated the funds to establish a four-year medical school at East Carolina University; the legislature set forth a threefold mission for the ECU School of Medicine: to increase the supply of primary care physicians to serve the state, to improve health status of citizens in eastern North Carolina, to enhance the access of minority and disadvantaged students to a medical education.

Since 1977, when the first class of 28 students enrolled in the four-year School of Medicine, the institution has grown in its teaching and patient care roles. Today, it is partnered with Vidant Medical Center. In 1999, it was renamed the Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, in recognition of the continuous support of the Brody family, former owners of the Brody's retail chain. East Carolina University is a pioneer in minimally invasive robotic surgery. On May 3, 2000 at East Carolina's Brody School of Medicine, Dr. Randolph Chitwood performed the first robotic heart valve surgery in North America. Using this technology, surgeons at the school have performed more operations on the heart's mitral valve than any other center in the world by far. Today the Brody School of Medicine is home to a state of the art integrated cardiovascular disease center, The East Carolina Heart Institute at ECU. Brody School of Medicine has facilities on the campus of East Carolina University, situated in the western side of Greenville, adjacent to Vidant Medical Center.

The medical school facilities at East Carolina University sits in a complex on the health sciences campus of East Carolina's grounds and includes academic, administrative and presentation facilities. BSOM is served by the William E. Laupus Library. BSOM does not offer on-campus housing on the Health Sciences Campus, but the campus is home to a new Student Services Center, which boasts a fitness and wellness center and convenience stores and recreation space and study rooms; the main facility is the Brody Medical Sciences Building. The Biotechnology Building houses all of the laboratory equipment for the school. Housed in this building is the Pediatric Outpatient Center; the East Carolina Heart Institute at ECU houses the outpatient center and primary teaching and research location for cardiovascular care. The Family Medicine Center houses the outpatient facility for the Department of Family Medicine; the facility is soon moving to a separate building. The Health Sciences Building houses the Laupus Library, along with the College of Nursing and College of Allied Health Sciences.

The Hardy Building houses the Department of Public Health and Moye Medical Center I houses the General Internal Medicine and Critical Care and ECU Gastroenterology. Warren Life Sciences Building houses the administrative and research offices. Vidant Health, is associated with the Brody School of Medicine by means of a long standing affiliation agreement with ], Vidant's 861-bed inpatient facility, acts as the medical school's teaching hospital and "primary teaching site"; this facility is located adjacent to the Medical School. Vidant has other constituent elements that include the Bertie Memorial Hospital in Windsor, Chowan Hospital in Edenton, Duplin General Hospital in Kenansville, Heritage Hospital in Tarboro, The Outer Banks Hospital in Nags Head and Roanoke-Chowan Hospital in Ahoskie. In total, the largest private employer in eastern North Carolina, serves an area with a population of 1.3 million in 29 eastern counties. Brody is ranked No. 1 in North Carolina and No. 2 nationally in the percentage of graduates who choose careers in family

Abderrahman Ait Khamouch

Abderrahman Ait Khamouch Badaui is a Paralympic athlete from Spain competing in category T46 middle distance and marathon events. From Morocco, he emigrated to Spain and gained citizenship in August 2008, he has represented Spain at the 2008 and 2012 Summer Paralympics, winning silver in the 1,500 meters and bronze in the 800 meters in 2008, silver in the marathon in 2012. Ait Khamouch was born on November 9, 1986, he was born in Morocco. He is the second youngest child in his family, he has an arm amputation, as a result of a fall when he was a child that led to medical complications that resulted in him getting gangrene. The doctors were left with little choice but to amputate his right arm at his shoulder; as a minor, when Ait Khamouch was 15 years old, he tried to enter Spain illegally three times via boats from Laayoune to the Canary Islands. During these trips, he saw, he got a boat to Fuerteventura and entered Spain in 2001. From there, he traveled to Madrid and on to Barcelona with friends via the train.

When Ait Khamouch first got work in Barcelona, he worked as an attendant at a parking lot because he spoke French. He got Spanish citizenship on August 25, 2008. Ait Khamouch wrote an autobiography in Arabic titled "The Angel with the Crooked Wing." It was translated into Spanish. He speaks Spanish and Arabic. In 2013, he was awarded the silver Real Orden al Mérito Deportivo. Ait Khamouch is a Paralympic athlete competing in category T46 middle distance and marathon events, his first athletics race was one organized by French tourists in his hometown in Morocco. He won the race, the prize of a small blue truck. Following the race, he approached the Morocco Paralympic Committee about competing in athletics, but they rejected him citing a variety of factors. Following his arrival in Spain, he took part in a race in Barcelona organized by El Corte Inglés in 2003 where his performance attracted attention and coaching, he competed in other races in the area. The Athletics Federation of Catalonia and others assisted in getting Ait Khamouch Spanish citizenship in time for him to represent Spain at the 2008 Summer Paralympics.

The first athletics club Ait Khamouch belonged to in Spain was the Athletic Club Nou Barris. In 2004, he participated the Spanish Paralympic national championships where he won a gold medal in the 800 meters. In 2005, he received a scholarship from the Spanish Paralympic Committee. In 2008, he trained at the Center for High Performance San Cugat, he qualified for and competed in the 2011 IPC Athletics World Championships where he was one of thirty-two competitors representing Spain. In 2012, he was a recipient of a Plan ADO €2,500 coaching scholarship, he lost part of his Catalan-based scholarship a year and a half prior to this, a decision that Ait Khamouch labeled as politically motivated. In 2012, he set a world record in his classification at the Barcelona Marathon. In doing so, he set a qualifying time in the event for the London Paralympics; that year, he competed in the Barcelona half marathon where he set a personal best time. In July 2013, he participated in the 2013 IPC Athletics World Championships.

In November 2013, he competed in the Jean Bouin-Gran Premio Allianz race in Barcelona. Ait Khamouch competed in the 2008 Summer Paralympics in China. There he won a silver medal in the men's 1500 metres — T46 event and a bronze medal in the men's 800 metres — T46 event. Four years he competed in the 2012 Summer Paralympics in London, Great Britain. There he won a silver medal in the men's marathon — T46 event, his medal at the 2008 Games was the first one Paralympic or Olympic medal won by someone from Ait Khamouch's hometown in Morocco. His parents were able to watch him win his medal on television in Morocco. Ait Khamouch finished in second position at the London Paralympics in the T46 marathon event because he had a coughing fit with 400 meters left in the race, he was running with a cold. Abderrahman Ait Khamouch at the International Paralympic Committee

Long Night in 1943

Long Night in 1943, The Long Night of'43 or It Happened in'43 is an Italian film of 1960 set in Ferrara, in the Italian Social Republic Nazi puppet state during the late stages of WW2. It was directed by Florestano Vancini and adapted by Vancini, Ennio De Concini and Pier Paolo Pasolini from a short story by Giorgio Bassani; the film stars Gino Cervi, Belinda Lee, Gabriele Ferzetti and Andrea Checchi. In 2008 the film was selected to enter the list of the "100 Italian films to be saved". During the Italian civil war Anna, the young wife of Pino, a wheelchair-bound chemist, starts an affair with Franco, an army deserter. Sciagura, a fanatical local Fascist leader, stages an assassination attempt to get rid of his opponents in the Fascist party and blames it on some resistance supporters. Among them is Franco's father. Sciagura orders the usual suspects to be shot in the night against the wall of Estense Castle. Pino doesn't say a word. Enrico Maria Salerno as Pino Barilari Belinda Lee as Anna Barillari Gabriele Ferzetti - Franco Villani Gino Cervi as Carlo Aretusi aka "Sciagura" Andrea Checchi as Chemist Nerio Bernardi as Father of Franco Isa Querio as Mother of Franco Raffaella Pelloni as Ines, Franco's sister Loris Bazzocchi as Vincenzi Carlo Di Maggio as Mario Bolognesi Alice Clements as Blanche Villani, Franco's wife At the 1960 Venice Film Festival, the film won Vancini the award for Best First Work and a nomination for the Golden Lion.

Enrico Maria Salerno won a Silver Ribbon for Best Supporting Actor at the 1961 Italian National Syndicate of Film Journalists awards. Long Night in 1943 on IMDb

Ear decomposition

In graph theory, an ear of an undirected graph G is a path P where the two endpoints of the path may coincide, but where otherwise no repetition of edges or vertices is allowed, so every internal vertex of P has degree two in P. An ear decomposition of an undirected graph G is a partition of its set of edges into a sequence of ears, such that the one or two endpoints of each ear belong to earlier ears in the sequence and such that the internal vertices of each ear do not belong to any earlier ear. Additionally, in most cases the first ear in the sequence must be a cycle. An open ear decomposition or a proper ear decomposition is an ear decomposition in which the two endpoints of each ear after the first are distinct from each other. Ear decompositions may be used to characterize several important graph classes, as part of efficient graph algorithms, they may be generalized from graphs to matroids. Several important classes of graphs may be characterized as the graphs having certain types of ear decompositions.

A graph is k-vertex-connected if the removal of any vertices leaves a connected subgraph, k-edge-connected if the removal of any edges leaves a connected subgraph. The following result is due to Hassler Whitney: A graph G = with | E | ≥ 2 is 2-vertex-connected if and only if it has an open ear decomposition; the following result is due to Herbert Robbins: A graph is 2-edge-connected if and only if it has an ear decomposition. In both cases the number of ears is equal to the circuit rank of the given graph. Robbins introduced the ear decomposition of 2-edge-connected graphs as a tool for proving the Robbins theorem, that these are the graphs that may be given a connected orientation; because of the pioneering work of Whitney and Robbins on ear decompositions, an ear decomposition is sometimes called a Whitney–Robbins synthesis. A non-separating ear decomposition is an open ear decomposition such that, for each vertex v with only one exception, v has a neighbor whose first appearance in the decomposition is in a ear than the first appearance of v.

This type of ear decomposition may be used to generalize Whitney's result: A graph G = with | V | ≥ 2 is 3-vertex-connected if and only if G has a non-separating ear decomposition. If such a decomposition exists, it can be chosen with respect to a particular edge uv of G in such a way that u is in the first ear, v is the new vertex in the last ear with more than one edge, uv is a single-edge ear; this result was first stated explicitly by Cheriyan & Maheshwari, but as Schmidt describes, it is equivalent to a result in the 1971 Ph. D. thesis of Lee Mondshein. Structures related to non-separating ear decompositions of maximal planar graphs, called canonical orderings, are a standard tool in graph drawing; the above definitions can be applied to directed graphs. An ear would be a directed path where all internal vertices have indegree and outdegree equal to 1. A directed graph is connected if it contains a directed path from every vertex to every other vertex. We have the following theorem: A directed graph is connected if and only if it has an ear decomposition.

A directed graph is biconnected if, for every two vertices, there exists a simple cycle in the graph containing both of them. A directed graph is biconnected if and only if it has an open ear decomposition. An ear decomposition is odd. A factor-critical graph is a graph with an odd number of vertices, such that for each vertex v, if v is removed from the graph the remaining vertices have a perfect matching. László Lovász found that: A graph G is factor-critical if and only if G has an odd ear decomposition. More a result of Frank makes it possible to find in any graph G the ear decomposition with the fewest ears. A tree ear decomposition is a proper ear decomposition in which the first ear is a single edge and for each subsequent ear P i, there is a single ear P j, i > j, such that both endpoints of P i lie on P j. A nested ear decomposition is a tree ear decomposition such that, within each ear P j, the set of pairs of endpoints of other ears P i that lie within P j form a set of nested intervals.

A series-parallel graph is a graph with two designated terminals s and t that can be formed recursively by combining smaller series-parallel graphs in one of two ways: series composition and parallel composition. The following result is due to David Eppstein: A 2-vertex-connected graph is series-parallel if and only if it has a nested ear decomposition. Moreover, any open ear decomposition of a 2-vertex-connected series-parallel graph must be nested; the result may be extended to series-parallel graphs that are not 2-vertex