In music, solfège or solfeggio called sol-fa, solfeo, among many names, is a music education method used to teach aural skills and sight-reading of Western music. Solfège is a form of solmization, though the two terms are sometimes used interchangeably, this system originated from other "Eastern" music cultures such as swara, durar mufaṣṣalāt and Jianpu. Syllables are assigned to the notes of the scale and enable the musician to audiate, or mentally hear, the pitches of a piece of music which he or she is seeing for the first time and to sing them aloud. Through the Renaissance various interlocking 4, 5 and 6-note systems were employed to cover the octave; the tonic sol-fa method popularized the seven syllables used in English-speaking countries: do, re, mi, fa, so, la, si, see below). There are two current ways of applying solfège: 1) fixed do, where the syllables are always tied to specific pitches and 2) movable do, where the syllables are assigned to scale degrees. Italian "solfeggio" and English/French "solfège" derive from the names of two of the syllables used: sol and fa.
The generic term "solmization", referring to any system of denoting pitches of a musical scale by syllables, including those used in India and Japan as well as solfège, comes from French solmisatio, from the Latin solfège syllables sol and mi. The verb "to sol-fa" means to sing a passage in solfège. In eleventh-century Italy, the music theorist Guido of Arezzo invented a notational system that named the six notes of the hexachord after the first syllable of each line of the Latin hymn Ut queant laxis, the "Hymn to St. John the Baptist", yielding ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la; each successive line of this hymn begins on the next scale degree, so each note's name was the syllable sung at that pitch in this hymn. The words were written by Paulus Diaconus in the 8th century, they translate as: "Ut" was changed in the 1600s in Italy to the open syllable Do, at the suggestion of the musicologue Giovanni Battista Doni, Si was added to complete the diatonic scale. In Anglophone countries, "si" was changed to "ti" by Sarah Glover in the nineteenth century so that every syllable might begin with a different letter.
"Ti" is used in tonic sol-fa. An alternative theory argues that the solfège syllables derive from the syllables of an Arabic solmization system درر مفصّلات Durar Mufaṣṣalāt, mentioned in the works of Francisci a Mesgnien Meninski in 1680 and discussed by Jean-Benjamin de La Borde in 1780. However, there is no documentary evidence for this theory. In the Elizabethan era and its related territories used only four of the syllables: mi, fa, la. "Mi" stood for modern si, "fa" for modern do or ut, "sol" for modern re, "la" for modern mi. Fa, sol and la would be repeated to stand for their modern counterparts, resulting in the scale being "fa, sol, la, fa, sol, la, mi, fa"; the use of "fa", "sol" and "la" for two positions in the scale is a leftover from the Guidonian system of so-called "mutations". This system was eliminated by the 19th century, but is still used in some shape note systems, which give each of the four syllables "fa", "sol", "la", "mi" a different shape. An example of this type of solmization occurs in Shakespeare's King Lear, I, 2.
Solfège is still used for sight reading training. In the U. S. traditional American country music was first recorded in the 1920s by solfège-trained singers too poor to afford a piano, who used sight reading as a way of making printed music into entertainment. Flanders Bays and "Singing Bob" Leonard were traveling music teachers who trained hundreds of students, among them The Carter Family, who recorded the first nationally distributed recordings of regional "country" music. There are two main types of solfège: Movable do and Fixed do. In Movable do, or tonic sol-fa, each syllable corresponds to a scale degree; this is analogous to the Guidonian practice of giving each degree of the hexachord a solfège name, is used in Germanic countries, Commonwealth Countries, the United States. One important variant of movable do, but differing in some respects from the system described below, was invented in the nineteenth century by Sarah Ann Glover, is known as tonic sol-fa. In Italy, in 1972, Roberto Goitre wrote the famous method "Cantar leggendo", which has come to be used for choruses and for music for young children.
The pedagogical advantage of the movable-Do system is its ability to assist in the theoretical understanding of music. Thus, while fixed-do is more applicable to instrumentalists, movable-do is more applicable to theorists and, composers. Movable do is employed in Australia, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, Hong Kong, English-speaking Canada; the movable do system is a fundamental element of the Kodály method used in Hungary, but with a dedicated following worldwide. In the movable do system, each solfège syllable corresponds not to a pitch, but to a scale degree: The first degree of a major scale is always sung as "do", the second as "re", etc. (For minor keys, see bel
Wolfgang Schleif was a German editor, film director and screenwriter. He studied philosophy and pedagogy at the University of Leipzig. In 1934 he passed the State Examination for teachers at the Volksschule, but he took classes at the Acting School of the Deutsches Theater in Berlin, where he was trained in directing. Schleif began working in film in 1935. By 1938, he was an assistant director. In 1939, he became a screenwriter and an editor. Among his assignments, he was one of the editors of the propaganda films Jud Kolberg. In 1947, Schleif was joined the DEFA film studio, making his directorial debut in 1948 with the anti-capitalist production Grube Morgenrot; this was followed by the 1949 film biography of The Blue Swords. After 17 June 1953, Schleif emigrated to West Germany. With Die Mädels vom Immenhof 1955 he managed an extraordinary success, which laid down his work but for years on the production of such substances, he made several hit movies starring Freddy Quinn, but war films such as Rommel ruft Cairo and crime films such as Der rote Rausch and, in the early seventies, back to the Immenhof films, Die Zwillinge von Immenhof and Frühling im Immenhof.
Since the mid-sixties Schleif worked extensively for television. He led directed series and mini-series 1967 five episode series Bürgerkrieg in Rußland.. He is buried in the Dahlem cemetery in Berlin; the Journey to Tilsit The Buchholz Family Marriage of Affection Grube Morgenrot The Blue Swords Die Mädels vom Immenhof Rommel Calls Cairo Freddy, the Guitar and the Sea The Blue Moth Freddy and the Melody of the Night Eheinstitut Aurora Der rote Rausch Between Shanghai and St. Pauli The Twins from Immenhof Spring in Immenhof Wolfgang Schleif on IMDb
Derrick H. M. Chan is a Judge of the Hawaii Intermediate Court of Appeals. Chan received his Bachelor of Arts from the University of Hawaii and his Juris Doctor from California Western School of Law. Chan served as First Deputy Prosecutor for the County of Kauaʻi, he served as an attorney for the Hawaii Carpenters Union, as Deputy Public Defender for the state, law clerk to Judge Wilfred Watanabe, Deputy Attorney General for the state. He appointed as a Circuit Court Judge on Aug. 25, 2000. On February 3, 2017 Governor David Ige nominated Chan to be a Judge of the Intermediate Court of Appeals to the seat vacated by the retirement of Daniel R. Foley, his nomination was confirmed by the state senate on March 3, 2017. He was sworn in on April 13, 2017. Chan was among those considered to become Chief Judge of the Hawaii Intermediate Court of Appeals. In November 2011 Chan was considered to fill a vacancy on the Hawaii Supreme Court. Derrick H. M. Chan at Ballotpedia Official Biography on Court of Appeals website
William Mackey Lomasney was a member of the Fenian Brotherhood and the Clan na Gael who, during the Fenian dynamite campaign organized by Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa, was killed in a failed attempt to dynamite London Bridge. Born the son of Irish immigrants in Cincinnati, Mackey served in the American Civil War and became involved in the Irish nationalist movement. Travelling to Ireland to take part in the Fenian Rising in 1865, he was arrested by British authorities in Cork and ordered to leave the country along with John McCafferty. However, upon his return two years he and James X. O'Brien participated in the capture of the Ballyknockane Constabulary barracks, he briefly captured and held the Monning Martello tower near Fota Island in Cork Harbour. After the rebellion's end, he continued raiding gunshops and coastguard stations throughout Cork for over twelve months before his eventual capture by authorities on February 7, 1868. Tried for murder and treasonous felony, he was sentenced to twelve years penal servitude on March 21, 1868.
While imprisoned in Millbank Prison, he became acquainted with John Devoy. He was released under a general amnesty in 1871 on condition. Upon his return to the United States, he settled in Detroit and opened a book and stationery store. A member of the American Land League, he became involved in the Clan na Gael and had been in France to make a withdrawal from the treasury of the Irish Republican Brotherhood from which he was to return to Ireland to plan for a possible rebellion with Devoy. However, as a wave of dynamite bombings occurred in Great Britain during early 1881, he and Devoy would correspond with each other both condemning Rossa's actions and the idea for a "bloodless revolution" in Ireland. On the early evening of December 13, 1884, Mackey rowed out in a boat with his brother and John Fleming with the intention of destroying London bridge; the attack failed. While none of the bodies were found, the Clan na Gael paid a pension to his widow and four children. Golway, Terry. Irish Rebel: John Devoy and America's Fight for Ireland's Freedom.
New York: St. Martin's Press, 1988. ISBN 0-312-30386-6 Laqueur, Walter. Voices Of Terror: Manifestos and Manuals of Al Qaeda and other terrorists from Around the World and Throughout the Ages. New York: Reed Press, 2004. Moody, Theodore William. A New History of Ireland. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-19-821744-7 Whelehan, The Dynamiters: Irish Nationalism and Political Violence in the Wider World, 1867–1900 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. ISBN 978-1-107-02332-1
The IBM System/360 Model 85 is a high-end member of the System/360 family of computers, with many advanced features, was announced in January 1968 and first shipped in December 1969. IBM built only about 30 360/85 systems because of "a recession in progress"; the four models of the 360/85 are: I85, J85, K85 and L85, configured with 2 2365 Processor Storage units, 4 2365 units, an IBM 2385 Processor Storage unit Model 1, or an IBM 2385 Processor Storage unit Model 2 respectively. The I85 includes two-way interleaved memory while the others provide four-way interleaving of memory access; the system console is L-shaped: one leg is the Main Control Panel, including a CRT, the other leg includes 2 screens: "Microfiche Document Viewer" and "Indicator Viewer." Memory Cache - depending on the model and the situation, "the effective system storage cycle becomes one-third to one-fourth of the actual main storage cycle." The memory cache is high-speed, static buffer memory situated between the CPU and main system memory, available in 16 KB and 32 KB size options.
The System/360 Model 85 is IBM's first commercially available computer with cache memory. Monolithic integrated cirtuits Enhanced floating point - The Model 85 comes with extended-precision 128-bit quadruple-precision floating point The Model 85 has both Read-only and Writeable Control Storage; the 360/85, when equipped with the 709/7090/7094 Compatibility Feature, with the use of an emulator program permits running 709, 7040, 7044, 7094 and 7094 II programs. In some respects, the System/360 Model 85 provided a glimpse into the future System/370 product line - which IBM announced two years later, it used the MST circuitry, used in the initial System/370 models, introduced features such as 128-bit floating point arithmetic and block multiplexor channels that were part of the System/370 architecture. The 360/85 uses microcode to control instruction execution, unlike the completely-hardwired 360/75 and 360/91.
The Shoe Shop–Doucette Ten Footer is a historic wooden building at 36 William Street in Stoneham, Massachusetts, in the United States. On April, 1984, it was listed in the National Register of Historic Places; the building sits at the back of the Stoneham Historical Society premises. A ten footer was a small backyard shop structure built in the 18th and 19th centuries in New England to serve as a shoemaker's shop; the name came from the fact that it was 10 feet by 10 feet in area. The ten footers were forerunners of the large shoe factories that developed in New England in the 19th century. National Register of Historic Places listings in Stoneham, Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places listings in Middlesex County, Massachusetts Hunter, Ethel A; the Ten-Footers of New England in Parks, editor, The New England Galaxy: The best of 20 years from Old Sturbridge Village, Chester Connecticut: Globe Pequot Press, 1980, pp. 134–139, ISBN 0-87106-040-X