Sand Creek massacre
The Sand Creek massacre was a massacre of Cheyenne and Arapaho people by the U. S. Army in the American Indian Wars that occurred on November 29, 1864, when a 675-man force of Colorado U. S. Volunteer Cavalry under the command of U. S. Army Colonel John Chivington attacked and destroyed a village of Cheyenne and Arapaho people in southeastern Colorado Territory and mutilating an estimated 70–500 Native Americans, about two-thirds of whom were women and children; the location has been designated the Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site and is administered by the National Park Service. By the terms of the 1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie between the United States and seven Indian nations, including the Cheyenne and Arapaho, the United States recognized that the Cheyenne and Arapaho held a vast territory encompassing the lands between the North Platte River and the Arkansas River, eastward from the Rocky Mountains to western Kansas; this area included present-day southeastern Wyoming, southwestern Nebraska, most of eastern Colorado, the westernmost portions of Kansas.
In November 1858, the discovery of gold in the Rocky Mountains in Colorado part of the Kansas Territory, brought on the Pikes Peak Gold Rush. Immigrants flooded across Arapaho lands, they competed for resources, some settlers tried to stay. Colorado territorial officials pressured federal authorities to redefine the extent of Indian lands in the territory, in the fall of 1860, A. B. Greenwood, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, arrived at Bent's New Fort, along the Arkansas River, to negotiate a new treaty. On February 18, 1861, six chiefs of the Southern Cheyenne and four of the Arapaho signed the Treaty of Fort Wise with the United States, in which they ceded most of the lands designated to them by the Fort Laramie treaty; the Cheyenne chiefs included Black Kettle, White Antelope, Lean Bear, Little Wolf, Tall Bear. The new reserve, less than 1/13th the size of the territory recognized in the 1851 treaty, was located in eastern Colorado, between the Arkansas River and Sand Creek. Most bands of the Cheyenne, including the Dog Soldiers, a militaristic band of Cheyenne and Lakota that had originated in the late 1830s, were angry at the chiefs who had signed the treaty.
They disavowed the treaty – which never received the blessing of the Council of 44, the supreme tribal authority – and refused to abide by its constraints. They continued to live and hunt in the bison-rich lands of eastern Colorado and western Kansas, became belligerent over the tide of white migration across their lands. Tensions were high in the Smoky Hill River country of Kansas, along which whites had opened a new trail to the gold fields. Cheyenne who opposed the treaty said it had been signed by a small minority of the chiefs without the consent or approval of the rest of the tribe, that the signatories had not understood what they signed, that they had been bribed to sign by a large distribution of gifts. Officials took the position; the beginning of the American Civil War, in 1861, led to the organization of military forces in Colorado Territory. In March 1862, the Colorado volunteers defeated a Confederate Army from Texas in the Battle of Glorieta Pass, New Mexico by destroying their supply wagons, forcing them to retreat.
The Confederates returned to Texas, the First Regiment of Colorado Volunteers returned to Colorado Territory. They were mounted as a home guard under the command of Colonel John Chivington. Chivington and Colorado territorial governor John Evans adopted a hard line against Indians, whom settlers accused of stealing livestock. Without any declaration of war, in April 1864, Colorado soldiers began attacking and destroying a number of Cheyenne camps, the largest of which included about 70 lodges, about 10% of the housing capacity of the entire Cheyenne nation. On May 16, 1864, a detachment under Lieutenant George S. Eayre crossed into Kansas and encountered Cheyenne in their summer buffalo-hunting camp at Big Bushes, near the Smoky Hill River. Cheyenne chiefs Lean Bear and Star approached the soldiers to signal their peaceful intent, but they were shot down by Eayre's troops; this incident touched off a war of retaliation by the Cheyenne in Kansas. Damn any man who sympathizes with Indians!... I have come to kill Indians, believe it is right and honorable to use any means under God's heaven to kill Indians....
Kill and scalp all and little. As the conflict between the Indians and settlers and soldiers in Colorado continued, many of the Cheyenne and Arapaho, including bands under Cheyenne chiefs Black Kettle and White Antelope, were resigned to negotiating a peace, despite pressures from the soldiers and settlers. In July 1864, Colorado governor John Evans sent a circular to the Plains Indians, inviting those who were friendly to go to a place of safety at Fort Lyon on the eastern plains, where their people would be given provisions and protection by the United States troops. Black Kettle, leading chief of around 163 Southern Cheyenne, had led his band, joined by some Arapahos under Chief Niwot, to Fort Lyon in compliance with provisions of a peace parley held in Denver in September 1864. After a while, the Native Americans were asked to relocate to Big Sandy Creek, less than 40 miles northwest of Fort Lyon, under the threat of their safety; the Dog Soldiers, responsible for many of the attacks and raids on whites, were not part of this encampment.
Most tribal warriors stood their ground, refusing to leave
Militia (United States)
The militia of the United States, as defined by the U. S. Congress, has changed over time. During colonial America, all able-bodied men of certain ages were members of the militia, depending on the respective states rule. Individual towns formed local independent militias for their own defense; the year before the US Constitution was ratified, The Federalist Papers detailed the founders' paramount vision of the militia in 1787. The new Constitution empowered Congress to "organize and discipline" this national military force, leaving significant control in the hands of each state government. Today, as defined by the Militia Act of 1903, the term "militia" is used to describe two classes within the United States: Organized militia – consisting of State militia forces. Unorganized militia – composing the Reserve Militia: every able-bodied man of at least 17 and under 45 years of age, not a member of the National Guard or Naval Militia. A third militia is a state defense force, it is authorized by state and federal laws.
The term "militia" derives from Old English milite meaning soldiers, militisc meaning military and classical Latin milit-, miles meaning soldier. The Modern English term militia dates to the year 1590, with the original meaning now obsolete: "the body of soldiers in the service of a sovereign or a state". Subsequently, since 1665, militia has taken the meaning "a military force raised from the civilian population of a country or region to supplement a regular army in an emergency as distinguished from mercenaries or professional soldiers"; the spelling of millitia is observed in written and printed materials from the 17th century through the 19th century. See article: Colonial American military history The early colonists of America considered the militia an important social institution, necessary to provide defense and public safety. See article: Provincial troops in the French and Indian Wars During the French and Indian Wars, town militia formed a recruiting pool for the Provincial Forces.
The legislature of the colony would authorize a certain force level for the season's campaign, based on that set recruitment quotas for each local militia. In theory, militia members could be drafted by lot if there were inadequate forces for the Provincial Regulars. In September 1755, George Washington adjutant-general of the Virginia militia, upon a frustrating and futile attempt to call up the militia to respond to a frontier Indian attack:... he experienced all the evils of insubordination among the troups, perverseness in the militia, inactivity in the officers, disregard of orders, reluctance in the civil authorities to render a proper support. And what added to his mortification was, that the laws gave him no power to correct these evils, either by enforcing discipline, or compelling the indolent and refractory to their duty... The militia system was suited for only to times of peace, it provided for calling out men to repel invasion. See New Hampshire Provincial Regiment for a history of a Provincial unit during the French and Indian War.
Just prior to the American Revolutionary War, on October 26, 1774, the Massachusetts Provincial Congress, observing the British military buildup, deemed their militia resources to be insufficient: the troop strength, "including the sick and absent, amounted to about seventeen thousand men... this was far short of the number wanted, that the council recommended an immediate application to the New England governments to make up the deficiency":... they recommended to the militia to form themselves into companies of minute-men, who should be equipped and prepared to march at the shortest notice. These minute-men were to consist of one quarter of the whole militia, to be enlisted under the direction of the field-officers, divide into companies, consisting of at least fifty men each; the privates were to choose their captains and subalterns, these officers were to form the companies into battalions, chose the field-officers to command the same. Hence the minute-men became a body distinct from the rest of the militia, and, by being more devoted to military exercises, they acquired skill in the use of arms.
More attention than was bestowed on the training and drilling of militia. See article: List of United States militia units in the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War began near Boston, Massachusetts with the Battles of Lexington and Concord, in which a group of local militias constituted the American side. On April 19, 1775, a British force 800 strong marched out of Boston to Concord intending to destroy patriot arms and ammunition. At 5:00 in the morning at Lexington, they met about 70 armed militiamen whom they ordered to disperse, but the militiamen refused. Firing ensued; this became known as "the shot heard round the world". Eight militiamen were killed and ten wounded, whereupon the remainder took flight; the British continued on to Concord and were unable to find most of the arms and ammunition of the patriots. As the British marched back toward Boston, patriot militiamen assembled along the route, taking cover behind stone walls, sniped at the British. At Meriam's Corner in Concord, the British columns had to close in to cross a narrow bridge, exposing themselves to concentrated, deadly fire.
The British retreat became a rout. It was only with the help o
Ralph Nelson was an American film and television director, producer and actor. He was best known for directing Lilies of the Field, Father Goose, Charly, films which won Academy Awards. Nelson was born in New York, he served in the Army Air Corps as a flight instructor in World War II. Nelson directed the acclaimed episode "A World of His Own" of The Twilight Zone, he directed both the television and film versions of Rod Serling's Requiem for a Heavyweight. He directed Charly, the 1968 film version of Flowers for Algernon, for which Cliff Robertson won an Academy Award, as well as several racially provocative films in the 1960s and early 1970s, including the Academy Award-winning Lilies of the Field...tick...tick...tick... Christmas Lilies of the Field, The Wilby Conspiracy, Soldier Blue; the starring role in "Lilies" led to Sidney Poitier winning the Academy Award for Best Actor. Nelson directed the Cary Grant comedy Father Goose, the offbeat Soldier in the Rain with Jackie Gleason and Steve McQueen, the crime story Once a Thief, Rita Hayworth's last film, The Wrath of God.
He both directed, appeared in, Duel at Diablo, starring James Garner and Sidney Poitier. Nelson's other credits include several episodes of TV's Starsky & Hutch, the'70s camp horror classic Embryo, A Hero Ain't Nothin' But A Sandwich. A television drama about mounting the live show of Requiem for a Heavyweight called The Man in the Funny Suit was made in 1960, with Nelson both writing and directing. Nelson, Red Skelton, Keenan Wynn and Ed Wynn appeared in it as themselves, he returned to TV in the late 1970s with a string of TV movies, including a sequel to Lilies of the Field called Christmas Lilies of the Field which starred Billy Dee Williams, Maria Schell, Fay Hauser. He died in 1987 in Santa Monica, California at the age of 71. Ralph Nelson on IMDb Ralph Nelson at the Internet Broadway Database 1953 Time Magazine
Time Out (magazine)
Time Out is a global magazine published by Time Out Group. Time Out started its publication in 1968 and has expanded its editorial recommendations to 315 cities in 58 countries worldwide. In 2012, the magazine became a free publication with a weekly readership of over 307,000. Time Out's global market presence includes partnerships with Nokia and mobile apps for iOS and Android operating systems, it was the recipient of the International Consumer Magazine of the Year award in both 2010 and 2011 and the renamed International Consumer Media Brand of the Year in 2013 and 2014. Time Out was first published in 1968 as a London listings magazine by Tony Elliott, who used birthday money to produce a one-sheet pamphlet. With Bob Harris as co-editor; the first product was titled "Where It's At", before being inspired by Dave Brubeck's album Time Out. Time Out began as an alternative magazine alongside other members of the underground press in the UK, but by 1980 it had abandoned its original collective decision-making structure and its commitment to equal pay for all its workers, leading to a strike and the foundation of a competing magazine, City Limits, by former staffers.
By now its former radicalism has all but vanished. As one example of its early editorial stance, in 1976 London's Time Out published the names of 60 purported CIA agents stationed in England. Early issues had a print run of around 5,000 and would evolve to a weekly circulation of 110,000 as it shed its radical roots; the flavour of the magazine was wholly the responsibility of its designer, Pearce Marchbank. Marchbank was invited by Tony Elliott to join the embryonic Time Out in 1971. Turning it into a weekly, he produced its classic logo, established its strong identity and its editorial structure—all still used worldwide to this day, he conceived and designed the first of the Time Out guide books.... He continued to design for Time Out for many years; each week, his witty Time Out covers became an essential part of London life. Elliott launched Time Out New York, his North American magazine debut, in 1995; the magazine procured young and upcoming talent to provide cultural reviews for young New Yorkers at the time.
The success of TONY led to the introduction of Time Out New York Kids, a quarterly magazine aimed at families. The expansion continued with Elliott licensing the Time Out brand worldwide spreading the magazine to 40 cities including Istanbul, Beijing, Hong Kong and Lisbon. Additional Time Out products included travel magazines, city guides, books. In 2010, Time Out became the official publisher of travel guides and tourist books for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Time Out's need to expand to digital platforms led to Elliott, sole owner of the group until November 2010, to sell half of Time Out London and 66 percent of TONY to private equity group Oakley Capital, valuing the company at £20million; the group, founded by Peter Dubens, was owned by Tony Elliott and Oakley Capital until 2016, the agreement provided capital for investment to expand the brand. Time Out has subsequently launched websites for an additional 33 cities including Delhi, Washington D. C. Boston and Bristol; when it was listed on London's AIM stock exchange.
In June 2016, Time Out Group underwent an IPO and is listed on London's AIM stock exchange trading under the ticker symbol'TMO'. The London edition of Time Out became a free magazine in September 2012. Time Out's London magazine was hand distributed at central London stations, received its first official ABC Certificate for October 2012 showing distribution of over 305,000 copies per week, the largest distribution in the history of the brand; this strategy increased revenue by 80 percent with continued upsurge. Time Out has invited a number of guest columnists to write for the magazine; the columnist as of 2014 was Giles Coren. In April 2015, Time Out switched its New York magazine to the free distribution model to increase the reader base and grow brand awareness; this transition doubled circulation by increasing its Web audience, estimated around 3.5 million unique visitors a month. Time Out increased its weekly magazine circulation to over 305,000 copies complementing millions of digital users of Time Out New York.
Time Out New York is now available for free every other Wednesday in vending boxes and newsstands across New York City. In addition to magazines and travel books and websites, Time Out launched Time Out Market, a food and cultural market experience based wholly on editorial creation, starting with the Time Out Market Lisboa in Lisbon, Portugal. New Time Out Markets are set to open in Miami, New York, Boston and Montreal in 2019 and in London-Waterloo and Prague in 2021 – all featuring the cities’ best and most celebrated chefs, restaurateurs and cultural experiences. Time Out Global Homepage "Time Out to cut about 40 staff in UK and US" Time Out Time Out Dubai Time Out Time Out Abu Dhabi Time Out Time Out Bahrain Time Out Time Out Doha
Roger Joseph Ebert was an American film critic, journalist and author. He was a film critic for the Chicago Sun-Times from 1967 until his death in 2013. In 1975, Ebert became the first film critic to win the Pulitzer Prize for Criticism. Ebert and Chicago Tribune critic Gene Siskel helped popularize nationally televised film reviewing when they co-hosted the PBS show Sneak Previews, followed by several variously named At the Movies programs; the two verbally traded humorous barbs while discussing films. They created and trademarked the phrase "Two Thumbs Up", used when both hosts gave the same film a positive review. After Siskel died in 1999, Ebert continued hosting the show with various co-hosts and starting in 2000, with Richard Roeper. Neil Steinberg of the Chicago Sun-Times said Ebert "was without question the nation's most prominent and influential film critic", Tom Van Riper of Forbes described him as "the most powerful pundit in America", Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times called him "the best-known film critic in America".
Ebert lived with cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands beginning in 2002. In 2006, he required treatment necessitating the removal of his lower jaw, leaving him disfigured and costing him the ability to speak or eat normally, his ability to write remained unimpaired and he continued to publish both online and in print until his death on April 4, 2013. Roger Joseph Ebert was born in Urbana, the only child of Annabel, a bookkeeper, Walter Harry Ebert, an electrician, he was raised Roman Catholic, attending St. Mary's elementary school and serving as an altar boy in Urbana, his paternal grandparents were German his maternal ancestry was Irish and Dutch. Ebert's interest in journalism began when he was a student at Urbana High School, where he was a sports writer for The News-Gazette in Champaign, Illinois. In his senior year, he was class president and editor-in-chief of his high school newspaper, The Echo. In 1958, he won the Illinois High School Association state speech championship in "radio speaking", an event that simulates radio newscasts.
Regarding his early influences in film criticism, Ebert wrote in the 1998 parody collection Mad About the Movies: Ebert began taking classes at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign as an early-entrance student, completing his high school courses while taking his first university class. After graduating from Urbana High School in 1960, Ebert attended and received his undergraduate degree in 1964. While at the University of Illinois, Ebert worked as a reporter for The Daily Illini and served as its editor during his senior year while continuing to work as a reporter for the News-Gazette of Champaign-Urbana, Illinois; as an undergraduate, he was a member of the Phi Delta Theta fraternity and president of the U. S. Student Press Association. One of the first movie reviews he wrote was a review of La Dolce Vita, published in The Daily Illini in October 1961. Ebert spent a semester as a master's student in the department of English there before attending the University of Cape Town on a Rotary fellowship for a year.
He returned from Cape Town to his graduate studies at Illinois for two more semesters and after being accepted as a PhD candidate at the University of Chicago, he prepared to move to Chicago. He needed a job to support himself while he worked on his doctorate and so applied to the Chicago Daily News, hoping that, as he had sold freelance pieces to the Daily News, including an article on the death of writer Brendan Behan, he would be hired by editor Herman Kogan. Instead Kogan referred Ebert to the city editor at the Chicago Sun-Times, Jim Hoge, who hired Ebert as a reporter and feature writer at the Sun-Times in 1966, he attended doctoral classes at the University of Chicago while working as a general reporter at the Sun-Times for a year. After movie critic Eleanor Keane left the Sun-Times in April 1967, editor Robert Zonka gave the job to Ebert; the load of graduate school and being a film critic proved too much, so Ebert left the University of Chicago to focus his energies on film criticism.
Ebert began his career as a film critic in 1967. That same year, he met film critic Pauline Kael for the first time at the New York Film Festival. After he sent her some of his columns, she told him they were "the best film criticism being done in American newspapers today"; that same year, Ebert's first book, a history of the University of Illinois titled Illini Century: One Hundred Years of Campus Life, was published by the University's press. In 1969, his review of Night of the Living Dead was published in Reader's Digest. Ebert co-wrote the screenplay for the 1970 Russ Meyer film Beyond the Valley of the Dolls and sometimes joked about being responsible for the film, poorly received on its release yet has become a cult classic. Ebert and Meyer made Beneath the Valley of the Ultra-Vixens, Up!, other films, were involved in the ill-fated Sex Pistols movie Who Killed Bambi? Starting in 1968, Ebert worked for the University of Chicago as an adjunct lecturer, teaching a night class on film at the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies.
In 1975, Ebert received the Pulitzer Prize for Criticism. As of 2007, his reviews were syndicated to more than 200 newspapers in the United States and abroad. Ebert publish
As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences. Allegory has occurred throughout history in all forms of art because it can illustrate or convey complex ideas and concepts in ways that are comprehensible or striking to its viewers, readers, or listeners. Writers or speakers use allegories as literary devices or as rhetorical devices that convey hidden or complex meanings through symbolic figures, imagery, or events, which together create the moral, spiritual, or political meaning the author wishes to convey. First attested in English in 1382, the word allegory comes from Latin allegoria, the latinisation of the Greek ἀλληγορία, "veiled language, figurative", which in turn comes from both ἄλλος, "another, different" and ἀγορεύω, "to harangue, to speak in the assembly", which originates from ἀγορά, "assembly". Northrop Frye discussed what he termed a "continuum of allegory", a spectrum that ranges from what he termed the "naive allegory" of The Faerie Queene, to the more private allegories of modern paradox literature.
In this perspective, the characters in a "naive" allegory are not three-dimensional, for each aspect of their individual personalities and the events that befall them embodies some moral quality or other abstraction. The origins of Allegory can be traced at least back to Homer in his "quasi-allegorical" use of personifications of, e.g. Terror and Fear at Il. 115 f. The title of "first allegorist," however, is awarded to whoever was the earliest to put forth allegorical interpretations of Homer; this approach leads to two possible answers: Theagenes of Rhegium or Pherecydes of Syros, both of whom are presumed to be active in the 6th century B. C. E. Though Pherecydes is earlier and as he is presumed to be the first writer of prose; the debate is complex, since it demands we observe the distinction between two conflated uses of the Greek verb "allēgoreīn," which can mean both "to speak allegorically" and "to interpret allegorically." In the case of "interpreting allegorically," Theagenes appears to be our earliest example.
In response to proto-philosophical moral critiques of Homer, Theagenes proposed symbolic interpretations whereby the Gods of the Iliad stood for physical elements. So, Hephestus represents Fire, for instance; some scholars, argue that Pherecydes cosmogonic writings anticipated Theagenes allegorical work, illustrated by his early placement of Time in his genealogy of the gods, thought to be a reinterpretation of the titan Kronos, from more traditional genealogies. In classical literature two of the best-known allegories are the Cave in Plato's Republic and the story of the stomach and its members in the speech of Menenius Agrippa. Among the best-known examples of allegory, Plato's Allegory of the Cave, forms a part of his larger work The Republic. In this allegory, Plato describes a group of people who have lived chained in a cave all of their lives, facing a blank wall; the people watch shadows projected on the wall by things passing in front of a fire behind them and begin to ascribe forms to these shadows, using language to identify their world.
According to the allegory, the shadows are as close as the prisoners get to viewing reality, until one of them finds his way into the outside world where he sees the actual objects that produced the shadows. He tries to tell the people in the cave of his discovery, but they do not believe him and vehemently resist his efforts to free them so they can see for themselves; this allegory is, on a basic level, about a philosopher who upon finding greater knowledge outside the cave of human understanding, seeks to share it as is his duty, the foolishness of those who would ignore him because they think themselves educated enough. In Late Antiquity Martianus Capella organized all the information a fifth-century upper-class male needed to know into an allegory of the wedding of Mercury and Philologia, with the seven liberal arts the young man needed to know as guests. Other early allegories are found in the Hebrew Bible, such as the extended metaphor in Psalm 80 of the Vine and its impressive spread and growth, representing Israel's conquest and peopling of the Promised Land.
Allegorical is Ezekiel 16 and 17, wherein the capture of that same vine by the mighty Eagle represents Israel's exile to Babylon. Allegorical interpretation of the Bible continues. For example, the re-discovered IVth Commentary on the Gospels by Fortunatianus of Aquileia has a comment by its English translator: The principal characteristic of Fortunatianus’ exegesis is a figurative approach, relying on a set of concepts associated with key terms in order to create an allegorical decoding of the text. Allegory has an ability to freeze the temporality of a story, while infusing it with a spiritual context. Mediaeval thinking accepted allegory as having a reality underlying any rhetorical or fictional uses; the allegory was as true as the facts of surface appearances. Thus, the Papal Bull Unam Sanctam presents themes of the unity of Christendom with the pope as its head in which the allegorical details of the metaphors are adduced as facts on, based a demonstration with the vocabulary of logic: "There
Kiowa people are a Native American tribe and an indigenous people of the Great Plains. They migrated southward from western Montana into the Rocky Mountains in Colorado in the 17th and 18th centuries, into the Southern Plains by the early 19th century. In 1867, the Kiowa were moved to a reservation in southwestern Oklahoma. Today, they are federally recognized as Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma with headquarters in Carnegie, Oklahoma; as of 2011, there were 12,000 members. The Kiowa language, part of the Tanoan language family, is still spoken today. Kiowa call themselves Ka'igwu, Cáuigù or Gaigwu, most given with the meaning "Principal People"; the first part of the name is the element Kae-, Cáui- or Gai- which means the Kiowa themselves – it may derive from the word ka' or from ka-a. The true origin is lost. Kae-kia means a Kiowa man; the second element -gua refers to "men or people", so the meaning of the two elements is "Kiowa people". Ancient names were Kútjàu or Kwu-da and Tep-da, relating to the tribal origin myth of a creator pulling people out of a hollow log until a pregnant woman got stuck.
They called themselves Kom-pa-bianta for "people with large tipi flaps", before they met Southern Plains tribes or before they met white men. Another explanation of their name "Kiowa" originated after their migration through what the Kiowa refer to as "The Mountains of the Kiowa" in the present eastern edge of Glacier National Park, just south of the border with Canada; the mountain pass they came through was populated by grizzly bear Kgyi-yo and Blackfoot people. Other tribes who encountered the Kiowa used sign language to describe them - by holding two straight fingers near the lower outside edge of the eye and moving these fingers back past the ear; this corresponded to the ancient Kiowa hairstyle cut horizontally from the lower outside edge of the eyes to the back of their ears. This was a functional practice to keep their hair from getting tangled while they shot an arrow from a bow string. George Catlin painted Kiowa warriors with this hairstyle. For a time, the Kiowa are thought to have shared land in present-day eastern Colorado, with the Arapaho.
An Arapaho name for the Kiowa is "creek people", the Arapaho word for "creek" is koh'owu', which when pronounced has some resemblance to the current name "Kiowa". For example, the Kiowa are referred to as "creek people" in an oral narrative recited in 1993 by native Arapaho speaker Paul Moss. "Kiowa" may have been a transliteration by European Americans of a name by which the tribe was known among the Arapaho. The Kiowa language is a member of the Kiowa-Tanoan language family; the relationship was first proposed by Smithsonian linguist John P. Harrington in 1910, was definitively established in 1967. Parker McKenzie, born 1897, was a noted authority on the Kiowa language, learning English only when he began school, he worked with John P. Harrington on the Kiowa language, he went on to discuss the etymology of words and insights of how the Kiowa language changed to incorporate new items of material culture. McKenzie's letters are in the National Anthropological Archives on pronunciation and grammar of the Kiowa language.
Kiowa /ˈkaɪ.əwə/ or Cáuijògà / Cáuijò:gyà is a Tanoan language spoken by the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma in Caddo and Comanche counties. Additionally, Kiowa were one of the numerous nations across the US, Canada and Mexico that spoke Plains Sign Talk. A trade language, it became a language within its own right that remained in use across North America; the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma is headquartered in Oklahoma. Their tribal jurisdictional area includes Caddo, Cotton, Kiowa and Washita Counties. Enrollment in the tribe requires a minimum blood quantum of ¼ Kiowa descent; as of 2011, their business committee is: Chairman: Matthew M. Komalty Vice-chairman: Charles Domebo Eisenberger Secretary: Rhonda J. Ahhaity Treasurer: Renee M. Plata Committeeman: Dave Geimausaddle Committeeman: Anita L. Onco Johnson Committeeman: Thomas Kaulaity Committeeman: Ronald Poolaw Sr; the Kiowa Tribe issues its own vehicle tags. As of 2011, the tribe owns one smoke shop, two casinos, the Kiowa Red River Casino, Morningstar Steakhouse and Grill, Morningstar Buffet, The Winner's Circle restaurant in Devol and Kiowa Bingo near Carnegie, Oklahoma.
The Kiowa were patrilineal with a chiefdom. They lived in semi-sedentary structures, they were hunters and gatherers, meaning they did not live in one area long enough to grow plants or crops, but did trade with sedentary tribes that grew crops. The Kiowa migrated seasonally with the American bison, they hunted antelope, deer and other wild game. The women collected varieties of wild berries and fruit, processing them with prepared meats to make pemmican. Dogs were used to pull rawhide parfleche that contained camping goods for short moves; the Kiowa tended to stay in areas for long periods of time. When they adopted the horse, acquired from Spanish rancherias south of the Rio Grande, the Kiowa revolutionized their economy, they had much larger ranges for their seasonal hunting, horses could carry some of their camping goods. By the time they arrived on the Plains, they were a mounted warrior nation; the Kiowa and Plains Apache established a homeland that lay in the southwestern plains adjacent to the Arkansas River in southeastern Colorado and western Kansas and the Red River drainage of the Texas Panhandle and