SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Solubility

Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as on temperature and presence of other chemicals of the solution; the extent of the solubility of a substance in a specific solvent is measured as the saturation concentration, where adding more solute does not increase the concentration of the solution and begins to precipitate the excess amount of solute. Insolubility is the inability to dissolve in a liquid or gaseous solvent. Most the solvent is a liquid, which can be a pure substance or a mixture. One may speak of solid solution, but of solution in a gas. Under certain conditions, the equilibrium solubility can be exceeded to give a so-called supersaturated solution, metastable. Metastability of crystals can lead to apparent differences in the amount of a chemical that dissolves depending on its crystalline form or particle size.

A supersaturated solution crystallises when'seed' crystals are introduced and rapid equilibration occurs. Phenylsalicylate is one such simple observable substance when melted and cooled below its fusion point. Solubility is not to be confused with the ability to dissolve a substance, because the solution might occur because of a chemical reaction. For example, zinc dissolves in hydrochloric acid as a result of a chemical reaction releasing hydrogen gas in a displacement reaction; the zinc ions are soluble in the acid. The solubility of a substance is an different property from the rate of solution, how fast it dissolves; the smaller a particle is, the faster it dissolves although there are many factors to add to this generalization. Crucially, solubility applies to all areas of chemistry, inorganic, physical and biochemistry. In all cases it will depend on the physical conditions and the enthalpy and entropy directly relating to the solvents and solutes concerned. By far the most common solvent in chemistry is water, a solvent for most ionic compounds as well as a wide range of organic substances.

This is a crucial factor in much environmental and geochemical work. According to the IUPAC definition, solubility is the analytical composition of a saturated solution expressed as a proportion of a designated solute in a designated solvent. Solubility may be stated in various units of concentration such as molarity, mole fraction, mole ratio, mass per volume and other units; the extent of solubility ranges from infinitely soluble such as ethanol in water, to poorly soluble, such as silver chloride in water. The term insoluble is applied to poorly or poorly soluble compounds. A number of other descriptive terms are used to qualify the extent of solubility for a given application. For example, U. S. Pharmacopoeia gives the following terms: The thresholds to describe something as insoluble, or similar terms, may depend on the application. For example, one source states that substances are described as "insoluble" when their solubility is less than 0.1 g per 100 mL of solvent. Solubility occurs under dynamic equilibrium, which means that solubility results from the simultaneous and opposing processes of dissolution and phase joining.

The solubility equilibrium occurs. The term solubility is used in some fields where the solute is altered by solvolysis. For example, many metals and their oxides are said to be "soluble in hydrochloric acid", although in fact the aqueous acid irreversibly degrades the solid to give soluble products, it is true that most ionic solids are dissolved by polar solvents, but such processes are reversible. In those cases where the solute is not recovered upon evaporation of the solvent, the process is referred to as solvolysis; the thermodynamic concept of solubility does not apply straightforwardly to solvolysis. When a solute dissolves, it may form several species in the solution. For example, an aqueous suspension of ferrous hydroxide, Fe2, will contain the series + as well as other species. Furthermore, the solubility of ferrous hydroxide and the composition of its soluble components depend on pH. In general, solubility in the solvent phase can be given only for a specific solute, thermodynamically stable, the value of the solubility will include all the species in the solution.

Solubility is defined for specific phases. For example, the solubility of aragonite and calcite in water are expected to differ though they are both polymorphs of calcium carbonate and have the same chemical formula; the solubility of one substance in another is determined by the balance of intermolecular forces between the solvent and solute, the entropy change that accompanies the solvation. Factors such as temperature and pressure will alter this balance. Solubility may strongly depend on the presence of other species dissolved in the solvent, for example, complex-forming anions in liquids. Solubility will depend on the excess or deficiency of a common ion in the solution, a phenomenon known as the common-ion effect. To a lesser extent, solubility will depend on the ionic strength of solutions; the last two effects can be quantified using the equation for solubility equilibrium. For a solid that dissolves in a redox reaction, solubility is expected

Aeon

The word aeon spelled eon meant "life", "vital force" or "being", "generation" or "a period of time", though it tended to be translated as "age" in the sense of "ages", "forever", "timeless" or "for eternity". It is a Latin transliteration from the koine Greek word ὁ αἰών, from the archaic αἰϝών. In Homer it refers to life or lifespan, its latest meaning is less similar to the Sanskrit word kalpa and Hebrew word olam. A cognate Latin word aevum or aeuum for "age" is present in words such as mediaeval. Although the term aeon may be used in reference to a period of a billion years, its more common usage is for any long, indefinite period. Aeon can refer to the four aeons on the Geologic Time Scale that make up the Earth's history, the Hadean, Archean and the current aeon Phanerozoic. In astronomy an aeon is defined as a billion years. Roger Penrose uses the word aeon to describe the period between successive and cyclic Big Bangs within the context of conformal cyclic cosmology; the Bible translation is a treatment of the Greek word aion.

These words have similar meaning, Young's Literal Translation renders them and their derivatives as "age" or "age-during". Other English versions most translate them to indicate eternity, being translated as eternal, forever, etc. However, there are notable exceptions to this in all major translations, such as Matthew 28:20: "... I am with you always, to the end of the age", the word "age" being a translation of aion. Rendering aion to indicate eternality in this verse would result in the contradictory phrase "end of eternity", so the question arises whether it should be so. Proponents of universal reconciliation point out that this has significant implications for the problem of hell. Contrast Matthew 25:46 in well-known English translations with its rendering in Young's Literal Translation: Plato used the word aeon to denote the eternal world of ideas, which he conceived was "behind" the perceived world, as demonstrated in his famous allegory of the cave. Christianity's idea of "eternal life" comes from the word for life, a form of aeon, which could mean life in the next aeon, the Kingdom of God, or Heaven, just as much as immortality, as in John 3:16.

According to the Christian doctrine of universal reconciliation, the Greek New Testament scriptures use the word "aeon" to mean a long period and the word "aeonian" to mean "during a long period". After each man's mortal life ends, he is judged worthy of aeonian aeonian punishment; that is, after the period of the aeons, all punishment will cease and death is overcome and God becomes the all in each one. This contrasts with the conventional Christian belief in eternal punishment. Occultists of the Thelema and O. T. O. Traditions sometimes speak of a "magical Aeon" that may last for far less time as little as 2,000 years; the Order of Nine Angles, a UK-based Left Hand Path/Satanic organisation propose the concept of Aeons are central to the esoteric philosophy developed by the pseudonymous Anton Long, who wrote that "an aeon is the term used to describe a stage or a type of evolution. Evolution itself is taken to result from a certain specific process – and this process can be described, or explained via a bifurcation of time.

That is, evolution is an expression of how the cosmos changes over or through or because of,'time' – this'time' having two components. These two components are the causal and the acausal... "An aeon is a manifestation, in the causal, of a particular type of acausal energy. This energy re-orders, or the causal; these changes have certain limits -- in causal time. That is, they have a specific beginning and a specific end. A civilization is how this energy becomes ordered or manifests itself in the causal: how this energy is revealed. A civilization represents the practical changes which this energy causes in the causal -in terms of the effect such energy has on individuals and this planet. A civilization is tied to, is born from, a particular aeon. By the nature of this energy, a civilization is an evolution of life – a move toward a more complex, thus more conscious existence..."Aeon may be an archaic name for omnipotent beings, such as gods. In many Gnostic systems, the various emanations of God, known by such names as the One, the Monad, Aion teleos, Proarkhe, the Arkhe, "Sophia", Christos are called Aeons.

In the different systems these emanations are differently named and described, but the emanation theory itself is common to all forms of Gnosticism. In the Basilidian Gnosis they are called sonships. In the Greek Magical Papyri, the term "Aion" is used to denote the All, or the supreme aspect of God. Aion Kalpa Plato Saeculum, comparable Latin concept

Francois Brummer

Francois Brummer is a South African rugby union player for Zebre in the Pro14. His regular playing position is fly-half. Brummer came through the youth ranks at the Blue Bulls and went on to make 45 senior appearances in Pretoria, however these were confined to the Vodacom Cup competition, he was part of the Bulls squad for the 2010 and 2011 Super Rugby season's although he only played in 5 matches. The lack of activity saw him switch to the Griquas in 2012 and he was the Peacock Blues regular fly-half until the end of 2015; the 2014 Vodacom Cup semi-final match against the Pumas, Brummer set a new domestic record for the fastest drop-goal in a match when he scored one after just 20 seconds. Solid performances for the Griquas saw him named in the Cheetahs squad for the 2013 Super Rugby season and so far he has made one appearance for the men from Bloemfontein. Brummer joined Nelspruit-based side the Pumas for the 2016 season, he joined Super Rugby franchise the Bulls on loan for the 2016 Super Rugby season, rejoining the side from Pretoria where he made five Super Rugby appearances.

Brummer joined Japanese Top League side Toyota Industries Shuttles for the 2017–18 Top League season. He moved to Italian Pro14 side Zebre prior to the 2018–19 season. Brummer played for South Africa Under-19 in the 2007 Under 19 Rugby World Championship and South Africa Under-20 in the 2008 and 2009 IRB Junior World Championships, he is the leading South African points scorer in the history of the IRB Junior World Championship. In 2016, he was included in a South Africa'A' squad that played a two-match series against a touring England Saxons team, he came on as a replacement in their first match in Bloemfontein and scored his side's first try within two minutes of coming on and converted three tries, but ended on the losing side as the visitors ran out 32–24 winners. He started the second match of the series, kicking two conversions in a 26–29 defeat to the Saxons in George