Human Development Index
The Human Development Index is a statistic composite index of life expectancy and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, the GNI per capita is higher, it was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, with help from Gustav Ranis of Yale University and Meghnad Desai of the London School of Economics, was further used to measure a country's development by the United Nations Development Program's Human Development Report Office. The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index. While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development", "the HDI can be viewed as an index of'potential' human development"; the index does not take into account several factors, such as the net wealth per capita or the relative quality of goods in a country. This situation tends to lower the ranking for some of the most advanced countries, such as the G7 members and others.
The index is based on the human development approach, developed by ul Haq framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in life. Examples include—Being: well fed, healthy; the freedom of choice is central—someone choosing to be hungry is quite different from someone, hungry because they cannot afford to buy food, or because the country is in a famine. The origins of the HDI are found in the annual Human Development Reports produced by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme; these were devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990, had the explicit purpose "to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centered policies". To produce the Human Development Reports, Mahbub ul Haq formed a group of development economists including Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand, Meghnad Desai. Nobel laureate Amartya Sen utilized Haq's work in his own work on human capabilities.
Haq believed that a simple composite measure of human development was needed to convince the public and politicians that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but improvements in human well-being. Published on 4 November 2010, the 2010 Human Development Report calculated the HDI combining three dimensions: A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth Education index: Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling A decent standard of living: GNI per capita In its 2010 Human Development Report, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI; the following three indices are used: 1. Life Expectancy Index = LE − 20 85 − 20 LEI is 1 when Life expectancy at birth is 85 and 0 when Life expectancy at birth is 20.2. Education Index = MYSI + EYSI 2 2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index = MYS 15 Fifteen is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025. 2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index = EYS 18 Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a master's degree in most countries.3.
Income Index = ln − ln ln − ln II is 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is $100. The HDI is the geometric mean of the previous three normalized indices: HDI = LEI ⋅ EI ⋅ II 3. LE: Life expectancy at birth MYS: Mean years of schooling EYS: Expected years of schooling GNIpc: Gross national income at purchasing power parity per capita The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its 2009 Report: Life expectancy at birth, as an index of population health and longevity to HDI Knowledge and education, as measured by the adult literacy rate and the combined primary and tertiary gross enrollment ratio. Standard of living, as indicated by the natural logarithm of gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; this methodology was used by the UNDP until their 2011 report. The formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme. In general, to transform a raw variable, say x, into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allo
Water supply and sanitation in Ethiopia
Access to water supply and sanitation in Ethiopia is amongst the lowest in Sub-Saharan Africa and the entire world. While access has increased with funding from foreign aid, much still remains to be done to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of halving the share of people without access to water and sanitation by 2015, to improve sustainability and to improve service quality; some factors inhibiting the achievement of these goals are the limited capacity of water bureaus in the country's nine regions,two city administrations and water desks in the 550 districts of Ethiopia. In 2001 the government adopted a water and sanitation strategy that called for more decentralized decision-making. Implementation of the policy is uneven. In 2005 the government announced ambitious targets to increase coverage in its Plan for Accelerated Sustained Development and to End Poverty for 2010; the investment needed to achieve the goal is about US$300 million per year, compared to actual investments of US$39 million in 2001–2002.
In 2010 the government presented the ambitious Growth and Transformation Plan 2011–2015, which aims at increasing drinking water coverage, based on the government's definition, from 68.5% to 98.5%. While donors have committed substantial funds to the sector spending the money and to ensure the proper operation and maintenance of infrastructure built with these funds remain a challenge. Ethiopia has 12 river basins with an annual runoff volume of 122 billion m3 of water and an estimated 2.6 - 6.5 billion m3 of ground water potential. This corresponds to an average of 1,575 m3 of physically available water per person per year, a large volume. However, due to large spatial and temporal variations in rainfall and lack of storage, water is not available where and when needed. Only about 3% of water resources are used, of which only about 11% is used for domestic water supply; the capital Addis Ababa's main source of drinking water is the Gafsara dam built during the Italian occupation and rehabilitated in 2009.
Wells and another dam complement the supply. The city of Dire Dawa is supplied from groundwater, polluted; the situation is most dramatic in Harar where "a steady decrease of the level of Lake Alemaya has resulted in the complete closure of the treatment plant". Due to supply shortfall, water vendors sell untreated water at high prices; the lake dries up because of local climate change, changes in land use in its basin and increased irrigation of khat, a mild drug, being grown for local consumption and export. A pipeline is expected to bring water over a distance of 75 km from a well field near Dire Dawa to Harar; the great majority of the rural community water supply relies on groundwater through shallow wells, deep wells and springs. People who have no access to improved supply obtain water from rivers, unprotected springs and hand-dug wells. Well and springs can be contaminated and can cause waterborne diseases. Rainwater harvesting is common; the number of people lacking access to "improved" water in 2015 was 42 million.
Regarding sanitation, progress has been slower and there were still 71 million people without access to "improved" sanitation, in 2015. According to data from the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation of WHO and UNICEF, which are in turn based on data from various national surveys including the 2005 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey, access to an improved water source and improved sanitation was estimated as follows in 2008: 38% for improved water supply 12% for improved sanitation According to figures used by the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development for planning purposes, access was much higher. In 2010, access to drinking water was estimated at 68.5%: 91.5% in urban areas and 65.8% in rural areas. The higher figure for rural areas may be because the distance to an improved water source used in this definition is higher than the distance used by the Demographic and Health Survey. In 1990 access to improved water supply had been estimated at only 17%, access to improved sanitation had been estimated at only 4%.
There thus has been a significant increase in access for water supply and sanitation, which spans both urban and rural areas. More than 138,000 improved community water points were constructed and rehabilitated from 2008 to 2010. In communities that lack access to an improved water source, women bear the brunt of the burden of collecting water. For example, according to an article by Tina Rosenberg for National Geographic, in the mountain-top village Foro in the Konso special woreda of southwestern Ethiopia women make three to five round trips per day to fetch dirty water from the Koiro river; each roundtrip lasts two to three hours and water is carried in "50-pound jerrycans". Drinking water quality. Drinking water quality in Ethiopia varies; the most comprehensive picture of drinking water quality are the results of a national statistically representative survey of piped water supply, protected dug wells and protected springs carried out by the WHO and UNICEF in 2004-2005. It shows that 72% of samples complied with the values for coliform bacteria in the Ethiopian drinking water standard ES 261:2001 and the WHO guidelines
Degehabur is a town in the Somali Region of Ethiopia. It is located in the Degehabur Zone of the Somali Region on the Jerer River, it sits at 1044 meters above sea level; the town is the administrative center of Degehabur woreda. Local landmarks include the Church of St. George, the white mosque of Degehabur, which Anthony Mockler described as "the most important in the Ogaden." The NGO Doctors without Borders operates a clinic in Degehabur. The upgrade of the 165-kilometer road between Degahabur and the Regional capital, Jijiga, to an all-weather asphalt road was announced to be complete 31 October 2007, with the remaining 40 kilometers awaiting completion. Construction of a 106-kilometer asphalt road between Degehabur and the town of Shekosh was underway by March 2009. Local inhabitants constitute half of the 1,100 workers employed by the project. During the nineteenth century, Degehabur was an important stopping point for caravans crossing the Haud for Hargeisa and Berbera, but when Major H.
G. C. Swayne travelled through the area in 1893, he found it abandoned and uses it as an example of the destruction caused by "the insecurity resulting from inter-tribal feuds." According to Swayne, at the time of his visit "there were many square miles of jowdri cultivation, which have been abandoned within the last few years, now there is only left an immense area of stubble and the ruins of the village. Dagahbur used to be a thriving settlement of one thousand five hundred inhabitants... now not a hut is left." In the 1920s Degehabur started to recover. It was said that there were some two hundred villages within the distance of a day's travel and that these used the market at Degehabur. By 1931 there were motorable roads in five directions out from the town. Wealthy inhabitants had started erecting two-story buildings. Due to its strategic location, Degehabur used as by Dejazmach Nasibu Emmanual as his headquarters at the beginning of the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. Despite the construction of a series of fortifications south of the town, the Italians under General Rodolfo Graziani defeated the Ethiopian defenders in the Battle of the Ogaden, occupied Degehabur 30 April 1936.
The Nigerian Brigade drove the Italians from the town in March, 1941. Degahabur was fiercely defended by the 11th Brigade of the Ethiopian Army at the beginning of the Ogaden War, until the unit was ordered at the end of July 1977 to withdraw to Jijiga, it was recaptured by the 69th Brigade and the Third Cuban Tank Brigade 6 March 1978. Haji Abdinur Sheikh Mumin, imam of the Degehabur mosque, was one of those arrested in 1994 for supporting the Ogaden National Liberation Front. Amnesty international reported in 1996. On 28 May 2007, during the celebration of Ginbot 20, Degehabur and Jijiga were the scenes of attacks on civilians and government officials. At least 16 people were killed and 67 injured; the Ethiopian government blamed the attack on the ONLF, who afterwards denied responsibility for the attack. In response to this attack, the Ethiopian Army began confiscating commercial vehicles that moved goods into the conflict-affected zones of Somali Region. In May 2007 the last major trade convoy left Hargeysa, consisting of 18 trucks stocked with food items and clothing.
This convoy stopped near Degehabur and all 18 trucks were confiscated by the army and taken to the military base in that town. At the end of September 2007, four months according to their owners all 18 trucks were still impounded at the military base. Based on figures from the Central Statistical Agency in 2007, Degehabur has an estimated total population of 30,027 of whom 16,474 are men and 13,553 are women; the 1997 census reported this town had a total population of 28,708 of whom 14,976 were men and 13,732 women. The largest two ethnic groups reported in this town were the Somali, the Amhara.
Fiq is a town in eastern Ethiopia. Located in the Fiq Zone of the Somali Region, this town has a latitude and longitude of 08°8′N 42°18′E with an elevation of 1229 meters above sea level; the Guida dell'Africa Orientale Italiana described Fiq in 1938 as a place where the OGADENSomali would gather during certain months. Travel by motorcar between Fiq and Babille was possible by a track. Administrative buildings present at the time included a post office, telegraph office and an infirmary. Early in the Ogaden War, Fiq was captured by Somali units. Despite unexpectedly heavy resistance from the Somali, the Ethiopian Eighth division, supported by a Cuban artillery battalion, entered Fiq 8 March 1979. Based on figures from the Central Statistical Agency in 2005, this town has an estimated total population of 12,911, of whom 6,932 were men and 5,979 were women; the 1997 national census reported a total population for this town of 8,656, of whom 4,580 were men and 4,076 were women. The predominant ethnic group reported in Fiq was the Somali.
It is the largest town in Fiq woreda
Shekosh is town in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, part of the Korahe region. Shekosh is bordered on the southeast by Kebri Dahar, on the west by the Fiq Zone, on the north by the Degehabur Zone; the major town in Shekosh is Shekosh and other villages Gomaar, Wijiwaji, Raadooyo and Gariegoan these are part of shekosh district. The only perennial river in Shekosh is the Fafen with large valley good for farming. Construction of a 106-kilometer asphalt road between the town of Shekosh and Degehabur was started by March 2009, now is in use. Local inhabitants constitute half of the 1,100 workers employed by the project. Shekosh local time. Based on the 2007 Census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia, this district has a total population of 48,879, of whom 26,150 are men and 22,729 women. While 4,083 or 8.35% are urban inhabitants, a further 30,394 or 62.18% are pastoralists. 99.32% of the population said they were Muslim. The 1997 national census reported a total population for this woreda of 24,874, of whom 14,136 were men and 10,738 were women.
The largest ethnic group reported in Shekosh was the Somali people. There are two primary schools in Shekosh district, the first one was built in 1974. In 1973, the Ethiopian monarchy chose randomly to build two primary schools for two districts in the Ogaden region. Shekosh won building one School, other one Shilavo district. Building of the second school came after The Netherlands donated funds for constructing College the Somali regional state of Ethiopia in 1994. First Somali state of Ethiopia parliamentarians approved buildings of Shekosh college money donated by The Netherlands; the Parliaments selected Shekosh district. The college was wilful to benefit the students from the nine regions consist the Somali state of Ethiopia; the college was planned to be the main secondary education provider for students from the nine regions in the Somali state of Ethiopia. The parliament passed an article set for constructing the college at Shekosh district; the college has a capacity of 1,500 students for education as well as shelter and food to last four years.
With the completion of one part of the college, the Netherlands left the project and the Ethiopian authority halted the original plan. Ethiopia's justification was that the Ogaden region is a conflicted area and that Shekosh itself is a remote and unsafe area
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.