Fürst is a German word for a ruler and is a princely title. Fürsten were, since the Middle Ages, members of the highest nobility who ruled over states of the Holy Roman Empire and its former territories, below the ruling Kaiser or König. A Prince of the Holy Roman Empire was the reigning sovereign ruler of an Imperial State that held imperial immediacy in the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire; the territory ruled is referred to in German as a Fürstentum, the family dynasty referred to as a Fürstenhaus, the descendants of a Fürst are titled and referred to in German as Prinz or Prinzessin. The English language uses the term prince for both concepts. Latin-based languages employ a single term, whereas Dutch as well as the Scandinavian and Slavic languages use separate terms similar to those used in German. Since the Middle Ages, the German designation and title of Fürst refers to: the highest members of the nobility who ruled over the Holy Roman Empire, below the ruling Kaiser or König; the title Fürst is used for the heads of princely houses of German origin.
From the Late Middle Ages, it referred to any vassal of the Holy Roman Emperor ruling over an immediate estate. Unless he holds a higher title, such as grand duke or king, he will be known either by the formula "Fürst von + ", or by the formula "Fürst zu + "; these forms can be combined, as in "...von und zu Liechtenstein". The rank of the title-holder is not determined by the title itself, but by his degree of sovereignty, the rank of his suzerain, or the age of the princely family; the Fürst ranked below the Herzog in the Holy Roman Empire's hierarchy, but princes did not rank below dukes in non-German parts of Europe. The style associated with the title of Fürst in post-medieval Europe, was considered inferior to Hoheit in Germany, though not in France; the present-day rulers of the sovereign principality of Liechtenstein bear the title of Fürst, the title is used in German when referring to the ruling princes of Monaco. The hereditary rulers of the one-time principalities of Bulgaria, Serbia and Albania were all referred to in German as Fürsten before they assumed the title of "king".
Fürst is used more in German to refer to any ruler, such as a king, a reigning duke, or a prince in the broad sense. Before the 12th century, counts were included in this group, in accordance with its usage in the Holy Roman Empire, in some historical or ceremonial contexts, the term Fürst can extend to any lord; the descendants of a Fürst, when that title has not been restricted by patent or custom to male primogeniture, is distinguished in title from the head of the family by use of the prefix Prinz. A nobleman whose family is non-dynastic, i.e. has never reigned or been mediatised, may be made a Fürst by a sovereign, in which case the grantee and his heirs are deemed titular or nominal princes, enjoying only honorary princely title without commensurate rank. In families thus elevated to princely title in or after the 18th century, the cadets hold only the title of Graf, such as in the families of the princes of Bismarck and Hardenberg. However, in a few cases, the title of Fürst was shared by all male-line descendants of the original grantee.
Several titles were derived from the term Fürst: Reichsfürst was a ruling Prince whose territory was part of the Holy Roman Empire. He was entitled to a vote, either individually or as a member of a voting unit, in the Imperial Diet. Reichsfürst was used generically for any ruler who cast his vote in either of the Reichstag's two upper chambers, the Electoral College or the College of Princes: Their specific title might be king, grand duke, margrave, count palatine, Imperial prince or Imperial count. Included in this group were the reichsständisch Personalisten, Imperial princes and counts whose small territories did not meet the Fürstenrat's criteria for voting membership as an Imperial estate, but whose family's right to vote therein was recognised by the Emperor. A Prince of the Church who voted in the Electoral or Princely College, along with a handful of titular princes might be referred to as Reichsfürsten. Kirchenfürst was a hierarch who held an ecclesiastic fief and Imperial princely rank, such as prince-bishops, prince-abbots, or Grand Masters of a Christian military order.
Landesfürst is a princely head of state, i.e. not just a titular prince
Wissembourg is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in northeastern France. It is situated on the little River Lauter close to the border between France and Germany 60 km north of Strasbourg and 35 km west of Karlsruhe. Wissembourg is a sub-prefecture of the department; the name Wissembourg is a Gallicized version of Weißenburg in German meaning "white castle". The Latin place-name, sometimes used in ecclesiastical sources, is Sebusium; the town was annexed by France after 1648 but incorporated into Germany in 1871. It was returned to France in 1919, but reincorporated back into Germany on 1940. After 1944 it again became French. Weissenburg Abbey, the Benedictine abbey around which the town has grown, was founded in the 7th century under the patronage of Dagobert I; the abbey was supported by vast territories. Of the 11th-century buildings constructed under the direction of Abbot Samuel, only the Schartenturm and some moats remain; the town was fortified in the 13th century. The abbey church of Saint-Pierre et Paul erected in the same century under the direction of Abbot Edelin was secularized in the French Revolution and despoiled of its treasures.
At the abbey in the late 9th century the monk Otfried composed a gospel harmony, the first substantial work of verse in German. In 1354 Charles IV made it one of the grouping of ten towns called the Décapole that survived annexation by France under Louis XIV in 1678 and was extinguished with the French Revolution. On 25 January 1677 a great fire destroyed the Hôtel de Ville. Many early structures were spared: the Maison du Sel, under its Alsatian pitched roof was the first hospital of the town. There are many 15th and 16th-century timber-frame houses, parts of the walls and gateways of the town; the Maison de Stanislas was the retreat of Stanisław Leszczyński, ex-king of Poland, from 1719 to 1725, when the formal request arrived, 3 April 1725 asking for the hand of his daughter in marriage to Louis XV. The First Battle of Wissembourg took place near the town in 1793; the “Lines of Wissembourg,” made by Villars in 1706, were famous. They were a line of works extending to Lauterbourg nine miles to the southeast.
Like the fortifications of the town, only vestiges remain, although the city wall is still intact for stretches. Austrian General von Wurmser succeeded in capturing the lines in October 1793, but was defeated two months by General Pichegru of the French Army and forced to retreat, along with the Prussians, across the Rhine River. Wissembourg formed the setting for the Romantic novel L’ami Fritz co-written by the team of Erckmann and Chatrian, which provided the material for Mascagni's opera L'Amico Fritz. Another Battle of Wissembourg took place on 4 August 1870, it was the first battle of the Franco-Prussian War. The Prussians were nominally commanded by the Crown Prince Frederick, but ably directed by his Chief of Staff, General Leonhard Graf von Blumenthal; the French defeat allowed the Prussian army to move into France. The Geisberg monument commemorates the battle. Otfrid of Weissenburg Jean-Gotthard Grimmer, pastor at Wissembourg deputy to the National Convention on 10 ventôse year III to replace Philibert Simond.
Louis Moll, born in Wissembourg in 1809 and died in 1880. Joseph GuerberJoseph Guerber Stanisław Leszczyński, king of Poland from 1704 to 1709, exiled in Wissembourg and lived from 1719 to 1725; the school in the city now bears his name. Charles de Foucauld Auguste Dreyfus Jean Frédéric Wentzel, famous photos of Wissembourg Jean-François Kornetzky, football goalkeeper Martin Bucer was a Protestant reformer based in Wissembourg/Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran and Anglican doctrines and practices. Drew Heissler aka Pokey LaFarge, is songwriter, his family emigrated from Wissembourg/Alsace. Jean-Pierre Hubert, a science-fiction writer. Julie Velten Favre and educator The town, set in a landscape of wheat fields, retains a former Augustinian convent with its large-scale Gothic church, now the parish of Saints-Pierre-et-Paul, its Grenier aux Dîmes belonging to the Abbey is 18th-century but an ancient foundation. Noteworthy houses are the medieval "Salt house", the Renaissance "House of l'Ami Fritz" and the classicist City Hall, a work by Joseph Massol.
Communes of the Bas-Rhin department Château Saint-Rémy d'Altenstadt INSEE commune file Tourist information Accessed 11 May 2014. Saints Peter and Paul Church at Structurae Virtual tour picture gallery Interactive map of the property of abbey Wissembourg, based on Liber donationum and Liber possessionum, in Traditiones possessionesque Wizenburgenses, edited by Zeuss, Johann Caspar, Speyer 1842
Bishopric of Verdun
The Bishopric of Verdun was a state of the Holy Roman Empire. It was located at the western edge of the Empire and was bordered by France, the Duchy of Luxembourg, the Duchy of Bar; this fief included the advowson of the church of Verdun over its possessions along the river Moselle. According to a chronist's report, written around the year 900, the Merovingian king Childebert II came to visit Verdun. There was not enough wine to serve the monarch and the Bishop Agericus was embarrassed; however God miraculously increased the amount of wine. The king presented Agericus of Verdun with the Schloss Veldenz as a fief of Verdun "because of the wine". Around 1156 Frederick Barbarossa confirmed the holding by Bishop Albert I of Verdun of the castle together with the surrounding land. A story that Peter, successor of Madalvaeus, was granted temporal lordship of the Diocese by Charlemagne, but this is no longer accepted; because of the destruction of the archives in a fire Bishop Dadon commissioned the Gesta episcoporum Virodunensium from Bertharius, a Benedictine monk.
This was continued to 1250 by a second monk, by an anonymous writer. A key element of Emperor Otto I's domestic policy was to strengthen ecclesiastical authorities at the expense of the nobility who threatened his power. To this end he filled the ranks of the episcopate with his own relatives and with loyal chancery clerks; as protector of the Church he invested them with the symbols of their offices, both spiritual and secular, so the clerics were appointed as his vassals through a commendation ceremony. Historian Norman Cantor concludes: "Under these conditions clerical election became a mere formality in the Ottonian empire..." The Bishop of Verdun, appointed by Otto, was faithful to the emperor. In 990 Bishop Haimont ordered the construction of a new cathedral on the Romano-Rhenish plan: a nave, two transepts, two opposing apses, each one flanked by two bell towers; the Holy Roman Emperor Otto III bestowed the title Count on Bishop Haimont and his successors in 997. The bishops had the right to appoint a temporary "count for life", theoretically subject to the authority of the bishop.
These counts were selected from the noble family of Ardennes. There was frequent conflict between the bishop. With the marriage of Philip IV with Joan I of Navarre, the daughter of the Count of Champagne and Verdun become a primary focus for the crown of France. After 1331, appointment to the episcopal see was controlled by the King of France rather than the Emperor; the Bishopric was annexed to France in 1552. It was a part of the province of the Three Bishoprics. Ca. 346: St. Saintin 356–383: St. Maurus???–420: Salvinus ca. 440: Arator 454–470: Polychronius 470–486: Possessor 486–502: Freminus 502–529: Vitonus 529–554: Desideratus 554–591: Agericus v. 595: Charimeres v. 614: Harimeris???–621: St. Ermenfred 623–626: Godo 641–648: Paulus 648–665: Gisloald 665–689: Gerebert 689–701: Armonius 701–710: Agrebert 711–715: Bertalamius 716: Abbo 716–722: Pepo 722–730: Volchisus 730–732: Agronius 753–774: Madalveus 774–798: Peter 798–802: Austram 802–824: Heriland 824–847: Hilduin 847–870: Hatto 870–879: Bernard 880–923: Dado 923–925: Hugh I 925–939: Bernuin, son of Matfried I, Count of Metz, of Lantesinde 939–959: Berengar 959–983: Wigfrid 983–984: Hugh II 984–984: Adalbero I Bishop of Metz 985–990: Adalbero II Bishop of Metz.
990–1024: Haimont 1024–1039: Reginbert 1039–1046: Richard I 1047–1089: Theoderic 1089–1107: Richhar 1107–1114: Richard II of Grandpré 1114–1117: Mazo, administrator 1117–1129: Henry I of Blois, deposed at the Council of Chalon 1129–1131: Ursio 1131–1156: Adalbero III of Chiny 1156–1162: Albert I of Marcey 1163–1171: Richard III of Crisse 1172–1181: Arnulf of Chiny-Verdun 1181–1186: Henry II of Castel 1186–1208: Albert II of Hierges 1208–1216: Robert I of Grandpré 1217–1224: John I of Aspremont 1224–1245: Radulf of Torote 1245–1245: Guy I of Traignel 1245–1247: Guy II of Mellote 1247–1252: John II of Aachen 1252–1255: James I Pantaléon of Court-Palais 1255–1271: Robert II of Médidan 1271–1273: Ulrich of Sarvay 1275–1278: Gerard of Grandson 1278–1286: Henry III of Grandson 1289–1296: James II of Ruvigny 1297–1302: John III of Richericourt 1303–1305: Thomas of Blankenberg 1305–1312: Nicholas I of Neuville 1312–1349: Henry IV of Aspremont 1349–1351: Otto of Poitiers 1352–1361: Hugh III of Bar 1362–1371: John IV of Bourbon-Montperoux 1371–1375: John V of Dampierre-St. Dizier 1375–1379: Guy III of Roye 1380–1404: Leobald of Cousance 1404–1419: John VI of Saarbrücken 1419–1423: Louis I of Bar, administrator 1423–1423: Raymond 1423–1424: William of Montjoie 1424–1430: Louis I of Bar, administrator 1430–1437: Louis of Haraucourt 1437–1449: William Fillatre 1449–1456: Louis of Haraucourt 1457–1500: William of Haraucourt 1500–1508: Warry de Dommartin 1508–1522: Louis de Lorraine 1523–1544: Jean de Lorraine, brother of predecessor 1544–1547: Nicolas de Mercœur, nephew of predecessor 1548–1575: Nicolas Psaume 1576–1584: Nicolas Bousmard 1585–1587: Charles de Lorraine 1588–1593: Nicolas Boucher 1593–1610: Eric of Lorraine1593–1601: Christophe de la Vallée, administrator 1610–1622: Charles de Lorraine, nephew of predecessor 1623–1661: François de Lorraine, brother of predecessor 1667–1679: Armand de Monchy d'Hocquincourt 1681–1720: Hippolyte de Béthune 1721–1754: Charles-François D'Hallencourt 1754–1769: Aymar-Fr.-Chrétien-Mi. de Nicolai 1770–1793: Henri-Louis Rene DesnosUntil 1801 Verdun was part of the e
Laubach is a town of 10,000 people in the Gießen region of Hesse, Germany. Laubach is known as a climatic health resort, it is situated 23 kilometres east of Gießen. Surrounding Laubach are the towns of Hungen, Grünberg and Lich; the dense Laubach Woods spread into the foothills of the Vogelsberg Mountains. With its many historic and colorful half-timbered buildings, Laubach is an area of interest to tourists; the main point of attraction is the castle, still owned by the count of Solms-Laubach. It was expanded over the years; the Solms castle has one of the largest private libraries in Europe, with over 120,000 titles. An original Gutenberg Bible, on display in the Johann Gutenberg Museum in Mainz, came from this private collection; the castle grounds include a huge park with a swan lake, open to the public. The city's Evangelical Lutheran Church named St. Maria, has a Baroque organ; the oldest part of the church was built in the twelfth century. It was renovated in the eighteenth century; the former district courthouse, the city hall, the Heimat Museum are together on the main street of Friedrichstrasse.
The courthouse is now a residence for senior citizens. The Heimat Museum–Fridericianum is the local history museum built near the town of Gonterskirchen in 1750 by Count August Solms-Laubach; the building was moved to its present location in 1832 and served as a school before it became a museum. The museum contains a permanent exhibit of the diary of city resident Friedrich Kellner. Friedrich Kellner - Laubach's chief justice inspector during World War II, he wrote a 10-volume diary about the misdeeds of the Nazis published as a book, My Opposition, he became deputy mayor, first town councilman, chairman of the regional branch of the Social Democrats. A Canadian documentary about Kellner was filmed on location in Laubach. Felix Klipstein, artist - grew up in Laubach and Belgium, spending his academic years in France and Spain, where he did special studies in Velázquez. In 1909 he settled in Laubach with the writer Edith Blass. Friedel Münch, head of Münch Motorcycle Works Philipp Erasmus Reich and publisher Georg Friedrich Solms-Laubach Sophie von Solms-Laubach Countess Monika zu Solms-Laubach, Princess Consort of Hanover Nachtigall, Helmut.
Die Fachwerkhäuser Alt-Laubachs: Führer durch die Holzarchitektur Alt-Laubachs. Laubach. My Opposition: The Diaries of Friedrich Kellner. Toronto, Canada: CCI Entertainment. Laubach Online
Bishopric of Speyer
The Bishopric of Speyer, or Prince-Bishopric of Speyer, was an ecclesiastical principality in what are today the German states of Rhineland-Palatinate and Baden-Württemberg. It was secularized in 1803; the prince-bishop resided in Speyer, a Free Imperial City, until the 14th century when he moved his residence to Uddenheim in 1723 to Bruchsal, in large part due to the tense relationship between successive prince-bishops and the civic authorities of the Free City Protestant since the Reformation. The prince-provostry of Wissemburg in Alsace was ruled by the prince-bishop of Speyer in a personal union; the bishopric of Speyer belonged to the Upper Rhenish Circle of the Holy Roman Empire. One of the smallest principalities of the Holy Roman Empire, it consisted of more than half a dozen separate enclaves totalling about 28 German square miles on both sides of the Rhine, it included the towns of Bruchsal as well as Deidesheim, Herxheim bei Landau, Lauterburg. Around 1800 the bishopric included about 55,000 people.
A diocese of Speyer has existed since the 3rd or 4th century. It was first mentioned in historical documents in 614. Up to 748 it was a suffragant bishopric of the archdiocese of Trier, from until the secularisation of the prince-bishopric in 1803, of the archdiocese of Mainz; the history of the Bishopric of Speyer began at the latest in the late 7th century when the bishop of Speyer received royal domains in the neighboring Speyergau. In the 10th and 11th centuries, the diocese received additional lands, including gifts by emperor Otto I. In 1030 the building of the cathedral was begun. In 1061 the cathedral was consecrated. In 1086 emperor Henry IV granted the bishopric the remaining parts of the county of Speyergau. From 1111 the citizens of the city of Speyer began to loosen their bonds to the rulership of the bishop. In 1230 a Bürgermeister was mentioned for the first time. In 1294 Speyer became a Free Imperial City; the bishop moved his palace in 1371 to Udenheim. At the beginning of the 17th century bishop Philipp Christoph von Sötern expanded the fortress of Philippsburg.
The prince-bishops reigned from there from 1371 to 1723. Afterwards the prince-bishop moved his seat to Bruchsal. From 1681 to 1697, at the end of the War of the Grand Alliance, the fortress of Philippsburg on the left-bank went to France. In 1801/1802, the remaining left-bank territories of Speyer were conquered by French troops in the course of the French Revolution; the right-bank territories went to margraves of Baden. This ended the secular responsibilities of the bishop of Speyer; the secularized bishopric continued ecclesiastically as the Diocese of Speyer. The French part of the former prince-bishopric was divided between Bavaria and Hesse Darmstadt in 1815. For a list of prince-bishops, see Bishop of Speyer. Speyer Cathedral
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Solms-Rödelheim-Assenheim was a County of southern Hesse and eastern Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The House of Solms had its origins at Hesse. Solms-Rödelheim-Assenheim was thrice created by a union of the Counts of Solms-Assenheim and Solms-Rödelheim, on the first two occasions repartitioned into those statelets. Solms-Rödelheim-Assenheim was mediatised to Hesse-Kassel and Hesse-Darmstadt in 1806