A solved game is a game whose outcome can be predicted from any position, assuming that both players play perfectly. This concept is applied to abstract strategy games, to games with full information and no element of chance. A two-player game can be solved on several levels: Ultra-weak Prove whether the first player will win, lose or draw from the initial position, given perfect play on both sides; this can be a non-constructive proof that need not determine any moves of the perfect play. Weak Provide an algorithm that secures a win for one player, or a draw for either, against any possible moves by the opponent, from the beginning of the game; that is, produce at least one complete ideal game with proof that each move is optimal for the player making it. It does not mean a computer program using the solution will play optimally against an imperfect opponent. For example, the checkers program Chinook will never turn a drawn position into a losing position, but it might turn a winning position into a drawn position because Chinook does not expect the opponent to play a move that will not win but could lose, so it does not analyze such moves completely.
Strong Provide an algorithm that can produce perfect moves from any position if mistakes have been made on one or both sides. Despite their name, many game theorists believe that "ultra-weak" proofs are the deepest, most interesting and valuable. "Ultra-weak" proofs require a scholar to reason about the abstract properties of the game, show how these properties lead to certain outcomes if perfect play is realized. By contrast, "strong" proofs proceed by brute force—using a computer to exhaustively search a game tree to figure out what would happen if perfect play were realized; the resulting proof gives an optimal strategy for every possible position on the board. However, these proofs are not as helpful in understanding deeper reasons why some games are solvable as a draw, other very similar games are solvable as a win. Given the rules of any two-person game with a finite number of positions, one can always trivially construct a minimax algorithm that would exhaustively traverse the game tree.
However, since for many non-trivial games such an algorithm would require an infeasible amount of time to generate a move in a given position, a game is not considered to be solved weakly or unless the algorithm can be run by existing hardware in a reasonable time. Many algorithms rely on a huge pre-generated database, are nothing more; as an example of a strong solution, the game of tic-tac-toe is solvable as a draw for both players with perfect play. Games like nim admit a rigorous analysis using combinatorial game theory. Whether a game is solved is not the same as whether it remains interesting for humans to play. A solved game can still be interesting if its solution is too complex to be memorized. An ultra-weak solution does not affect playability. Moreover if the game is not solved, it is possible that an algorithm yields a good approximate solution: for instance, an article in Science from January 2015 claims that their heads up limit Texas hold'em poker bot Cepheus guarantees that a human lifetime of play is not sufficient to establish with statistical significance that its strategy is not an exact solution.
In game theory, perfect play is the behavior or strategy of a player that leads to the best possible outcome for that player regardless of the response by the opponent. Perfect play. Based on the rules of a game, every possible final position can be evaluated. By backward reasoning, one can recursively evaluate a non-final position as identical to the position, one move away and best valued for the player whose move it is, thus a transition between positions can never result in a better evaluation for the moving player, a perfect move in a position would be a transition between positions that are evaluated. As an example, a perfect player in a drawn position would always win, never a loss. If there are multiple options with the same outcome, perfect play is sometimes considered the fastest method leading to a good result, or the slowest method leading to a bad result. Perfect play can be generalized to non-perfect information games, as the strategy that would guarantee the highest minimal expected outcome regardless of the strategy of the opponent.
As an example, the perfect strategy for rock paper scissors would be to randomly choose each of the options with equal probability. The disadvantage in this example is that this strategy will never exploit non-optimal strategies of the opponent, so the expected outcome of this strategy versus any strategy will always be equal to the minimal expected outcome. Although the optimal strategy of a game may not be known, a game-playing computer might still benefit from solutions of the game from certain endgame positions, which will allow it to play after some point in the game. Computer chess programs are well known for doing this. Awari The variant of Oware allowing game ending "grand slams" was solved by Henri Bal and John Romein at the
The Old Fire was a large complex wildfire that started on October 21, 2003, near Old Waterman Canyon Road and California State Route 18 in the San Bernardino Mountains, in San Bernardino County, Southern California, United States. The Old Fire caused at least $1.2 billion in damages. The Old Fire was one of 15 wildfires throughout Southern California that month, which became known as the "2003 Firestorm" and the "Fire Siege of 2003." This included the huge Cedar Fire, what was the second-largest fire in California's history after the Santiago Canyon Fire of 1889. Fanned by the Santa Ana winds, the Old Fire burned 91,281 acres, destroyed 993 homes, caused six deaths; the fire threatened San Bernardino and Highland, as well as the mountain resort communities of Cedar Glen, Running Springs and Lake Arrowhead and forcing upwards of 80,000 residents to evacuate their homes. Part of California State University, San Bernardino burned during the fire; the fire was contained on November 2, 2003 with the help of rain and snow.
The final cost of fighting the fire was $42 million. The Lake Arrowhead community is now part of a Redevelopment Agency, controlled by a Board of Supervisors. A United States Forest Service report on the "true" combined costs of the 2003 Old Fire and the Grand Prix wildfires was nearly $1.3 billion. When cleanup, watershed damages and other costs are considered beyond the expenses for firefighting and property damage, wildfire impacts are much higher. About 750,000 acres were blackened across five southern California counties. In 2009, Rickie Lee Fowler was charged with igniting the Old Fire. Authorities charged that he was a passenger in a white van seen leaving the area where the fire started, that Fowler was the person seen throwing a lit flare into brush by the side of the road; the driver of the van, Martin David Valdez, Jr. died of a gunshot wound in 2006. A grand jury indicted Fowler on October 19, 2009, with one count of arson of an inhabited structure, one count of aggravated arson, five counts of murder, based on five residents in the burn evacuation areas who died of heart attacks.
Although a sixth man died of a heart attack after the fire was set, prosecutors were unable to directly link that death to the stress of the fire. Although the fire stripped the soil of vegetation and destabilized the slopes, no one was charged in the deaths of fourteen people killed two months when a mudslide ripped through a camp in Waterman Canyon. On January 21, 2010, the San Bernardino County prosecutor announced that he would seek the death penalty. Fowler recanted his confession, saying that he had admitted to the crime only to appease authorities so that he could be transferred to a prison closer to his mother. In September 2011, Fowler moved to dismiss the indictment because the prosecutors had failed to present exculpatory evidence to the grand jury. In January 2012, he was discussing a plea bargain, but no plea bargain was reached and the case went to trial; the trial started July 2012 in San Bernardino. Rescheduled from January, Prosecutors charged special circumstances which can bring the death penalty.
On August 15, 2012, Fowler was convicted of two counts of arson. On September 28, 2012, the jury returned a verdict of death; the death verdict was affirmed by the trial judge on January 28, 2013. On August 7, 2007, local newspapers reported that 25-year-old Jeremiah D. Hope, of Riverside, faced federal charges for starting a blaze that merged with the Old Fire. Authorities said Hope had been evacuated from his Crestline home when he and some friends off-roaded onto dry vegetation in order to get a better view of the Old Fire; the vehicle's catalytic converter sparked a second fire near Playground Road, which firefighters dubbed the Playground Fire. That fire consumed forest land and became part of the Old Fire. Hope faced misdemeanor counts of causing the national forest to burn without a permit and one count of placing a vehicle in a dangerous area; the victims identified were 93, of San Bernardino. All five victims died from indirect consequences of the fire, due to heart attacks brought on by physical or emotional strain.
2003 California wildfires List of California wildfires Fire ecology San Bernardino Mountains-related topics Wildfires in California-related topics Wildfire suppression Old Fire Burn Map Old Fire Final Update USDA Preliminary Report on Expenditures The Old Fire - One Year Later The Old Fire Photo Gallery The Old Fire Recovery Group Still Photos During First hours of The Old Fire in San Bernardino - Larry R. Erickson Jack A. Blackwell. "California Fire Siege 2003: The Story". CalFire. Retrieved December 11, 2017
Anne Lise Ådnøy is a Norwegian prelate, the current Bishop of Stavanger. Ådnøy was born on 30 August 1957 in Haga, Norway. She was ordained as a priest on 30 August 1984 for the Diocese of Agder og Telemark, she served as vicar in Kirkelandet and Frei between 1984 and 1985. She served as parish priest of Edøy Church, in 1993 became a youth priest at the Church in Hundvåg, Stavanger. Between 2003 and 2011 she served as parish priest of St. Petri Church in Stavanger, she became provost of Stavanger Cathedral in 2011 and remained there till her consecration as bishop on 17 March 2019
Hinderclay is a village and civil parish in the Mid Suffolk district of Suffolk in eastern England. The village is located around 14 miles - from Bury St Edmunds in an area of rolling arable land to the south of the Little Ouse river valley. Neighbouring villages include Rickinghall. In 2005 its population was 340; the parish contains the hamlet of Thorpe Street. The parish church is dedicated to St Mary and was thatched until 1842. Hinderclay Hall is to the south of the village. A tower mill used to stand in The Street, it was demolished either in 1920 or 1955. Two pubs used to exist in the village. First, the Bell is now known as Orchard House; the old pub was located close to a bend in the road still known locally as "Bells Corner" and secondly, the Crown. Nearby, on the edge of Hinderclay wood, were found the remains of an early Iron Age settlement. Roman pottery kilns were found in the wood; the village was recorded in Domesday as "Hilderclea". The northern boundary of the parish is marked by the River Little Ouse, with the area directly south of the river known as Hinderclay fen.
This used to form part of the Blo' Norton and Thelnetham Fen Site of Special Scientific Interest, a wetland site, but agricultural drainage caused the area to dry out. The area is managed by the Little Ouse Headwaters Project with the aim of reverting it to a more natural wetland state. Hinderclay Lakes, 900 metres east, are a good source of fishing and are being created by the extraction of peat, sold for garden use. Hinderclay Woods are located 1,300 metres southwest from the village centre. Thomas Fowle, rector 1561 to 1566. Thomas Carter, first pastor of Woburn, Massachusetts 1642-1684. Parish Council website Church website Suffolk Churches website
"I Don't Wanna" is a song by American singer Aaliyah. Written and composed by Johnta Austin, Jazze Pha, Donnie Scantz, Kevin Hicks, featuring production by Scantz and Hicks, it appears on both the Next Friday soundtrack and the Romeo Must Die soundtrack; the song was released in as a promotional airplay single in the United States only, where it reached number 35 on the Billboard Hot 100 and number 5 on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs charts. Internationally, "I Don't Wanna" was released as a double A-side with "Come Back in One Piece". Damien Scott from Complex felt that the song could've blended in well on Aaliyah's second studio album One in a Million. According to Scott "I Don't Wanna" was a sullen record that would have fit on One in a Million, thanks to its somber keys, halted delivery, abrasive honesty." He felt that it made for the perfect song for someone going through a break up. Quentin B. Huff from PopMatters praised the song saying, "I Don't Wanna" showcases an ode to rekindling love in a near-double time delivery, something like Usher's "Confessions, Part II" or Mariah Carey's "We Belong Together".
Aaliyah.com — official site Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
The Franklin O-200 was an American air-cooled aircraft engine of the early 1940s. The engine was of horizontally-opposed layout and displaced 200 cu in; the power output ranged between 65 100 hp depending on variant. The O-200-5 featured a geared propeller drive. 4AC-199 O-200-1 O-200-3 O-200-7 O-200-94ACG-199 O-200-5 CAP-1 Planalto CAP-5 Carioca Aeronca Arrow Babcock LC-11 Culver Cadet LAR-90 XPQ-8 TDC-1 target drone Interstate Cadet Langley Twin Monocoupe 90 Piasecki PV-2 Rearwin Skyranger Sackett Jeanie Stinson 10 Stinson L-9 Stout Skycar Convair Model 103 Spratt Tilt-Wing Goodyear Duck Interstate Cadet Interstate L-6 Piper PA-7 Skycoupe Data from Type: 4-cylinder air-cooled horizontally opposed aircraft piston engine Bore: 4.25 in Stroke: 3.5 in Displacement: 198.6 in³ Dry weight: 224 lb Cooling system: Air-cooled Power output: 102 hp at 3,500 rpm Comparable engines Continental O-200Related lists List of aircraft engines Notes Bibliography