Ernest Gaston Joseph Solvay was a Belgian chemist and philanthropist. Born at Rebecq, he was prevented by acute pleurisy from going to university and he worked in his uncles chemical factory from the age of 21. In 1861, he developed the process for the manufacturing of soda ash from brine and limestone. The process was an improvement over the earlier Leblanc process and he founded the company Solvay & Cie and established his first factory at Couillet in 1863 and further perfected the process until 1872, when he patented it. Soon, Solvay process plants were established in the United Kingdom, about 70 Solvay process plants are still operational worldwide. In 1903, he founded the Solvay Business School which is part of the Free University of Brussels. A conference would include Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Max Born and he was twice elected to the Belgian Senate for the Liberal Party and granted honorary title of Minister of State at the end of his life. Solvay, New York and Rosignano Solvay, the locations of the first Solvay process plants in the United States, Solvay died at Ixelles at the age of 84 and is interred there in the Ixelles Cemetery.
1918, Minister of State, By Royal Decree,1918, Grand Cordon in the Order of Leopold, by Royal Decree. Solvay Institute of Sociology Emile Waxweiler Solvay Hut Bertrand, een hervormer op maatschappelijk gebied, Agence Dechenne,1918,113 p. Boianovsky, Erreygers, Social comptabilism and pure credit systems. Solvay and Wicksell on monetary reform, in, Philippe, Robert, The experiment in the history of economics, Routledge,2005, pp. 98–134. Studies of neglected thinkers of Belgium, The Netherlands and Scandinavia, Cheltenham-Northampton, Edward Elgar,1998, des rives de la Sambre aux confins de la terre, Didier Hatier,1989,187 p. Author not stated. Vie DErnest Solvay Bruxelles, Chez le Libraire Lamertin,1929,164 pp. Ten heliogravures Soft cover, media related to Ernest Solvay at Wikimedia Commons Quotations related to Ernest Solvay at Wikiquote
Swiss Alpine Club
The Swiss Alpine Club is the largest mountaineering club in Switzerland. It was founded in 1863 in Olten and it is now composed of 111 sections with 110,000 members and these include the Association of British Members of the Swiss Alpine Club. The Swiss Alpine Club was the first Alpine club founded in continental Europe after the foundation of the Alpine Club in London, one of the founders and the first president of the Club was Dr. Melchior Ulrich, other members were Gottlieb Samuel Studer and Dr. Simler. The inaugural meeting was held in Olten, with the increasing number of climbers, steps had to be taken to make the approach to the mountains a little less complicated and exhausting. The Matterhorn hut was built in 1865, the Mountet in 1871, the Weisshorn Hut in 1876, the Concordia on the Aletsch glacier,1863, Foundation of the club, after the Alpine Club and the Austrian Alpine Club. The total effectives reach 75‘600 members, Association of British Members of the Swiss Alpine Club
First ascent of the Matterhorn
Douglas, Hudson and Croz were killed on the descent when Hadow slipped and pulled the other three with him down the north face. The ascent followed a series of usually separate attempts by Edward Whymper. Carrels group had been 200 m below the summit on the Italian site when Croz, the climbers from Valtournenche withdrew deflated, but three days Carrel and Jean-Baptiste Bich reached the summit without incident. The Matterhorn was the last great Alpine peak to be climbed, in the summer of 1860, Edward Whymper, an athletic, twenty-year-old English artist, visited the Alps for the first time. He had been hired by a London publisher to make sketches and engravings of the mountains along the border of Switzerland. He was soon interested in mountaineering and decided to attempt the yet unconquered Matterhorn, Whymper soon found that Jean-Antoine Carrel, an Italian guide from the Valtournanche, had attempted to be the first to reach the summit of the Matterhorn since 1857. In 1865, weary of the defeats he had sustained on the south-west ridge, the stratification of the rocks on the east face seemed to him favourable, and the slope not excessive.
However, when route was attempted, the mountain discharged an avalanche of stone upon the climbers. His guides refused to make any attempts by this route. In the meantime Carrel had spoken with Whymper and had engaged himself for an attempt on the Swiss side, Carrel was engaged to the Englishman until Tuesday, the 11th, inclusive, if the weather were fine, but the weather turned bad and he was thus free. On the morning of the 9th, Whymper, as he was descending to Valtournanche, was surprised to meet Carrel with a traveler, who was coming up with a great deal of baggage. Whymper was unable to make his attempt, and Carrel left him and came with me. We immediately sent off our advance guard, with Carrel at its head, in order not to excite remark we took the rope and other materials to Avouil, a hamlet which is very remote and close to the Matterhorn, and this is to be our lower base. Out of six men, four are to work -up above, I have taken up my quarters at Breuil for the time being. The weather, the god whom we fear and on whom all will depend, has been hitherto very changeable, weather permitting, I hope in three or four days to know how I stand.
Carrel told me not to come up yet, until he should send me word, naturally he wishes to personally make sure of the last bits. As soon as I have any good news I will send a message to St. Vincent, the nearest telegraph office, with a telegram containing a few words, and do you come at once. Meanwhile, on receipt of the present, please me a few lines in reply, with some advice, because I am head over ears in difficulty here, what with the weather, the expense
Zermatt is a municipality in the district of Visp in the German-speaking section of the canton of Valais in Switzerland. It has a population of about 5,800 inhabitants, the town lies at the upper end of Mattertal at an elevation of 1,620 m, at the foot of Switzerlands highest peaks. It lies about 10 km from the over 10,800 ft high Theodul Pass bordering Italy, Zermatt is famed as a mountaineering and ski resort of the Swiss Alps. The year round population is 5,759, though there may be several times as many tourists in Zermatt at any one time. Much of the economy is based on tourism, with about half of the jobs in town in hotels or restaurants. Just over one-third of the permanent population was born in the town, the name of Zermatt, as well as that of the Matterhorn itself, derives from the alpine meadows, or matten, in the valley. The name appeared first as Zur Matte and became Zermatt and it does not appear until 1495 on a map or 1546 in a text, but may have been employed long before. Praborno or Prato Borno are the names of Zermatt, they appear in the ancient maps as early as the thirteenth century.
The Romand-speaking people from the Aosta Valley and from the Romand-speaking part of canton Wallis used this name until about 1860 in the form of Praborne, the reason of this change from Praborno to Zermatt is attributed to the gradual replacement of the Romance-speaking people by German-speaking colony. The town of Zermatt lies at the end of the Matter Valley. Zermatt is almost completely surrounded by the mountains of the Pennine Alps among which Monte Rosa. It is followed by the Dom, Lyskamm and the Matterhorn, most of the Alpine four-thousanders are located around Zermatt or in the neighbouring valleys. The town of Zermatt, while dense, is geographically small, there are three main streets which run along the banks of the river Matter Vispa, and numerous cross-streets, especially around the station and the church which forms the centre of Zermatt. In general anything is at most a thirty-minute walk away, there are several suburbs within Zermatt. Winkelmatten, which was once a hamlet, lies on a hill on the southern side.
Steinmatten is located on the bank of the main river. Many hamlets are located in the valleys above Zermatt, however they are not usually inhabited all year round, zum See lies south of Zermatt on the west bank of the Gorner gorge, near Furi where a cable car station is located. On the side of Zmutt valley lies the hamlet of Zmutt, findeln is located in the eastern valley above the Findelbach river
A mountain hut is a building located high in the mountains, generally accessible only by foot, intended to provide food and shelter to mountaineers and hikers. Mountain huts are usually operated by an Alpine Club or some organisation dedicated to hiking or mountain recreation, Mountain huts can provide a range of services, starting with shelter and simple sleeping berths. Mountain huts usually allow anybody to access their facilities, although some require reservations, the Swiss Alpine Club has built huts since 1863. In the United States, the Appalachian Mountain Club built its first hut at Madison Spring in New Hampshire in 1888-89, the construction of refuges and shelters in the Alps date back to ancient times, when Roman roads led across the mountain passes. In the High Middle Ages, hospitales were erected along the routes, cottages. The long history of mountaineering from the 19th century onwards has led to a number of Alpine club huts as well as private huts along the mountaineering paths.
These huts are categorised according to their location and facilities and they may have beds or a mattress room for overnight stays. Many climbing clubs in the UK have such huts in Snowdonia or in the Lake District, a well-known example is the Charles Inglis Clark Memorial Hut under the northern crags of Ben Nevis in Scotland - this is a purpose-built hut, high up the mountain. In the Slovakia there is a network of mountain huts in most mountain and forest regions. In the past they were managed by the official tourist union, official mountain huts are similar to guest houses and are run by full-time managers. The Norwegian Trekking Association operates about 460 cabins mostly in the mountains and in forested areas, many cabins are unstaffed and open all year, while the staffed cabins often are just open during summer. In Poland most of mountains shelters and huts are run by PTTK - Polish Tourist Society, only few of shelters belong to private investors. Most of mountains shelters offer only common sleeping rooms and refreshments, Polish mountain huts are obliged by their own regulations to overnight each person who is not able to find any other place before sunset, though the conditions may be tough.
The hut shall provide each tourist or hiker with free boiling water for hot drinks, there are many huts in the United States, in the Rocky Mountains, the Appalachian Mountains and other ranges. There are many mountain huts throughout Maine, the Alpine Club of Canada operates what it calls the largest network of backcountry huts in North America. The New Zealand Department of Conservation manages a network of over 950 huts of all shapes and sizes, the mountains of Asia do not have a well-developed system of public mountain huts, although hiking and mountain climbing are common. In 2015, a competition was launched to design huts that could be located along trekking trails of Nepal
A radiotelephone is a communications system for transmission of speech over radio. Radiotelephone systems are not necessarily interconnected with the land line telephone network. Radiotelephony means transmission of sound by radio, in contrast to radiotelegraphy or video transmission, the word phone has a long precedent beginning with early US wireless voice systems. The term means voice as opposed to telegraph or Morse code and this would include systems fitting into the category of two-way radio or one-way voice broadcasts such as coastal maritime weather. The term is popular in the amateur radio community and in US Federal Communications Commission regulations. A standard landline telephone allows both users to talk and listen simultaneously, effectively there are two channels between the two end-to-end users of the system. It is, the most comfortable method of communication for users. The most common method of working for radiotelephones is half-duplex, which one person to talk. If a single channel is used, both take turns to transmit on it.
An eavesdropper would hear both sides of the conversation, dual-frequency working splits the communication into two separate channels, but only one is used to transmit at a time. The end users have the experience as single frequency simplex. The user presses a switch on the transmitter when they wish to talk—this is called the press-to-talk switch or PTT. It is usually fitted on the side of the microphone or other obvious position, users may use a special code-word such as over to signal that they have finished transmitting, or it may follow from the conversation. Radiotelephones may operate at any frequency where they are licensed to do so and they may use simple modulation schemes such as AM or FM, or more complex techniques such as digital coding, spread spectrum, and so on. Licensing terms for a band will usually specify the type of modulation to be used. For example, airband radiotelephones used for air to ground communication between pilots and controllers operates in the VHF band from 118.0 to 136.975 MHz, Radiotelephone receivers are usually designed to a very high standard, and are usually of the double-conversion superhet design.
Multiple channels are provided using a frequency synthesizer. Receivers usually features a squelch circuit to cut off the output from the receiver when there is no transmission to listen to
The Matterhorn is a mountain of the Alps, straddling the main watershed and border between Switzerland and Italy. It is a huge and near-symmetrical pyramidal peak in the extended Monte Rosa area of the Pennine Alps, whose summit is 4,478 metres high, making it one of the highest summits in the Alps and Europe. The four steep faces, rising above the glaciers, face the four compass points and are split by the Hörnli, Leone. The mountain overlooks the Swiss town of Zermatt in the canton of Valais to the north-east, just east of the Matterhorn is Theodul Pass, the main passage between the two valleys on its north and south sides and a trade route since the Roman Era. The Matterhorn was studied by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure in the eighteenth century. It remained unclimbed after most of the other great Alpine peaks had been attained, the first ascent of the Matterhorn was finally made in 1865 from Zermatt by a party led by Edward Whymper but ended disastrously when four of its members fell to their deaths on the descent.
That climb and disaster, portrayed in films, marked the end of the golden age of alpinism. The north face was not climbed until 1931, and is amongst the three biggest north faces of the Alps, known as the ‘The Trilogy’, the west face, which is the highest of the four, was completely climbed only in 1962. It is estimated that over 500 alpinists have died on the Matterhorn since the first climb in 1865, making it one of the deadliest peaks in the world. The current shape of the mountain is the result of erosion due to multiple glaciers diverging from the peak, such as the Matterhorn Glacier at the base of the north face. Sometimes referred to as the Mountain of Mountains, the Matterhorn has become an emblem of the Swiss Alps. Since the end of the 19th century, when railways were built in the area, each year a large number of mountaineers try to climb the Matterhorn from the Hörnli Hut via the northeast Hörnli ridge, the most popular route to the summit. Many trekkers undertake the 10-day-long circuit around the mountain, the Matterhorn is part of the Swiss Federal Inventory of Natural Monuments since 1983.
Decomposing Matterhorn yields Matter and Horn, here Matter is Matte in the case. Commonly, prepositions related to Zermatt are dropped as in Matterhorn, Mattertal, in Sebastian Münsters Cosmography, published in 1543, the name Matter is given to the Theodul Pass, which seems to be the origin of the present German name of the mountain. On Münsters topographical map this group is marked under the names of Augstalberg, the French name Cervin, from which the Italian term Cervino derives, stems from the Latin Mons Silvanus where silva, means forest which was corrupted to Selvin and Servin. The change of the first letter s to c is attributed to Horace Bénédict de Saussure, servius Galba, in order to carry out Caesars orders, came with his legions from Allobroges to Octodurum in the Valais, and pitched his camp there. It is unknown when the new name of Servin, or Cervin, replaced the old, the Matterhorn is named Gran Becca by the Valdôtains and Horu by the local Walliser German speaking people