The Solway Firth is a firth that forms part of the border between England and Scotland, between Cumbria and Dumfries and Galloway. It stretches from St Bees Head, just south of Whitehaven in Cumbria, to the Mull of Galloway, on the western end of Dumfries and Galloway; the Isle of Man is very near to the firth. The firth comprises part of the Irish Sea; the coastline is characterised by small mountains. It is a rural area with fishing and hill farming still playing a large part in the local economy, although tourism is increasing; the Solway Coast was designated an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty in 1964. Construction of Robin Rigg Wind Farm began in the firth in 2007; the water itself is benign with no notable hazards excepting some large areas of salt and mud flats, which contain dangerous patches of quicksand that move frequently. There are over 290 square kilometres of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in the area, as well as national nature reserves at Caerlaverock and in Cumbria. Salta Moss is one such SSSI.
On the Cumbrian side, much of the coastline is designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The Solway Coast AONB is split in two parts, the first runs from just north of Carlisle in a westerly direction as far as Skinburness, the second runs from the hamlet of Beckfoot in a southerly direction past Mawbray and Allonby as far as Crosscanonby; the honeycomb worm and blue mussel were designated as conservation targets in 2013, as Allonby Bay – an inlet of the Solway Firth – was put forward as a candidate for a Marine Conservation Zone. A 53-mile long-distance walking route, the Annandale Way, runs through Annandale, from the source of the River Annan, in the Moffat Hills, to the Solway Firth. Unlike other parts of the west coast of Scotland, the Solway Firth is devoid of islands. However, there are a few examples: Hestan Island Rough Island Little Ross The Isle of Whithorn is a peninsula; the Solway Firth forms the estuary of the River Esk. The following rivers flow into the firth: in England in Scotland The name'Solway' is of Scandinavian origin, was the name of a ford across the mud flats at Eskmouth.
The second element of the name is Old Norse vað'ford'. The first element is Old Norse súl'pillar', referring to the Lochmaben Stane, though súla'solan goose' is possible. Súl and súla both have long vowels, but the early spellings of Solway indicate a short vowel in the first element; this may be due to the shortening of an long vowel in the Middle English period but may represent an original short vowel. If this is the case, the first element may be *sulr, an unrecorded word cognate with Old English sol'muddy, pool' or a derivative of sulla'to swill'; the three fords in the area at that time were the Annan or Bowness Wath, the Dornock Wath, the main one was the Solewath, or Solewath, or Sulewad. In 1841 at Barnkirk Point a wooden structured light house was established, it was destroyed by fire in 1960. On 9 March 1876 a French 79 ton Lugger called the St. Pierre was stranded and declared lost on Blackshaw Bank, an ill-defined feature which extends for a considerable distance on both sides of the channel of the River Nith.
Between 1869 and 1921, the estuary was crossed by the Solway Junction Railway on a 1780 m iron viaduct. The line was built to carry iron ore from the Whitehaven area to Lanarkshire and was financed and operated by the Caledonian Railway of Scotland; the railway was not a financial success. After the railway ceased operating, the bridge provided a popular footpath for residents of Scotland to travel to England where alcoholic drink was available; the viaduct was demolished between 1931 and 1933. The Ministry of Defence had by 1999 fired more than 6,350 depleted uranium rounds into the Solway Firth from its testing range at Dundrennan Range; the Solway Firth has been used for the location of films such as The Wicker Man, filmed around Kirkcudbright and Burrow Head on the Wigtownshire coast. American metal band Slipknot released a song named after the Solway Firth in July 2019. Anglo-Scottish border Solway Plain Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust Solway Firth Spaceman Neilsen, George. "Annals of Solway — Until A.
D. 1307". In Forbes, Peter. Transactions of the Glasgow Archaeological Society. New Series. III. Glasgow: James Maclehose & Sons. Pp. 245–308. Ordnance Survey, Carlisle & Solway Firth, Landranger Map, No. 85, Ed. D, Scale 1:50 000, ISBN 0-319-22822-3 Ordnance Survey, Solway Firth, Explorer Map, No. 314, Ed. A2, Scale 1:25 000, ISBN 0-319-23839-3 Solway Shore Stories The Powfoot Spa
Christian G. Wolff is an American composer of experimental classical music. Wolff was born in Nice, France, to the German literary publishers Helen and Kurt Wolff, who had published works by Franz Kafka, Robert Musil, Walter Benjamin. After relocating to the U. S. in 1941, they helped to found Pantheon Books with other European intellectuals who had fled Europe during the rise of fascism. The Wolffs published a series of notable English translations of European literature as well as an edition of the I Ching that came to impress John Cage after Wolff had given him a copy. Wolff became an American citizen in 1946; when he was sixteen his piano teacher Grete Sultan sent him for lessons in composition to the new music composer John Cage. Wolff soon became a close associate of Cage and his artistic circle, part of the New York School and included the fellow composers Earle Brown and Morton Feldman, the pianist David Tudor, the dancer and choreographer Merce Cunningham. Cage relates several anecdotes about Wolff in his one-minute Indeterminacy pieces.
Self-taught as composer, Wolff studied music under Sultan and Cage. Wolff studied classics at Harvard University and became an expert on Euripides. Wolff taught Classics at Harvard until 1970. After nine years, he became Strauss Professor of Music there, he retired from teaching at Dartmouth in 1999. In 2004, he received an honorary degree from the California Institute of the Arts, he was awarded the Foundation for Contemporary Arts John Cage Award. Wolff has four children. Wolff's early compositional work included a lot of silence and was based on complicated rhythmic schema, on a system of aural cues, he innovated unique notational methods in his early scores and found creative ways of dealing with improvisation in his music. During the 1960s he developed associations with the composers Frederic Rzewski and Cornelius Cardew who spurred each other on in their respective explorations of experimental composition techniques and musical improvisation, from the early 1970s, in their attempts to engage with political matters in their music.
For Wolff this involved the use of music and texts associated with protest and political movements such as the Wobblies. His pieces, such as the sequence of pieces Exercises, offer some freedom to the performers; some works, such as Changing the System, Braverman Music, the series of pieces Peace March have an explicit political dimension, in that they respond to contemporary world events and express political ideals. Wolff collaborated with Merce Cunningham for many years and developed a style, more common now, but was revolutionary when they began working together in the 1950s – a style where music and dance occur yet somewhat independently of one another. Wolff stated, of any influence or affect, the greatest influence on his music over the years was the choreography of Cunningham. Wolff said of his work that it is motivated by his desire "to turn the making of music into a collaborative and transforming activity, the cooperative character of the activity to the exact source of the music.
To stir up, through the production of the music, a sense of social conditions in which we live and of how these might be changed." Wolff's music reached a new audience when Sonic Youth's "Goodbye, 20th Century" featured works by avant-garde classical composers such as John Cage, Yoko Ono, Steve Reich, Christian Wolff played by Sonic Youth along with several collaborators from the modern avant-garde music scene, such as Christian Marclay, William Winant, Wharton Tiers, Takehisa Kosugi and others, as well as Wolff himself. Duo For Violins For Prepared Piano Duo for Pianists I For Piano With Preparations For Pianist Summer For 1, 2, or 3 People Edges Pairs Prose Collection Tilbury 1, 2, 3 Snowdrop Burdocks Exercises Wobbly Music I Like to Think of Harriet Tubman Piano Trio Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp The Seneca Women's Encampment for a Future of Peace and Justice Piano Miscellany Percussionist Songs Spring Berlin Exercises Ordinary Matter John Heartfield Microexercises Winter Exercise Trio IX - Accanto Resistance Wolff, Cues: Writings & Conversations/Hinweise: Schriften und Gespräche, Köln: Musiktexte G. Gronemeyer & R.
Oehlschagel. Robert Carl, Christian Wolff: On tunes and mystery, in Contemporary Music Review. Issue 4, pp. 61–69. Christian Wolff. "A Chance Encounter with Christian Wolff". NewMusicBox. Interviewed by Frank J. Oteri. Stephen Chase & Clemens Gresser,'Ordinary Matters: Christian Wolff on his Recent Music', in Tempo 58/229, pp. 19–27. Rzewski, Frederic "The Algebra of Everyday Life". Liner note essay on Christian Wolff. New World Records. Steenhuisen, Paul. "Interview with Christian Wolff". In Sonic Mosaics: Conversations with Composers. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-88864-474-9 Tilbury, John "Christian Wolff and the Politics of Music". Liner note essay. New World Records. Chase, Stephen & Thomas, Philip, "Changing the System: the Music of Christian Wolff" Ashgate, 2010 (2
Northam Senior High School is a comprehensive public co-educational high day school, located in Northam, a regional centre in the Wheatbelt region, 97 kilometres east of Perth, Western Australia. The school was established in 1921 and by 2012 had an enrolment of 604 students between Year 8 and Year 12 12% of whom were Indigenous Australians, it is the oldest Senior High School outside the metropolitan area and the third oldest school in Western Australia. Many of the buildings are heritage listed having been built in 1921, 1930 and 1945; the main school building, designed by the Principal Architect of Western Australia, William Hardwick, the additions that followed the original design are considered good examples of the inter-war arts and crafts style. Enrolments at the school have been reasonably steady with 645 students enrolled in 2007, 663 in 2008, 629 in 2009, 559 in 2010, 608 in 2011 and 604 in 2012. Terry Martino, principal of Kalgoorlie-Boulder Community High School, became principal in 2013.
The Mosquito Coast known as the Miskito Coast and the Miskito Kingdom included the kingdom's fluctuating area along the eastern coast of present-day Nicaragua and Honduras. It formed part of the Western Caribbean Zone, it was long dominated by British interests. The Mosquito Coast was incorporated into Nicaragua in 1894; the Mosquito Coast was defined as the domain of the Mosquito or Miskito Kingdom and expanded or contracted with that domain. During the 19th century, the question of the kingdom's borders was a serious issue of international diplomacy between Britain, the United States and Honduras. Conflicting claims regarding both the kingdom's extent and arguable nonexistence were pursued in diplomatic exchanges; the British and Miskito definition applied to the whole eastern seaboard of Nicaragua and to La Mosquitia in Honduras: i.e. the coast region as far west as the Río Negro or Tinto. The Mosquito Coast in the part of the century came to be considered as the narrow strip of territory, fronting the Caribbean Sea and extending from about 11°45′ to 14°10′ N.
It stretched inland for an average distance of 60 km, measured about 400 km from north to south. In the north, its boundary skirted the Wawa River; the chief modern towns are Bluefields, the largest town and capital of Nicaragua's South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region. Before the arrival of Europeans in the region, the area was divided into a large number of small, egalitarian groups speaking languages related to Sumu and Paya. Columbus visited the coast in his fourth voyage. Detailed Spanish accounts of the region, only relate to the late 16th and early 17th centuries. According to their understanding of the geography, the region was divided between two "Provinces" Taguzgalpa and Tologalpa. Lists of "nations" left by Spanish missionaries include as many as 30 names, though careful analysis of them by Karl Offen suggests that many were duplicated and the regional geography included about a half dozen entities speaking related but distinct dialects occupying the various river basins of the region.
During the 16th century, Spanish authorities issued various licenses to conquer Taguzgalpa and Tologalpa in 1545, 1562, 1577, 1594, but no evidence suggests that any of these licenses resulted in brief settlements or conquests. The Spanish were unable to conquer this region during the 16th century and in the 17th century sought to "reduce" the region through missionary efforts; these included several attempts by Franciscans between 1604 and 1612. None of these efforts resulted in any lasting success; because the Spanish failed to have significant influence in the region, it remained independent of outside control. This allowed the indigenous people to continue their traditional way of life and to receive visitors from other regions. English and Dutch privateers who preyed on Spanish ships soon found refuge in the Mosquito Coast. Although the earliest accounts do not mention it, a political entity of uncertain organization, but not stratified, which the English called the "Mosquito Kingdom" was present on the coast in the early seventeenth century.
One of the kings of this polity visited England around 1638 at the behest of the Providence Island Company and sealed an alliance. In subsequent years, the kingdom stood against any Spanish incursions and was prepared to offer rest and asylum to any anti-Spanish groups that might come to their shores. At the least English and French privateers and pirates did visit there, taking in water and food. A detailed account of the kingdom written by a buccaneer known only as M. W. describes its organization as being fundamentally egalitarian, with the king and some officials being military leaders, but only in time of war. The first British contacts with the Mosquito region started around 1630, when the agents of the English chartered Providence Island Company—of which the Earl of Warwick was chairman and John Pym treasurer—occupied two small cays and established friendly relations with the local inhabitants. Providence Island, the company's main base and settlement, entered into regular correspondence with the coast during the decade of company occupation, 1631–1641.
The Providence Island Company sponsored the Miskito's "King's Son" visit to England during the reign of Charles I. When his father died, this son placed his country under English protection. Following the capture of Providence Island by Spain in 1641, England did not possess a base close to the coast. However, shortly after the English captured Jamaica in 1655, they recommenced relations with the coast, Oldman went to visit England. According to the testimony of his son Jeremy, taken around 1699, he was received in audience by "his brother king", Charles II and was given a "lac'd hat" and a commission "to kindly use and relieve such straggling Englishmen as should chance to come that way". While accounts vary, the Miskito Sambu appear to be descended from the survivors of a shipwrecked slave ship who reached this area in the mid-seventeenth century; these survivors produced mixed-race offspring. They adopted the language and muc
Gilgit District is one of the districts of the Gilgit–Baltistan territory in northern Pakistan. It was formed in 1970 when Gilgit–Baltistan was federally administered as the "Northern Areas", it is bounded by the Wakhan Corridor to the north. The town of Gilgit is the capital of Gilgit District. According to the 1998 census Gilgit District had a population of 243,324; the district includes Gilgit, the Bagrot Valley, Danyore, Naltar Peak, the Nomal Valley. The highest peak in the district is Distaghil Sar 7,885 metres, the seventh-highest peak in Pakistan and 19th-highest on Earth. In 2009 the Pakistan's People's Party Government of Pakistan changed the status of the Northern Areas through a presidential ordinance and has renamed it as Gilgit–Baltistan; the present Governor is Mir Ghazanfar, the constitutional head of the de facto provincial setup, assisted by an executive Chief Minister - Hafiz Hafeez ur Rehman - and a council of ministers. Administration is by a tailor-made local government system.
The local government system is based on a Legislative Council, elected by people in all six districts through voting, headed by a speaker. Technocrats and women members are elected/selected through a proper system; the Chief Secretary is the administrative head of all departments, controlling all the affairs on behalf of the Chief Minister Government of Pakistan. An Inspector General of Police heads the police department, with deputy superintendents in all six districts; the main judicial structure in Gilgit–Baltistan comprises a High Court, composed of three judges selected by the government, supported by the Supreme Appellate Court. According to the Alif Ailaan Pakistan District Education Rankings 2015, Gilgit is ranked 35 out of 148 districts in terms of education. For facilities and infrastructure, the district is ranked 67 out of 148. Only a part of the basin of the Gilgit River, i.e. Gilgit Valley, is included within the political boundaries of Gilgit District. There is an intervening width of mountainous country, represented chiefly by glaciers and ice fields, intersected by narrow sterile valleys, measuring some 100 metres to 150 metres in width, to the north and north-east, which separates the province of Gilgit from the Chinese frontier beyond the Muztagh and Karakoram.
Towering above Gilgit is Mount Rakaposhi at 7,788 metres. The main rivers in the District are: Khunjerab River - flows south along the Karakoram Highway from the Khunjerab Valley, known as Hunza River in the south of Sust Hunza River - flows further south and falls into Gilgit River just in the northeast of Gilgit town Gilgit River - enters Gilgit District from west in the south of Bichhar Pass and flows west through the Gilgit town. Indus River - enters Gilgit District from Skardu District about six kilometers north of Jaglot where Gilgit River falls into Indus River and the Indus flows south along the Karakoram Highway. Astor RiverThere are many tributaries of the above main rivers, some of which are Ghujerab River, Shimshal River, Hispar River, Naltar River and Yaheen River. Khunjerab Pass, Mintika Pass, Kilik Pass, Chillingi Pass, Shimshal Pass, Ghujerab Pass, Chapchingal Pass, Chaprot Pass, Naltar Pass and Talmutz Pass. Naltar Lake Borit Lake Rush Lake Pahote Lake Nomal, Gilgit Baltistan Districts of Gilgit–Baltistan 1988 Gilgit Massacre
Julia Drusilla was a member of the Roman imperial family, the second daughter and fifth child of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder to survive infancy. She had two sisters, Julia Livilla and the Empress Agrippina the Younger, three brothers, Emperor Caligula, Nero Julius Caesar, Drusus, she was a great-granddaughter of the Emperor Augustus, grand-niece of the Emperor Tiberius, niece of the Emperor Claudius, aunt of the Emperor Nero. Drusilla was born in Germany. After the death of her father, Germanicus and her siblings were brought back to Rome by their mother and raised with the help of their paternal grandmother, Antonia Minor. In 33 CE, Drusilla was married to a friend of the Emperor Tiberius. After Caligula became emperor in 37 CE, however, he ordered their divorce and married his sister to his friend, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. During an illness in 37 CE, Caligula changed his will to name Drusilla his heir, making her the first woman to be named heir in a Roman imperial will; this was an attempt to continue the Julian line through any children she might have, leaving her husband to rule in the meantime.
Caligula recovered however, in 38 CE, at the age of twenty-one, Drusilla died. Her brother went on to deify her, consecrating her with the title Panthea and mourning at her public funeral as though he were a widower. Drusilla was her brother's favorite. There are rumors that they were lovers. If true, that role gained her great influence over Caligula. Although the activities between the brother and sister might have been seen as incestuous by their contemporaries, it is not certain whether they were sexual partners. Drusilla earned a rather poor reputation because of the close bond she shared with Caligula and was likened to a prostitute by scholars, in attempts to discredit Caligula; some historians suggest that Caligula was motivated by more than mere lust or love in pursuing intimate relationships with his sisters, thinking instead, that he may have decided deliberately to pattern the Roman lineage after the Hellenistic monarchs of the Ptolemaic dynasty where marriages between jointly ruling brothers and sisters had become tradition rather than sex scandals.
This has been used to explain why his despotism was more evident to his contemporaries than those of Augustus and Tiberius. The source of many of the rumors surrounding Caligula and Drusilla may be derived from formal Roman dining habits, it was customary in patrician households for the host and hostess of a dinner to hold the positions of honor at banquets in their residence. In the case of a young bachelor being the head of the household, the female position of honor traditionally was to be held by his sisters, in rotation. In Caligula's case, Agrippina the Younger and Julia Livilla would have taken turns sitting in the place of honor. Caligula broke with this tradition and reserved the place of honor for Drusilla. Drusilla died on 10 June 38 AD of an illness, rampant in Rome at the time. Caligula was said never to have left her side throughout her illness and, after she had died, he would not let anyone take away her body. Caligula was badly affected by the loss, he acted as a grieving widower.
He had the Roman Senate declare her a Goddess, as Diva Drusilla, deifying her as a representation of the Roman goddess Venus or the Greek goddess Aphrodite. Drusilla was consecrated as Panthea, most on the anniversary of the birthday of Augustus. A year Caligula named his only known daughter, Julia Drusilla, after his dead sister. Meanwhile, the widowed husband of Drusilla, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus became a lover to her sisters, Julia Livilla and Agrippina the Younger, in an apparent attempt to gain their support that he would succeed Caligula; this political conspiracy was discovered during that autumn by Caligula while in Germania Superior. Lepidus was executed swiftly and Livilla and Agrippina were exiled to the Pontine Islands. In the Robert Graves novel, I, the narrator of the story states that he believes that Drusilla was killed by Caligula, although he admits that he does not have firm evidence of this; this theme was embellished in the 1976 BBC television adaptation of I, where Drusilla was played by Beth Morris.
A pregnant Drusilla was subjected to a brutal Caesarean section by an insane Caligula, who swallowed the child as Zeus did his children. Although scenes depicting that scenario were cut from the production before broadcast in the United States, they were restored for the VHS and DVD releases. Teresa Ann Savoy played Drusilla in the 1979 motion picture Caligula, which showed a version of Drusilla dying from a fever, followed by a scene of Caligula licking her corpse in mourning, having sexual intercourse with Drusilla one last time in an act of necrophilia; the last scene was deleted from all the released versions of the film. Julio-Claudian family tree Media related to Drusilla at Wikimedia Commons