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Solar flare

A solar flare is a sudden flash of increased brightness on a star observed near its surface and in close proximity to a sunspot group. Powerful flares are but not always, accompanied by a coronal mass ejection; the most powerful flares are detectable in the total solar irradiance. Solar flares occur in a power-law spectrum of magnitudes. Flares are associated with the ejection of plasmas and particles through the Sun's corona into outer space. If the ejection is in the direction of the Earth, particles associated with this disturbance can penetrate into the upper atmosphere and cause bright auroras, may disrupt long range radio communication, it takes days for the solar plasma ejecta to reach Earth. Flares occur on other stars, where the term stellar flare applies. High-energy particles, which may be relativistic, can arrive simultaneously with the electromagnetic radiations. On July 23, 2012, a massive damaging, solar storm missed Earth. In 2014, Pete Riley of Predictive Science Inc. published a paper in which he attempted to calculate the odds of a similar solar storm hitting Earth within the next 10 years, by extrapolating records of past solar storms from the 1960s to the present day.

He concluded. Solar flares affect all layers of the solar atmosphere; the plasma medium is heated to tens of millions of kelvins, while electrons and heavier ions are accelerated to near the speed of light. Flares produce electromagnetic radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum at all wavelengths, from radio waves to gamma rays. Most of the energy is spread over frequencies outside the visual range and so the majority of the flares are not visible to the naked eye and must be observed with special instruments. Flares occur in active regions around sunspots, where intense magnetic fields penetrate the photosphere to link the corona to the solar interior. Flares are powered by the sudden release of magnetic energy stored in the corona; the same energy releases may produce coronal mass ejections, although the relationship between CMEs and flares is still not well understood. X-rays and UV radiation emitted by solar flares can affect Earth's ionosphere and disrupt long-range radio communications.

Direct radio emission at decimetric wavelengths may disturb the operation of radars and other devices that use those frequencies. Solar flares were first observed on the Sun by Richard Christopher Carrington and independently by Richard Hodgson in 1859 as localized visible brightenings of small areas within a sunspot group. Stellar flares can be inferred by looking at the lightcurves produced from the telescope or satellite data of variety of other stars; the frequency of occurrence of solar flares varies, from several per day when the Sun is "active" to less than one every week when the Sun is "dormant", following the 11-year cycle. Large flares are less frequent than smaller ones. Flares occur when accelerated charged particles electrons, interact with the plasma medium. Evidence suggests that the phenomenon of magnetic reconnection leads to this copious acceleration of charged particles. On the Sun, magnetic reconnection may happen on solar arcades – a series of occurring loops following magnetic lines of force.

These lines of force reconnect into a lower arcade of loops leaving a helix of magnetic field unconnected to the rest of the arcade. The sudden release of energy in this reconnection is the origin of the particle acceleration; the unconnected magnetic helical field and the material that it contains may violently expand outwards forming a coronal mass ejection. This explains why solar flares erupt from active regions on the Sun where magnetic fields are much stronger. Although there is a general agreement on the source of a flare's energy, the mechanisms involved are still not well understood. It's not clear how the magnetic energy is transformed into the kinetic energy of the particles, nor is it known how some particles can be accelerated to the GeV range and beyond. There are some inconsistencies regarding the total number of accelerated particles, which sometimes seems to be greater than the total number in the coronal loop. Scientists are unable to forecast flares; the classification system for solar flares uses the letters A, B, C, M or X, according to the peak flux in watts per square metre of X-rays with wavelengths 100 to 800 picometres, as measured at the Earth by the GOES spacecraft.

The strength of an event within a class is noted by a numerical suffix ranging from 1 to 9, the factor for that event within the class. Hence, an X2 flare is twice the strength of an X1 flare, an X3 flare is three times as powerful as an X1, only 50% more powerful than an X2. An X2 is four times more powerful than an M5 flare. An earlier flare classification was based on Hα spectral observations; the scheme uses emitting surface. The classification in intensity is qualitative, referring to the flares as: faint, normal or brilliant; the emitting surface is described below. A flare is classified taking S or a number that represents its size and a letter that represents its peak intensity, v.g

Roy Anderson (The Office)

Roy Anderson is a fictional character from the US television series The Office, portrayed by David Denman. His counterpart in the original UK series of The Office is Lee. Roy Anderson is a warehouse dock worker at the Scranton branch of fictitious paper distributor Dunder Mifflin, he has been engaged to the office receptionist Pam Beesly for three years when the series begins, in a relationship where he is shown to be skeptical of, if not insensitive to, her ambitions. He had a good friendship with Darryl Philbin, caught up on when he's having beers with him, Jim Halpert and the other warehouse workers on in Crime Aid, he shares in the warehouse's typical blue-collar humor. Roy was Pam Beesly's fiancé for over four years. Roy brought along his brother on his first date with a minor league hockey game. During their long engagement, Roy, on more than one occasion, has seen Jim Halpert flirting with Pam, he claims not to mind. Pam's mother and Roy seem to get along. Roy is bored and does not like company get-togethers when there's no open bar, is seen on more than one occasion leaving office parties early.

In the episode "The Fire", he states that he would "do" Angela while playing "Who Would You Do", throughout the first three seasons Angela is shown to have a crush on Roy too, indeed Roy is the only character with whom Angela interacts that she never indicates any form of disapproval towards, describing him at various times as being "strong and capable", that he has "character". He vehemently refuses to let Pam apply to a company training program that could advance her talents as an artist. Although regarded as boorish and selfish, his character is somewhat less cruel and verbally abusive than his UK counterpart, Lee. Roy drives a dark colored Chevy pickup truck, spent a sizeable portion of the wedding money on two jet skis. Roy selects Kevin's band Scrantonicity to perform at his wedding reception. After Pam breaks off their engagement, Roy's life goes into a tailspin when he stops taking care of himself, starts drinking, is arrested for driving under the influence. Now recovered, he intends to win Pam back, regretting how he took her for granted and wanting to make it up to her.

In "Phyllis' Wedding", Roy talks to Pam about their history together and pays Scrantonicity $20 to play "their song." They leave the wedding together. In "Business School", Roy is shown with his brother Kenny at Pam's art show, and as they leave shortly after arriving, Roy tells Pam that "your art was the prettiest art of all the art", but asks her to leave so that they can go home. Their reunion is short-lived, they break up shortly after "Cocktails", when Pam confesses to Roy that she kissed Jim on "Casino Night". In response, an enraged Roy started trashing the bar they were meeting at, Pam calls the relationship off immediately. With his brother having paid off the bar with money he got from selling his jet-skis, a visibly disturbed Roy states, "I am gonna kill Jim Halpert." When he attempts to beat Jim up in the office, Dwight prevents the attack with pepper spray and Roy is fired. Roy returns to receive his last paycheck and apologizes to Jim, which Jim accepts, he asks Pam if they can get a cup of coffee after work, which she reluctantly agrees to.

At a diner, Pam confesses that their engagement was a big mistake and they were never right for each other. Roy asks if she's going to pursue Jim now, but she declines. Roy encourages her to go after him, telling her, "I don't get you, Pam." The two have one final hug outside the diner, they leave separately. Roy learns from Jim that he and Pam are engaged when Jim wins a night out with the warehouse crew in "Crime Aid" and Roy joins their group. Roy congratulates Jim, but plants a seed of doubt when he learns that Pam is staying out all night with friends in New York without Jim. Judging from Roy's shirt in "Crime Aid", Roy now works at the Vitamin Store, a parody of the real company "The Vitamin Shoppe" using a shirt with the same distinct colors and emblem. Roy appeared in the episode "Threat Level Midnight" as a hostage in Michael's film, he had no lines in the actual NBC airing, but has lines and an extended role in the complete film and in previews of the film. A humbled and changed Roy resurfaces in "Roy's Wedding" when he invites Jim and Pam to his wedding among other Dunder-Mifflin staffers in attendance.

Despite their original expectations of Roy, the couple are shocked to find out that Roy has changed for the better. He is now the owner of a successful gravel company he created, evident by the $50,000 sports car and the nice house that he owns and the elegant and tasteful wedding. Roy thanks Jim before the ceremony, crediting his breakup with Pam to make way for meeting his future bride. Pam is stunned to see that Roy can play the piano as he sings a song to his bride

Roger Drake (colonial administrator)

Roger Drake was a British administrator in the East India Company. He served as President of Fort William in Bengal between 1752-56 and was reprimanded for his actions during the Siege of Calcutta in 1756. Drake was the nephew of financier Roger Drake, of the firm Drake and Long based in Leadenhall Street and prominent director of the East India Company. Drake joined the service of the East India Company and arrived in Bengal on 26 May 1737, he rose through the ranks and became President of Fort William on 8 August 1752 following the death of William Fytche. In April 1756, Siraj Ud Daulah became Nawab of Bengal and sought to reprimand the Company for abusing their privileged trading rights, he wrote a letter to both the French and British Company's requesting that they remove all fortifications at Chandannagore and Calcutta. The French replied tactfully claiming they were repairing existing structures whilst Drake replied that he was improving the defences in case of war with France. Siraj Ud Daulah was angered by Drake's perceived insolent response and tone and began plotting to punish the Company.

On 16 June 1756, Siraj Ud Daulah approached Calcutta with an army numbering 30,000 and within four days the town and Fort were captured. During the siege Drake controversially abandoned his post and with a handful of fellow officers sought refuge with the women and children on ships moored nearby Later, eye-witnesses reported that his ship was fired on by the men he deserted as he sailed away down the river. In his absence John Zephaniah Holwell was placed in charge and led the defence until their capitulation in the evening of 20 June. Calcutta was subsequently sacked and the remaining Europeans were held captive in the Black Hole of Calcutta. Drake was disgraced by his actions in the Siege and an inquiry was held to investigate his actions, he was removed from his post by the Company on 13 November 1757. He was succeeded as Governor by Robert Clive, who would re-capture Calcutta following the Battle of Plassey and establish Company rule in India. Despite his disgrace, Drake benefited from Mir Jafar's payment of compensation and damages following the Battle of Plassey, in 1759 returned to England with eight fellow Company officials and a considerable fortune.

He married Mary Coales on 10 January 1743 and they had a daughter Millicent. After Mary's death on 6 October 1749 he married her sister Martha Coales with whom he had three more children, Roger and Nathaniel