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Solon

Solon was an Athenian statesman and poet. He is remembered for his efforts to legislate against political and moral decline in archaic Athens, his reforms failed in the short-term, yet he is credited with having laid the foundations for Athenian democracy. He wrote poetry for pleasure, as patriotic propaganda, in defence of his constitutional reform. Modern knowledge of Solon is limited by the fact that his works only survive in fragments and appear to feature interpolations by authors and by the general paucity of documentary and archaeological evidence covering Athens in the early 6th century BC. Ancient authors such as Herodotus and Plutarch are the main sources, but wrote about Solon long after his death. 4th-century orators, such as Aeschines, tended to attribute to Solon all the laws of their own, much times. Solon was born in Athens around 630 BC, his family was distinguished in Attica as they belonged to a noble or Eupatrid clan, although they possessed only moderate wealth. Solon's father was Execestides.

If so his lineage could be traced back to Codrus, the last King of Athens. According to Diogenes Laërtius, he had a brother named Dropides, an ancestor of Plato. According to Plutarch, Solon was related to the tyrant Peisistratos. Solon was drawn into the unaristocratic pursuit of commerce; when Athens and Megara were contesting the possession of Salamis, Solon was made leader of the Athenian forces. After repeated disasters, Solon was able to improve the morale of his troops through a poem he wrote about the island. Supported by Peisistratos, he defeated the Megarians either by means of a cunning trick or more directly through heroic battle around 595 BC; the Megarians, refused to give up their claim. The dispute was referred to the Spartans, who awarded possession of the island to Athens on the strength of the case that Solon put to them. According to Diogenes Laertius, in 594 BC, Solon was chosen chief magistrate; as archon, Solon discussed his intended reforms with some friends. Knowing that he was about to cancel all debts, these friends took out loans and promptly bought some land.

Suspected of complicity, Solon complied with his own law and released his own debtors, amounting to 5 talents. His friends never repaid their debts. After he had finished his reforms, he travelled abroad for ten years, so that the Athenians could not induce him to repeal any of his laws, his first stop was Egypt. There, according to Herodotus, he visited the Pharaoh of Egypt, Amasis II. According to Plutarch, he spent some time and discussed philosophy with two Egyptian priests, Psenophis of Heliopolis and Sonchis of Sais. According to two of Plato's dialogues and Critias, he visited Neith's temple at Sais and received from the priests there an account of the history of Atlantis. Next, Solon sailed to Cyprus, where he oversaw the construction of a new capital for a local king, in gratitude for which the king named it Soloi. Solon's travels brought him to Sardis, capital of Lydia. According to Herodotus and Plutarch, he met with Croesus and gave the Lydian king advice, which Croesus failed to appreciate until it was too late.

Croesus had considered himself to be the happiest man alive and Solon had advised him, "Count no man happy until he be dead." The reasoning was that at any minute, fortune might turn on the happiest man and make his life miserable. It was only after he had lost his kingdom to the Persian king Cyrus, while awaiting execution, that Croesus acknowledged the wisdom of Solon's advice. After his return to Athens, Solon became a staunch opponent of Peisistratos. In protest, as an example to others, Solon stood outside his own home in full armour, urging all who passed to resist the machinations of the would-be tyrant, his efforts were in vain. Solon died shortly after Peisistratos usurped by force the autocratic power that Athens had once bestowed upon him. Solon died in Cyprus at the age of 80 and, in accordance with his will, his ashes were scattered around Salamis, the island where he was born; the travel writer Pausanias listed Solon among the seven sages whose aphorisms adorned Apollo's temple in Delphi.

Stobaeus in the Florilegium relates a story about a symposium where Solon's young nephew was singing a poem of Sappho's. When someone asked, "Why should you waste your time on it?" Solon replied ἵνα μαθὼν αὐτὸ ἀποθάνω, "So that I may learn it before I die." Ammianus Marcellinus, told a similar story about Socrates and the poet Stesichorus, quoting the philosopher's rapture in identical terms: "ut aliquid sciens amplius e vita discedam", meaning "in order to leave life knowing a little more". During Solon's time, many Greek city-states had seen the emergence of tyrants, opportunistic noblemen who had taken power on behalf of sectional interests. In Sicyon, Cleisthenes had usurped power on behalf of an Ionian minority. In Megara, Theagenes had come to power as an enemy of the local oligarchs; the son-in-law of Theagenes, an Athenian nobleman named Cylon, made an unsuccessful attempt to seize power in Athens in 632 BC. Solon was described by Plutarch as having been temporarily awarded autocratic powers by Athenian citizens on the grounds that he had the "wisdom" to sort out their differences for them in a peaceful and equitable manner.

According to ancient sources, he obtained these powers. Some modern scholars believe these powers were in fact granted some years after Solon had been archon, when he would have been a member of the Areopagus and a more respec

Army Group F

Army Group F was a strategic command formation of the Wehrmacht during the Second World War. The commander of Army Group F served as the Oberbefehlshaber Südost. Created 12 August 1943, at Bayreuth, it was stationed in the Balkans, its commander from August 1943 was Maximilian von Weichs promoted to Generalfeldmarschall on 1 February 1943, with Lieutenant General Hermann Foertsch serving as the Chief of Staff. Its primary participation in combat was in defending against possible Allied invasion in what was seen as Germany's "weak underbelly", fighting off local partisan groups that were gaining strength. In late 1944, it oversaw the German retreat from Greece and most of Yugoslavia in the wake of the Budapest Offensive; the Army Group included for much of the war the 2nd Panzer Army in Yugoslavia and Albania, the Army Group E in Greece. 2nd Panzer Army Army Staff units III SS Panzer Corps, SS-Obergruppenführer Felix Steiner XV Mountain Corps, General of Infantry Ernst von Leyser XXI Mountain Corps, General of Panzer troops Gustav Fehn LXIX Corps, z.b.

V. General of Infantry Helge Auleb V SS Mountain Corps, General Lieutenant Artur Phleps Army Group E Army Group Staff units XXII Mountain Corps, General of Mountain troops Hubert Lanz LXVIII Army Corps, General of Aviation Hellmuth Felmy Troops of the commander of the fortress Crete Bulgarian II Corps Troops of the Militärbefehlshaber Südost General of Infantry Hans Felber The subordinate units of the Army Group were predominantly the less capable "fortress" and reserve divisions, collaborationist foreign volunteer units such as the "Cossacks" and 392nd Infantry Division. 2nd Panzer Army Army Staff units XV Mountain Corps, General of Infantry Ernst von Leyser XXI Mountain Corps, General of Panzer troops Gustav Fehn LXIX Corps z.b. V. General of Infantry Helge Auleb V SS Mountain Corps, General Lieutenant Arthur Phleps Army Group E Army Group Staff units XXII Mountain Corps, General of Mountain troops Hubert Lanz LXVIII Army Corps, General of Aviation Hellmuth Felmy Troops of the commander of the fortress Crete Bulgarian II Corps Troops of the Militärbefehlshaber Südost, General of Infantry Hans FelberFor the defence of Serbia, the Commander of Army Group F assembled Army Group Serbia on 26 September 1944.

Army Group Serbia commanded by General Hans Felber. Army Group Serbia was disbanded on 27 October 1944. Army Group F was disbanded 25 March 1945. World War II in Yugoslavia Hogg, Ian V. German Order of Battle 1944: The regiments and units of the German ground forces and Armour Press, London, 1975 Thomas, Andrew, The German Army 1939-45: Eastern Front 1943-45, Osprey Publishing, 1998 ISBN 978-1-85532-796-2 Mitcham, Samuel W. Jr. German Defeat in the East, 1944-45, 2007 ISBN 978-0-8117-3371-7 Tessin, Georg. Die Landstreitkräfte: Namensverbände / Die Luftstreitkräfte / Flakeinsatz im Reich 1943–1945. Verbände und Truppen der deutschen Wehrmacht und Waffen–SS im Zweiten Weltkrieg 1939–1945. 14. Osnabrück: Biblio. ISBN 3-7648-1111-0. Heeresgruppe F - Lexikon des Wehrmacht National archive Washington documents: T311, Roll 187 - Heeresgruppe F 1943/1944. T311, Roll 188 - Heeresgruppe F 1944. T311, Roll 189 - Heeresgruppe F 1944/1945. T311, Roll 190 - Heeresgruppe F 1944/1945. T311, Roll 194 - Heeresgruppe F 1944.

T311, Roll 195 - Heeresgruppe F 1944. T311, Roll 196 - Heeresgruppe F 1944/1945. T311, Roll 285 - Heeresgruppe F 1943/1944. T311, Roll 286 - Heeresgruppe F 1944

Heinrich Klebahn

Heinrich Klebahn was a German mycologist and phytopathologist. In 1884 he obtained his PhD from the University of Jena, afterwards working as a schoolteacher in Bremen and Hamburg. From 1905 onward, he was associated with the botanical gardens at Hamburg. From 1921 to 1934 he was an honorary professor and lecturer of cryptogamy and soil biology at the Institut für Allgemeine Botanik in Hamburg. In 1895 Ernst Lemmermann named, and in 2011, Inderbitzin and coauthors named the plant pathogenic fungus Verticillium klebahnii after him. Die wirtwechselnden Rostpilze, 1904 – The heteroecious rusts. Krankheiten des Flieders, 1909 – Diseases of lilacs. Grundzüge der allgemeinen Phytopathologie. Berlin: Verlag von Gebrüder Borntraeger, 1912 – Outline of general phytopathology. Aufgaben und Ergebnisse biologischer Pilzforschung. Vorträge aus dem Gesamtgebiet der Botanik, Heft 1. Berlin: Verlag von Gebrüder Borntraeger, 1914 – Tasks and results involving biological fungi research. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Fungi Imperfecti: III.

Zur Kritik einiger Pestalozzia-Arten in Mycologisches Centralblatt 4:1 pp. 1–19 - Contributions towards understanding the fungi imperfecti, a critique of some species of Pestalozzia. Haupt- und Nebenfruchtformen der Askomyzeten: Erster Teil: Eigene Untersuchungen, 395 pp. - Primary and secondary fruiting body forms in the Ascomycetes