SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Solar energy

Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun, harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, molten salt power plants and artificial photosynthesis. It is an important source of renewable energy and its technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on how they capture and distribute solar energy or convert it into solar power. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic systems, concentrated solar power and solar water heating to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light-dispersing properties, designing spaces that circulate air; the large magnitude of solar energy available makes it a appealing source of electricity. The United Nations Development Programme in its 2000 World Energy Assessment found that the annual potential of solar energy was 1,575–49,837 exajoules.

This is several times larger than the total world energy consumption, 559.8 EJ in 2012. In 2011, the International Energy Agency said that "the development of affordable and clean solar energy technologies will have huge longer-term benefits, it will increase countries’ energy security through reliance on an indigenous and import-independent resource, enhance sustainability, reduce pollution, lower the costs of mitigating global warming, keep fossil fuel prices lower than otherwise. These advantages are global. Hence the additional costs of the incentives for early deployment should be considered learning investments; the Earth receives 174 petawatts of incoming solar radiation at the upper atmosphere. 30% is reflected back to space while the rest is absorbed by clouds and land masses. The spectrum of solar light at the Earth's surface is spread across the visible and near-infrared ranges with a small part in the near-ultraviolet. Most of the world's population live in areas with insolation levels of 150–300 watts/m², or 3.5–7.0 kWh/m² per day.

Solar radiation is absorbed by the Earth's land surface, oceans – which cover about 71% of the globe – and atmosphere. Warm air containing evaporated water from the oceans rises, causing atmospheric circulation or convection; when the air reaches a high altitude, where the temperature is low, water vapor condenses into clouds, which rain onto the Earth's surface, completing the water cycle. The latent heat of water condensation amplifies convection, producing atmospheric phenomena such as wind and anti-cyclones. Sunlight absorbed by the oceans and land masses keeps the surface at an average temperature of 14 °C. By photosynthesis, green plants convert solar energy into chemically stored energy, which produces food and the biomass from which fossil fuels are derived; the total solar energy absorbed by Earth's atmosphere and land masses is 3,850,000 exajoules per year. In 2002, this was more energy in one hour than the world used in one year. Photosynthesis captures 3,000 EJ per year in biomass.

The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the planet is so vast that in one year it is about twice as much as will be obtained from all of the Earth's non-renewable resources of coal, natural gas, mined uranium combined, The potential solar energy that could be used by humans differs from the amount of solar energy present near the surface of the planet because factors such as geography, time variation, cloud cover, the land available to humans limit the amount of solar energy that we can acquire. Geography affects solar energy potential because areas that are closer to the equator have a greater amount of solar radiation. However, the use of photovoltaics that can follow the position of the Sun can increase the solar energy potential in areas that are farther from the equator. Time variation effects the potential of solar energy because during the nighttime there is little solar radiation on the surface of the Earth for solar panels to absorb; this limits the amount of energy. Cloud cover can affect the potential of solar panels because clouds block incoming light from the Sun and reduce the light available for solar cells.

In addition, land availability has a large effect on the available solar energy because solar panels can only be set up on land, otherwise unused and suitable for solar panels. Roofs have been found to be a suitable place for solar cells, as many people have discovered that they can collect energy directly from their homes this way. Other areas that are suitable for solar cells are lands that are not being used for businesses where solar plants can be established. Solar technologies are characterized as either passive or active depending on the way they capture and distribute sunlight and enable solar energy to be harnessed at different levels around the world depending on distance from the equator. Although solar energy refers to the use of solar radiation for practical ends, all renewable energies, other than Geothermal power and Tidal power, derive their energy either directly or indirectly from the Sun. Active solar techniques use photovoltaics, concentrated solar power, solar thermal collectors and fans to convert sunlight into useful outputs.

Passive solar techniques include selecting materials with favorable thermal properties, designing spaces that circulate air, referencing the position of a building to the Sun. Active solar technologies increase the supply of energy and are considered supply side technologies, while passive solar technologies reduce

Air Warfare Centre RAAF

The Air Warfare Centre is a Force Element Group of the Royal Australian Air Force based at RAAF Base Edinburgh. It was titled the Aerospace Operational Support Group AOSG and was reformed into the AWC in 2016; the role of the AWC is similar to the AOSG and whilst it still conducts research and development on defence systems such as aircraft and weapons at the Woomera Test Range, it has expanded its role to address opportunities to improve Air Force’s ability to maximise the operational effectiveness of fifth-generation, networked capabilities through improved integration across Defence and increased knowledge sharing with allied AWCs. As of early 2019, the Air Warfare Centre comprised: Test and Evaluation Directorate Aircraft Research and Development Unit Air Warfare Engineering Squadron Institute of Aviation Medicine Aeronautical Information Service – Air Force Information Warfare Directorate Joint Electronic Warfare Operational Support Unit No. 87 Squadron – Air Intelligence No 460 Squadron – Imagery and geographic intelligence No. 462 Squadron – Information security Air Intelligence Training Unit Air Force Ranges Directorate Air Force Air Weapon Ranges Live and Constructive simulation Air Force Test Ranges Squadron Tactics and Training Directorate Air Warfare School No. 88 Squadron Air Warfare Center home page

St. Vincent de Paul Church (Manhattan)

The Parish of St. Vincent de Paul was a national parish of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York. Founded in 1841, it was dedicated to serve the needs of the French-speaking population of the city; the parish church was located at New York, New York. The parish was closed in January 2013; the Roman Catholic Church in France had been devastated by the social upheavals of the French Revolution. Much of the population was in deep economic misery, the level of religious knowledge, after the destruction of church institutions, built up over centuries, was dismal. A strong need was felt for a re-evangelization of the nation. In 1808 the Society of the Fathers of Mercy were founded by the Abbé Jean-Baptiste Rauzan in Lyons in response to this need, they formed bands of Catholic priests who would go from door to door, if needed, to invite people to the parish missions which they would preach. Through these, they worked to give the French people knowledge and help them commit to their traditional Catholic faith.

Given their experience in working with populations who had lost touch with the institutions of the Catholic faith, several Catholic bishops in the United States invited the members of the society to come as missionaries to the nation a vast mission territory. In October 1839, one of the founders of the Society, Charles Auguste Marie Joseph, Count of Forbin-Janson, the exiled Bishop of Nancy in France, arrived in New York City to start a nationwide preaching tour for which he had been authorized by Pope Gregory XVI. Finding no place of worship for the French-speaking people of the city, he learned that the French-speaking population was starting to attend services in the Protestant Huguenot churches, as they were conducted in French. In his sermon in French in a Mass he celebrated at St. Peter's Church, he challenged the French Catholic community of the city to establish a French-speaking church. To help in the endeavor, he contributed $6,500 from his own vast wealth to start the construction of the church.

Property was acquired on the northwest corner of Canal Broadway. Forbin-Janson returned to the city on various occasions during his mission to check on the progress of the building. Meanwhile, with the help of another significant donation from his personal funds, the Fathers of Mercy acquired the newly founded Spring Hill College from the Diocese of Mobile in Alabama. With this, the Society established itself in the United States. Two years John Hughes, the Archbishop of New York, invited these priests to come from Alabama to his diocese to serve the French-speaking immigrants who were flocking to the city, in the church built by the French bishop; the parish was opened in 1841, with the church being dedicated by Forbin-Janson before he sailed back to France on December 8 of that year. The first pastor appointed by Hughes was the Rev. Annet Lafont, S. P. M. Lafont was an dedicated pastor. In addition to his parochial duties, he founded the Orphanage of St. Vincent de Paul, with sites in both New York City and Tarrytown, as well as homes for the elderly and residences for the young single women who came to the city seeking work.

What is now known as Manhattan College developed from his parish school, through his bringing the first Brothers of the Christian Schools from France to teach in the United States/ Lafont was a strong supporter of the rights of the African-American community of the city, who suffered discrimination from the few Catholic churches open. Services at the Church of St. Vincent de Paul were integrated from the start, as was the parish school, the first in the Northern States to teach students regardless of race; when the European families threatened to withdraw their children from the school as a result of his policies, Lafont brought the black children into his own residence to teach them himself. In this he had the financial support of Pierre Toussaint, he was a native of Haiti, brought to the United States as a slave and had amassed great wealth as a hairdresser. He used his wealth for education and philanthropy, he is now being considered for canonization by the Catholic Church. Lafont organized the St. Ann Society, the first mission to African Americans in New York.

Through the society, the families were given weekly religious instruction classes in the basement of the church. Around 1856 the parish made the decision to move to the Chelsea neighborhood of the city, where many French residents had settled, drawn there by the developing industrialization in the area. Property was acquired and Henry Engelbert was commissioned to build a new church; the construction was interrupted by the Civil War, but the new church was completed and dedicated in 1869. The presence of the church helped to establish the neighborhood as a hub of French presence in the city, drawing a number of institutions to the area, such as the former French Hospital. In 1910 a large bequest was left to the parish to build the Church of Notre Dame, located in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of the borough, in order to promote devotion to Our Lady of Lourdes; the new church was a mission church of the parish. After World War I, the Memorial to French and American Veterans was built in the church in memory of the members of the Lafayette Squadron and other Americans who had died fighting for France.

On June 6, 1944 more than one thousand French exiles and French soldiers attended the noon mass at St. Vincent de Paul Church NYC to pray for victory as Allied troops began the liberation of France from Nazi occupation. Photographs of the D-Day noon mass at St. Vincent de Paul and the many French exiles and French