Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe. Though the term Western Europe is used, there is no agreed-upon definition of the countries that it encompasses. Significant historical events that have shaped the concept of Western Europe include the rise of Rome, the adoption of Greek culture during the Roman Republic, the adoption of Christianity by Roman Emperors, the division of the Latin West and Greek East, the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, the reign of Charlemagne, the Viking invasions, the East–West Schism, the Black Death, the Renaissance, the Age of Discovery, the Protestant Reformation as well as the Counter-Reformation of the Catholic Church, the Age of Enlightenment, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, the two world wars, the Cold War, the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the expansion of the European Union. Prior to the Roman conquest, a large part of Western Europe had adopted the newly developed La Tène culture; as the Roman domain expanded, a cultural and linguistic division appeared between the Greek-speaking eastern provinces, which had formed the urbanized Hellenistic civilization, the western territories, which in contrast adopted the Latin language.
This cultural and linguistic division was reinforced by the political east-west division of the Roman Empire. The Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire controlled the two divergent regions between the 3rd and the 5th centuries; the division between these two was enhanced during Late antiquity and the Middle Ages by a number of events. The Western Roman Empire collapsed. By contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire known as the Greek or Byzantine Empire and thrived for another 1000 years; the rise of the Carolingian Empire in the west, in particular the Great Schism between Eastern Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism, enhanced the cultural and religious distinctiveness between Eastern and Western Europe. After the conquest of the Byzantine Empire, center of the Eastern Orthodox Church, by the Muslim Ottoman Empire in the 15th century, the gradual fragmentation of the Holy Roman Empire, the division between Roman Catholic and Protestant became more important in Europe than that with Eastern Orthodoxy.
In East Asia, Western Europe was known as taixi in China and taisei in Japan, which translates as the "Far West". The term Far West became synonymous with Western Europe in China during the Ming dynasty; the Italian Jesuit priest Matteo Ricci was one of the first writers in China to use the Far West as an Asian counterpart to the European concept of the Far East. In Ricci's writings, Ricci referred to himself as "Matteo of the Far West"; the term was still in use in the late early 20th centuries. Christianity is still the largest religion in Western Europe, according to a 2018 study by the Pew Research Center, 71.0% of the Western European population identified themselves as Christians. The East–West Schism, which has lasted since the 11th century, divided Christianity in Europe, the world, into Western Christianity and Eastern Christianity. With certain simplifications, Western Europe is thus Catholic or Protestant and uses the Latin alphabet. Eastern Europe uses the Greek alphabet or Cyrillic script.
According to this definition, Western Europe is formed by countries with dominant Roman Catholic and Protestant churches, including countries which are considered part of Central Europe now: Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia, Sweden and United Kingdom. Eastern Europe, meanwhile is formed by countries with dominant Eastern Orthodox churches, including Greece, Bulgaria, Romania and Ukraine for instance; the schism is the break of communion and theology between what are now the Eastern and Western churches. This division dominated Europe for centuries, in opposition to the rather short-lived Cold War division of four decades. Since the Great Schism of 1054, Europe has been divided between Roman Catholic and Protestant churches in the West and the Eastern Orthodox Christian churches in the east. Due to this religious cleavage, Eastern Orthodox countries are associated with Eastern Europe. A cleavage of this sort is, however problematic.
During the four decades of the Cold War, the definition of East and West was rather simplified by the existence of the Eastern Bloc. Historians and social scientists view the Cold War definition of Western and Eastern Europe as outdated or relegating. During the final stages of World War II, the future of Europe was decided between the Allies in the 1945 Yalta Conference, between the British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, the U. S. President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Premier of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin. Post-war Europe would be divided into two major spheres: the Western Bloc, influenced by the United States, the Eastern Bloc, influenced by the Soviet Union. With the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided by the Iron Curtain; this term had been used during World War II by German Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels and Count Lutz Schwerin von Krosigk in the last days of the war.
Human taxonomy is the classification of the human species within zoological taxonomy. The systematic genus, Homo, is designed to include both anatomically modern humans and extinct varieties of archaic humans. Current humans have been designated as subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens, differentiated from the direct ancestor, Homo sapiens idaltu. Since the introduction of systematic names in the 18th century, knowledge of human evolution has increased drastically, a number of intermediate taxa have been proposed in the 20th to early 21st century; the most accepted taxonomy groups takes the genus Homo as originating between two and three million years ago, divided into at least two species, archaic Homo erectus and modern Homo sapiens, with about a dozen further suggestions for species without universal recognition. The genus Homo is placed in the tribe Hominini alongside Pan; the two genera are estimated to have diverged over an extended time of hybridization spanning 10 to 6 million years ago, with possible admixture as late as 4 million years ago.
A subtribe of uncertain validity, grouping archaic "pre-human" or "para-human" species younger than the Homo-Pan split is Australopithecina. A proposal by Wood and Richmond would introduce Hominina as a subtribe alongside Australopithecina, with Homo the only known genus within Hominina. Alternatively, following Cela-Conde and Ayala, the "pre-human" or "proto-human" genera of Australopithecus, Ardipithecus and Sahelanthropus may be placed on equal footing alongside the genus Homo. An more radical view rejects the division of Pan and Homo as separate genera, which based on the Principle of Priority would imply the re-classification of chimpanzees as Homo paniscus. Prior to the current scientific classification of humans and scientists have made various attempts to classify humans, they offered definitions of schemes for classifying types of humans. Biologists once classified races as subspecies, but today anthropologists reject the concept of race and view humanity as an interrelated genetic continuum.
Taxonomy of the hominins continues to evolve. Human taxonomy on one hand involves the placement of humans within the Taxonomy of the hominids, on the other the division of archaic and modern humans into species and, if applicable, subspecies. Modern zoological taxonomy was developed by Carl Linnaeus during the 1730s to 1750s, he named the human species as Homo sapiens in 1758, as the only member species of the genus Homo, divided into several subspecies corresponding to the great races. The Latin noun homō means "human being"; the systematic name Hominidae for the family of the great apes was introduced by John Edward Gray. Gray supplied Hominini as the name of the tribe including both chimpanzees and humans; the discovery of the first extinct archaic human species from the fossil record dates to the mid 19th century, Homo neanderthalensis, classified in 1864. Since a number of other archaic species have been named, but there is no universal consensus as to their exact number. After the discovery of H. neanderthalensis, which if "archaic" is recognizable as human, late 19th to early 20th century anthropology for a time was occupied with finding the "missing link" between Homo and Pan.
The "Piltdown Man" hoax of 1912 was the presentation of such a transitional species. Since the mid-20th century, knowledge of the development of Hominini has become much more detailed, taxonomical terminology has been altered a number of times to reflect this; the introduction of Australopithecus as a third genus, alongside Homo and Pan, in the Hominini tribe is due to Raymond Dart. Australopithecina as a subtribe containing Australopithecus as well as Paranthropus is a proposal by Gregory & Hellman. More proposed additions to the Australopithecina subtribe include Ardipithecus and Kenyanthropus; the position of Sahelanthropus relative to Australopithecina within Hominini is unclear. Cela-Conde and Ayala propose the recognition of Australopithecus, Ardipithecus and Sahelanthropus as separate genera. Other proposed genera, now considered part of Homo, include: Pithecanthropus, Sinanthropus, Cyphanthropus Africanthropus,Telanthropus, Tchadanthropus; the genus Homo has been taken to originate some two million years ago since the discovery of stone tools in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, in the 1960s.
Homo habilis would be the first "human" species by definition, its type specimen being the OH 7 fossils. However, the discovery of more fossils of this type has opened up the debate on the delineation of H. habilis from Australopithecus. The LD 350-1 jawbone fossil discovered in 2013, dated to 2.8 Mya, has been argued as being transitional between the two. It is disputed whether H. habilis was the first hominin to use stone tools, as Australopithecus garhi, dated to c. 2.5 Mya, has been found along with stone tool implements. Fossil KNM-ER 1470 is now seen as either a third early species of Homo at about 2 million years ago, or alternatively as transitional between Australopithecus and Homo. Wood and Richmond proposed that Gray's tribe Hominini be designated as comprising all species after the chimpan
The Iberomaurusian is a backed bladelet lithic industry found near the coasts of Morocco and Tunisia. It is known from a single major site in Libya, the Haua Fteah, where the industry is locally known as the Eastern Oranian; the Iberomaurusian seems to have appeared around the time of the Last Glacial Maximum, somewhere between c. 25,000 and 22,500 cal BP. It would have lasted until the early Holocene c. 11,000 cal BP. The name of the Iberomaurusian means "of Iberia and Mauritania". Pallary coined this term to describe assemblages from the site of La Mouillah in the belief that the industry extended over the strait of Gibraltar into the Iberian peninsula; this theory is now discounted, but the name has stuck. Pallary described the industry based on material found at the site of l'Abri Mouillah. In Algeria and Libya, but not in Morocco, the industry is succeeded by the Capsian industry, whose origins are unclear; the Capsian is believed either to have spread into North-Africa from the Near East, or have evolved from the Iberomaurusian.
In Morocco and Western Algeria, the Iberomaurusian is succeeded by the Cardial culture after a long hiatus. Because the name of the Iberomaurusian implies Afro-European cultural contact now discounted, researchers have proposed other names: Mouillian or Mouillan, based on the site of La Mouillah; the Oranian, based on the Algerian region of Oran. The Epipalaeolithic; the Late Upper Palaeolithic. What follows is a timeline of all published radiocarbon dates from reliably Iberomaurusian contexts, excluding a number of dates produced in the 1960s and 1970s considered "highly doubtful". All dates and Before Present, are according to Hogue and Barton; the Tamar Hat date beyond 25,000 cal BP is tentative. In 2013, Iberomaurusian skeletons from the prehistoric sites of Taforalt and Afalou were analyzed for ancient DNA. All of the specimens belonged to maternal clades associated with either North Africa or the northern and southern Mediterranean littoral, indicating gene flow between these areas since the Epipaleolithic.
The ancient Taforalt individuals carried the mtDNA Haplogroup N subclades like U6, H, JT and V, which points to population continuity in the region dating from the Iberomaurusian period. In 2016 it has been identified mtDNA haplogroups H or U, T2b, JT or H14b1, J, J1c3f, H1, R0a1a, R0a2c, H2a1e1a, H2a2a1, H6a1a8, H14b1, U4a2b, U4c1, U6d3. Loosdrecht et al. analysed genome-wide data from seven ancient individuals from the Iberomaurusian Grotte des Pigeons site near Taforalt in eastern Morocco. The fossils were directly dated to between 13,900 calibrated years before present; the scientists found. The male specimens with sufficient nuclear DNA preservation belonged to the paternal haplogroup E1b1b1a1, with one skeleton bearing the E1b1b1a1b1 parent lineage to E-V13, one male specimen belonged to E1b1b; these Y-DNA clades are related to the E1b1b1b subhaplogroup, observed in skeletal remains belonging to the Epipaleolithic Natufian and Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures of the Levant. Maternally, the Taforalt remains bore the U6a and M1b mtDNA haplogroups, which are common among modern Afroasiatic-speaking populations in Africa.
A two-way admixture scenario using Natufian and modern West African samples as reference populations inferred that the seven Taforalt individuals are best modeled genetically as 63.5% Natufian-related and 36.5% Hadza-like ancestries, with no apparent gene flow from the Epigravettian culture of Paleolithic southern Europe. The scientists indicated that further ancient DNA testing at other Iberomaurusian archaeological sites would be necessary to determine whether the Taforalt samples were representative of the broader Iberomaurusian gene pool. Afroasiatic Urheimat Aterian Mushabian Taforalt Ifri N'Ammar Haua Fteah
Alpha is a 2018 American historical adventure film directed by Albert Hughes and written by Daniele Sebastian Wiedenhaupt, from a story by Hughes. The film stars Kodi Smit-McPhee as a young hunter who befriends an injured wolf during the last ice age, with Jóhannes Haukur Jóhannesson as his father; the wolf is played by a five-year-old Czechoslovakian Wolfdog. Principal photography lasted through that April; the film was delayed several times, before being released in the United States on August 17, 2018, by Sony Pictures Releasing. It has grossed over $99 million worldwide and received favorable reviews from critics, who praised the performances and cinematography. In Upper Paleolithic Europe 20,000 years ago, a small tribe of hunter-gatherers prepare for a hunting expedition to hunt for the coming winter's food. Tau, its chief, trains his teenage son Keda, accepting him and another boy to join the hunting party, his wife Rho worries that Keda is not ready. Tau tests Keda by having him kill a wild boar they've caught.
One night, the party's fire draws the attention of a large cave lion, which lunges through their circle, snatching Keda's friend before anyone can do anything. Hearing the fatal struggle in the darkness, the tribe gives him up for dead; the member is given a memorial service in the form of placing rocks to symbolize the passing of one's spirit to the afterlife. The hunters reach a herd of steppe bison, which they attempt to stampede off a cliff in relative success. Amidst the chaos, the chief bison rushes towards Keda and throws him over the edge, leaving him gripping the rough cliff edge with his hand. Keda loses his grip and falls to a further ledge where he appears to break his leg and is knocked unconscious. Tau attempts to climb down to him, but he is stopped by another member of the tribe who assures him in good faith that Keda is dead and there would be no way to reach him nonetheless; the tribe leaves and Tau performs another funeral ritual, stricken with grief. Keda is awoken by a vulture.
Keda tries to climb the rest of the way down the cliff. A sudden heavy rainfall causes the ravine below to flood. Losing his grip, Keda jumps into the water, he splints his injured foot before returning to the top of the cliff. Seeing the memorial cairn left by his tribe, he realizes he must travel back to the village by himself. Keda is attacked by a pack of wolves, but escapes up a tree and wounds one of them which the others leave behind. Keda cares for its injury. Gaining the wolf's trust, he gives it water and food, establishing himself as dominant by feeding himself first, he sets out for the village without the wolf. Their relationship grows, they learn to hunt animals together. Along the way, Keda names the wolf Alpha. One night, they are approached menacingly by a pack of wolves. Upon seeing Alpha, who steps forward to greet them, they recognize her; the pack run off and with Keda's blessing, Alpha joins them. Keda continues his journey alone as the season changes to winter. On a frozen lake, he encounters a pack of wolves feeding.
Recognizing Alpha, he runs to them. Alpha helps rescue him and they are reunited. Continuing the journey together, they find a man who has frozen outside his tent and scavenge a bow and arrow from it, they take refuge from cave hyenas in a cave where they are attacked by the same cave lion that killed Keda's friend. Alpha brutally fights Keda fires the arrow at the animal, killing it. However, Alpha now travels with difficulty. Meanwhile, an injured Keda begins to cough up blood; when Alpha cannot walk, Keda carries the wolf. Keda finds the village while nearly passing out from exhaustion and reunites with his shocked, but relieved parents; as the village healer tends to both Keda and Alpha's wounds, Alpha delivers a litter of puppies to Keda's surprise as Alpha is revealed to be a female. Alpha and her pups are formally grow up in the care of Alpha and Keda. In time, the tribe become one of domesticated wolves, hunting together. Kodi Smit-McPhee as Keda Jóhannes Haukur Jóhannesson as Tau Natassia Malthe as Rho Leonor Varela as Shaman Jens Hultén as Xi Mercedes de la Zerda as Nu Spencer Bogaert as Kappa Chuck as Alpha The film was first announced in September 2015, with Albert Hughes as director, produced by Studio 8.
The film uses the IMAX 3D format. Kodi Smit-McPhee was confirmed as its star in November 2015, other casting was finalized the following February. Filming took place in Drumheller and Vancouver, where a large set was built in Boundary Road near East Kent Avenue. Filming in Vancouver took place from February to May 2016, at Dinosaur Provincial Park near Patricia, Alberta in April 2016, in Iceland; the production was investigated after five Alberta bison were killed in the making of the film. Following an investigation, the American Humane Association denied its "No Animals Were Harmed" end-credit certification to the production. Two days before the film's release, PETA called for a boycott of the film. In June 2017, the film's title was changed from The Solutrean to Alpha; the term Solutrean is derived from Solutré. Set for a September 2017 release date, it was pushed back to March 2018. In December 2017, it was again delayed, this time to September 2018. In April 2018, the release date was moved up to August 17, 2018.
Alpha was released on DVD and Blu-ray on November 13, 2018. The home video release includes both the th
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
The Oldowan is the earliest widespread stone tool archaeological industry in prehistory. These early tools were simple made with one or a few flakes chipped off with another stone. Oldowan tools were used during the Lower Paleolithic period, 2.6 million years ago up until 1.7 million years ago, by ancient Hominin across much of Africa, South Asia, the Middle East and Europe. This technological industry was followed by the more sophisticated Acheulean industry. Oldowan is pre-dated by Lomekwian tools at a single site dated to 3.3 mya. It is not clear; the term Oldowan is taken from the site of Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania, where the first Oldowan lithics were discovered by the archaeologist Louis Leakey in the 1930s. However, some contemporary archaeologists and palaeoanthropologists prefer to use the term Mode 1 tools to designate pebble tool industries, with Mode 2 designating bifacially worked tools, Mode 3 designating prepared-core tools, so forth. Classification of Oldowan tools is still somewhat contentious.
Mary Leakey was the first to create a system to classify Oldowan assemblages, built her system based on prescribed use. The system included choppers and pounders. However, more recent classifications of Oldowan assemblages have been made that focus on manufacture due to the problematic nature of assuming use from stone artefacts. An example is Isaac et al.'s tri-modal categories of "Flaked Pieces", "Detached Pieces", "Pounded Pieces" and "Unmodified Pieces". Oldowan tools are sometimes called "pebble tools", so named because the blanks chosen for their production resemble, in pebble form, the final product, it is not known for sure which hominin species used Oldowan tools. Its emergence is associated with the species Australopithecus garhi and its flourishing with early species of Homo such as H. habilis and H. ergaster. Early Homo erectus appears to inherit Oldowan technology and refines it into the Acheulean industry beginning 1.7 million years ago. The oldest known Oldowan tools have been found in Gona and are dated to about 2.6 mya.
The use of tools by apes including chimpanzees and orangutans can be used to argue in favour of tool-use as an ancestral feature of the hominin family. Tools made from bone, wood, or other organic materials were therefore in all probability used before the Oldowan. Oldowan stone tools are the oldest recognisable tools which have been preserved in the archaeological record. There is a flourishing of Oldowan tools in eastern Africa, spreading to southern Africa, between 2.4 and 1.7 mya. At 1.7 mya. the first Acheulean tools appear as Oldowan assemblages continue to be produced. Both technologies are found in the same areas, dating to the same time periods; this realisation required a rethinking of old cultural sequences in which the more "advanced" Acheulean was supposed to have succeeded the Oldowan. The different traditions may have been used by different species of hominins living in the same area, or multiple techniques may have been used by an individual species in response to different circumstances.
Sometime before 1.8 mya Homo erectus had spread outside of Africa, reaching as far east as Java by 1.8 mya and in Northern China by 1.66 mya. In these newly colonised areas, no Acheulean assemblages have been found. In China, only "Mode 1" Oldowan assemblages were produced, while in Indonesia stone tools from this age are unknown. By 1.8 mya early Homo was present in Europe, as shown by the discovery of fossil remains and Oldowan tools in Dmanisi, Georgia. Remains of their activities have been excavated in Spain at sites in the Guadix-Baza basin and near Atapuerca. Most early European sites yield "Mode 1" or Oldowan assemblages; the earliest Acheulean sites in Europe only appear around 0.5 mya. In addition, the Acheulean tradition does not seem to spread to Eastern Asia, it is unclear from the archaeological record. Other tool-making traditions seem to have supplanted Oldowan technologies by 0.25 mya. To obtain an Oldowan tool, a spherical hammerstone is struck on the edge, or striking platform, of a suitable core rock to produce a conchoidal fracture with sharp edges useful for various purposes.
The process is called lithic reduction. The chip removed by the blow is the flake. Below the point of impact on the core is a characteristic bulb with fine fissures on the fracture surface; the flake evidences ripple marks. The materials of the tools were for the most part quartz, basalt, or obsidian, flint and chert. Any rock that can hold an edge will do; the main source of these rocks is river cobbles, which provide both hammer stones and striking platforms. The earliest tools were split cobbles, it is not always clear, the flake. Tool-makers identified and reworked flakes. Complaints that artifacts could not be distinguished from fractured stone have helped spark careful studies of Oldowon techniques; these techniques have now been duplicated many times by archaeologists and other knappers, making misidentification of archaeological finds less likely. Use of bone tools by hominins producing Oldowan tools is known from Swartkrans, where a bone shaft with a polished point was discovered in Member I, dated 1.8–1.5 mya.
The Osteodontokeratic industry, the "bone-tooth-horn" industry hypothesized by Raymond Dart, is less certain. Mary Leakey classified the Oldowan tools as Heavy Duty, Light Duty, Utilized Pieces and Debitage, or waste. Heav
The Hamburg culture or Hamburgian was a Late Upper Paleolithic culture of reindeer hunters in northwestern Europe during the last part of the Weichsel Glaciation beginning during the Bölling interstadial. Sites are found close to the ice caps of the time, they extend as far north as the Pomeranian ice margin. The Hamburg Culture has been identified at many places, for example, the settlement at Meiendorf and Ahrensburg north of Hamburg, Germany, it is characterized by shouldered points and zinken tools, which were used as chisels when working with antler. In periods tanged Havelte-type points appear, sometimes described as most of all a northwestern phenomenon. Notwithstanding the spread over a large geographical area in which a homogeneous development is not to be expected, the definition of the Hamburgian as a technological complex of its own has not been questioned; the culture spread from northern France to southern Scandinavia in the north and to Poland in the east. In Britain a related culture is called Creswellian.
In the early 1980s, the first find from the culture in Scandinavia was excavated at Jels in Sønderjylland. New finds have been discovered at, for example, Finja in northern Skåne; the latest findings have shown that these people travelled far north along the Norwegian coast dryshod during the summer, since the sea level was 50 metres lower than today. In northern Germany, camps with layers of detritus have been found. In the layers, there is a great deal of horn and bone, it appears that the reindeer was an important prey; the distribution of the finds in the settlements show that the settlements were small and only inhabited by a small group of people. At a few settlements, archaeologists have discovered circles of stones, interpreted as weights for a teepee covering. Federmesser culture Alfred Rust Creswellian Ahrensburg culture Nationalencyklopedin