The Warsangali Sultanate was a Somali imperial ruling house centered in northeastern and in some parts of southeastern Somalia. The Sultanate was founded in the late 13th century in northern Somalia by a group of Somalis from the Warsangali branch of the Darod clan, in the late 19th century, the influential Sultan Mohamoud Ali Shire governed the Sultanate, assuming control during some of its most turbulent years. The Akil Dhahar ruled south of Sanaag and some portions of the Bari region, in 1884, the United Kingdom established the protectorate of British Somaliland through various treaties with the northern Somali sultanates, including the Warsangali Sultanate. Although there is a dearth of historical testimony on Akil Dhahar, according to oral tradition, in honor of his accomplishments, Akil Dhahars name is immortalized in the valley and mountains of the city known as Dhahar. Several Somali Sultanates existed in Somalia prior to the European imperialism of the 19th century, lewis writes, Vestiges of a similar degree of centralized administration on the pattern of a Muslim Sultanate, survive today in the Protectorate among the Warsangali.
Prior to 1920, the Garaad had at his command a standing army with which, with British support. But Garaads powers are dwindling under modern administration and they were in direct trade and diffuse political relations with Arabia, received occasional Arab immigrants, and were the centres from which Islam expanded with trade into the interior. The Sultanates had to fight to maintain their positions of supremacy against the incursions of raiding parties of nomads. In 1896, a challenge of leadership emerged between a father and son, before then, internal conflict among the Warsangali sub-clans had surfaced and had had an effect on Sultan Mohamoud Ali Shire and his ascension to power. The disarray caused by the young Mohamoud among the Warsangali was finally settled by the proposal that Mohamoud fils should become Sultan, the Bihidor sub-clan of the Warsangali, withdrew their support for the Sultan, deeming him an upstart and an untested authority figure. On 3 March 1905, Italy came close to signing a treaty with Hassan at Illig, however, rejected the offer and his Dervish army continued its anti-imperial resistance struggle.
In its early proposal, both the Majeerteen and Warsangali Sultanates opposed the treaty, as they foresaw potential threats to their own local authority from its hypothetical implementation. These Sultanates thus collaborated to defeat the Dervish forces, The first success in this Anglo-Italian cooperation came in December 1910, the Mijertain–Warsangali Accord led to a common offensive against the Mullah, whose forces were cut off from arms and munitions smuggled in from the coast. In 1920, the Dervishes unexpectedly captured Badhan and besieged Las Khorey, the British Governor at Aden soon sent RAF biplanes to contain the advance of the Dervish army into the Warsangali country. Though the air strikes that bombarded Badhan and Talex never did harm to the Dervishes. Finally, the forces of Warsangali and Dervishes met at Jidali, the Mijertein Somalis, who in June succeeded launching counter-attack with the aid of their Warsangali allies. As a result, the Dervishes abandoned the Nugaal territory and retreated into the Hawd, the British used indirect rule to their advantage to control and exploit territories.
Following the British treaty with the Warsangali in 1886, the British Somaliland protectorate was formed, the protectorate was subsequently administered from Aden until 1898, just before the rise to prominence of Sayyid Muhammad Abdullah Hassan
The Ajuran Sultanate, spelled Ajuuraan Sultanate, and often simply as Ajuran, was a Somali Muslim sultanate that ruled over large parts of the Horn of Africa in the Middle Ages. The sultanate left an architectural legacy, being one of the major medieval Somali powers engaged in castle. During the Ajuran period, many regions and people in the part of the Horn of Africa converted to Islam because of the theocratic nature of the government. The royal family, the House of Garen, expanded its territories and established its rule through a skillful combination of warfare. As an hydraulic empire, the Ajuran monopolized the water resources of the Shebelle, through hydraulic engineering, it constructed many of the limestone wells and cisterns of the state that are still operative and in use today. The rulers developed new systems for agriculture and taxation, which continued to be used in parts of the Horn of Africa as late as the 19th century, the Ajuran Sultanates sphere of influence in the Horn of Africa was one of the largest in the region.
The sultanate covered much of southern Somalia, with its domain extending from Mareeg in the north, to Qelafo in the west, the House of Garen was the ruling hereditary dynasty of the Ajuran Sultanate. Its origin lies in the Garen Kingdom that during the 13th century ruled parts of the Ogaden, through their genealogical Baraka, which came from the saint Balad, the Garen rulers claimed supremacy and religious legitimacy over other groups in the Horn of Africa. Balads ancestors are said to have come from the northern region of Barbara. The Ajuran nobility used many of the typical Somali aristocratic and court titles and these leaders were the sultanates highest authority, and counted multiple Sultans and Kings as clients or vassals. The Garen rulers had seasonal palaces in Mareeg and Merca, other important cities in the Sultanate were Mogadishu and Barawa. The state religion was Islam, and thus law was based on Sharia, large wells made out of limestone were constructed throughout the state, which attracted Somali and Oromo nomads with their livestock.
The centralized regulations of the wells made it easier for the nomads to settle disputes by taking their queries to government officials who would act as mediators, long distance caravan trade, a long-time practice in the Horn of Africa, continued unchanged in Ajuran times. Today, numerous ruined and abandoned towns throughout the interior of Somalia, with the centralized supervision of the Ajuran, farms in Afgooye and other areas in the Jubba and Shabelle valleys increased their productivity. This irrigation system was supported by numerous dikes and dams, to determine the average size of a farm, a land measurement system was invented with moos and guldeed being the terms used. The State collected tribute from the farmers in the form of harvested products like durra and bun, the collecting of tribute was done by a wazir. Luxury goods imported from foreign lands were presented as gifts to the Garen rulers by the coastal sultans of the state. The rulers would claim a portion of the brides wealth
The Adal Sultanate or Kingdom of Adal was a multi-ethnic medieval Muslim state located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II after the fall of Sultanate of Ifat, the kingdom flourished from around 1415 to 1577. The sultanate and state was established by the inhabitants of the Harar Plateau, at its height, the polity controlled most of the territory in the Horn region immediately east of Abyssinia. The origins of the name Adal are obscure, but al-Umari mentions it with Shoa and Zeila as being an integral part of the Muslim confederation led by Ifat. In the thirteenth century, Arab writer, Al Dimashqi, refers to the Adal Sultanates capital, the modern Awdal region, which was part of the Adal Sultanate, bears the kingdoms name. According to Leo Africanus, the Adal Sultanates realm encompassed the area between the Bab el Mandeb and Cape Guardafui. It was thus flanked to the south by the Mogadishu Sultanate, islam was introduced to the Horn region early on from the Arabian peninsula, shortly after the hijra.
Zeilas two-mihrab Masjid al-Qiblatayn dates to about the 7th century, and is the oldest mosque in the city, in the late 9th century, Al-Yaqubi wrote that Muslims were living along the northern Somali seaboard. He mentioned that the Adal kingdom had its capital in the city, the polity was governed by local dynasties established by the Adelites. Adals history from this founding period forth would be characterized by a succession of battles with neighbouring Abyssinia, Adal originally had its capital in the port city of Zeila, situated in the northwestern Awdal region. The polity at the time was an Emirate in the larger Ifat Sultanate ruled by the Walashma dynasty, in 1332, the King of Adal was slain in a military campaign aimed at halting Amda Seyons march toward Zeila. When the last Sultan of Ifat, Saad ad-Din II, was killed by Dawit I of Ethiopia at the port city of Zeila in 1410, his children escaped to Yemen. During this period, Adal emerged as a center of Muslim resistance against the expanding Christian Abyssinian kingdom, after 1468, a new breed of rulers emerged on the Adal political scene.
The dissidents opposed Walashma rule owing to a treaty that Sultan Muhammad ibn Badlay had signed with Emperor Baeda Maryam of Ethiopia and this was done to achieve peace in the region, though tribute was never sent. Adals Emirs, who administered the provinces, interpreted the agreement as a betrayal of their independence, the main leader of this opposition was the Emir of Zeila, the Sultanates richest province. As such, he was expected to pay the highest share of the tribute to be given to the Abyssinian Emperor. Emir Laday Usman subsequently marched to Dakkar and seized power in 1471, Usman did not dismiss the Sultan from office, but instead gave him a ceremonial position while retaining the real power for himself. Adal now came under the leadership of a powerful Emir who governed from the palace of a nominal Sultan
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is only one and incomparable God and that Muhammad is the last messenger of God. It is the worlds second-largest religion and the major religion in the world, with over 1.7 billion followers or 23% of the global population. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and He has guided mankind through revealed scriptures, natural signs, and a line of prophets sealed by Muhammad. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the word of God. Muslims believe that Islam is the original and universal version of a faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham, Moses. As for the Quran, Muslims consider it to be the unaltered, certain religious rites and customs are observed by the Muslims in their family and social life, while social responsibilities to parents and neighbors have been defined. Besides, the Quran and the sunnah of Muhammad prescribe a comprehensive body of moral guidelines for Muslims to be followed in their personal, political, Islam began in the early 7th century.
Originating in Mecca, it spread in the Arabian Peninsula. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates and empires, most Muslims are of one of two denominations, Sunni or Shia. Islam is the dominant religion in the Middle East, North Africa, sizable Muslim communities are found in Horn of Africa, China, Mainland Southeast Asia, Northern Borneo and the Americas. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world, Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace. In a religious context it means voluntary submission to God, Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, and means submission or surrender. Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the verb form. The word sometimes has connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as a state, Whomsoever God desires to guide.
Other verses connect Islām and dīn, Today, I have perfected your religion for you, I have completed My blessing upon you, still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, Islam was historically called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies. This term has fallen out of use and is said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims religion
Zeila, known as Zaila, is a port city in the northwestern Salal region of Somaliland. The town evolved into an early Islamic center with the arrival of Muslims shortly after the hijra, the city subsequently came under British protection in the 18th century. This campaign is known as the Conquest of Abyssinia. Zeila is situated in the Awdal region in northwest Somalia, located on the Gulf of Aden coast near the Djibouti border, the town sits on a sandy spit surrounded by the sea. It is known for its reef and offshore islands. Landward, the terrain is unbroken desert for fifty miles. Berbera lies 170 miles southeast of Zeila, while the city of Harar in Ethiopia is 200 miles to the west, the travelogue mentions the Barbaroi trading frankincense, among various other commodities, through their port cities such as Avalites. Competent seamen, the Periplus author indicates that they sailed throughout the Red Sea, the document describes the Barbarois system of governance as decentralized, and essentially consisting of a collection of autonomous city-states.
It suggests that the Berbers who live in the place are very unruly, Islam was introduced to the area early on from the Arabian peninsula, shortly after the hijra. In the late 9th century, Al-Yaqubi wrote that Muslims were living along the northern Somali seaboard. He mentioned that the Adal kingdom had its capital in the city, according to I. M. Adals history from this founding period forth would be characterized by a succession of battles with neighbouring Abyssinia. By 1330, the Moroccan historian and traveler Ibn Batutta would describe the city as dominated by Muslims from the Zaidi Shiite denomination, shiia influence can still be seen in various areas, as in the southern Somalia veneration of Fatimah, the Prophet Muhammads daughter. Zeilas importance as a port is further confirmed by Al-Idrisi and Ibn Said, who describe it as a town of considerable size. This action provoked the Abyssinian Emperor into raising an army and capturing the Sultans capital, through extensive trade with Abyssinia and Arabia, Adal attained its height of prosperity during the 14th century.
It sold incense, slaves, gold and camels, Zeila had by started to grow into a huge multicultural metropolis, with Persian Gulf Arab, Afar and even Persian inhabitants. The city was instrumental in bringing Islam to the Oromo. In 1332, the Zeila-based King of Adal was slain in a campaign aimed at halting the Abyssinian Emperor Amda Seyons march toward the city. When the last Sultan of Ifat, Saad ad-Din II, was killed by Dawit I of Ethiopia in Zeila in 1410, his children escaped to Yemen
A monarch is the sovereign head of state in a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state, alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch usually reigns for life or until abdication, if a young child is crowned the monarch, a regent is often appointed to govern until the monarch reaches the requisite adult age to rule. A monarch can reign in multiple monarchies simultaneously, for example, the monarchy of Canada and the monarchy of the United Kingdom are separate states, but they share the same monarch through personal union. Monarchs, as such, bear a variety of titles — king or queen, prince or princess, emperor or empress, duke or grand duke, Prince is sometimes used as a generic term to refer to any monarch regardless of title, especially in older texts. A king can be a husband and a queen can be a kings wife. If both people in a reign, neither person is generally considered to be a consort.
Monarchy is political or sociocultural in nature, and is associated with hereditary rule. Most monarchs, both historically and in the present day, have been born and brought up within a royal family, different systems of succession have been used, such as proximity of blood, agnatic seniority, Salic law, etc. In an elective monarchy, the monarch is elected but otherwise serves as any other monarch, historical examples of elective monarchy include the Holy Roman Emperors and the free election of kings of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In recent centuries, many states have abolished the monarchy and become republics, advocacy of government by a republic is called republicanism, while advocacy of monarchy is called monarchism. A principal advantage of hereditary monarchy is the continuity of national leadership. In cases where the monarch serves mostly as a ceremonial figure real leadership does not depend on the monarch, a form of government may in fact be hereditary without being considered monarchy, such as a family dictatorship.
Monarchies take a variety of forms, such as the two co-princes of Andorra, positions held simultaneously by the Roman Catholic Bishop of Urgel and the elected President of France. Similarly, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia is considered a monarch despite only holding the position for five years at a time, hereditary succession within one patrilineal family has been most common, with preference for children over siblings, sons over daughters. Other European realms practice one form or another of primogeniture, whereunder a lord was succeeded by his eldest son or, if he had none, by his brother, the system of tanistry was semi-elective and gave weight to ability and merit. The Salic law, practiced in France and in the Italian territories of the House of Savoy, in most fiefs, in the event of the demise of all legitimate male members of the patrilineage, a female of the family could succeed. Spain today continues this model of succession law, in the form of cognatic primogeniture, in more complex medieval cases, the sometimes conflicting principles of proximity and primogeniture battled, and outcomes were often idiosyncratic
Fakr ad-Din Mosque
The Fakr ad-Din Mosque, known as Masjid Fakhr al-Din, is the oldest mosque in Mogadishu, Somalia. It is located in Hamar Weyne, the oldest part of the city, the mosque was built in 1269 by the first Sultan of the Sultanate of Mogadishu, Fakr ad-Din. Stone, including Indian marble and coral, were the materials used in the construction of the masjid. The structure displays a rectangular plan, with a domed mihrab axis. Glazed tiles were used in the decoration of the mihrab. Photographs of the Fakr ad-Din mosque feature in drawings and images of central Mogadishu from the late 19th century onwards, the mosque can be identified amidst other buildings by its two cones, one round and the other hexagonal. Arbaa Rukun Mosque Masjid al-Qiblatayn Mosque of Islamic Solidarity Masjid Fakhr al-Din ArchNet - Masjid Fakhr al-Din
Sultanate of Mogadishu
The Sultanate of Mogadishu was a medieval trading empire in Somalia. It rose as one of the pre-eminent powers in the Horn of Africa during the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries and it was a vassal state of the Adal Sultanate. With Muslim traders from the Arabian Peninsula arriving c,900, Mogadishu was well-suited to become a regional center for commerce. The name Mogadishu is held to be derived from the Arabic مقعد شاه Maqad Shah, for many years, Mogadishu stood as the pre-eminent city in the بلد البربر Bilad al Barbar, which was the medieval Arabic term for the Horn of Africa. Following his visit to the city, the 12th-century Syrian historian Yaqut al-Hamawi wrote that it was inhabited by dark-skinned Berbers, the Sultanate of Mogadishu developed with the immigration of Emozeidi Arabs, a community whose earliest presence dates back to the 9th or 10th century. This evolved into the Muzaffar dynasty, a joint Somali-Arab federation of rulers, during his travels, Ibn Said al-Maghribi noted that the city had already become the leading Islamic center in the region.
By the time of the Moroccan traveller Ibn Battutas appearance on the Somali coast in 1331 and he described Mogadishu as an exceedingly large city with many rich merchants, which was famous for its high quality fabric that it exported to Egypt, among other places. Battuta added that the city was ruled by a Somali Sultan, Abu Bakr ibn Sayx Umar, the Sultan had a retinue of wazirs, legal experts, royal eunuchs, and other officials at his beck and call. Archaeological excavations have recovered many coins from China, Sri Lanka, the majority of the Chinese coins date to the Song Dynasty, although the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty are represented, according to Richard Pankhurst. In 1416, Mogadishu sent ambassadors to pay tribute to the Ming dynasty, the Yongle Emperor dispatched Admiral Zheng He to return ambassadors to the Somali city, with Zheng He revisiting Mogadishu along with Barawa in 1430 during his fourth trip. He would return during his fifth and seventh voyages in the Indian Ocean, in the Middle Ages, Mogadishu along with other coastal Somali cities in the south came under the Ajuran Sultanates sphere of influence and experienced another Golden Age.
In the 16th century, Duarte Barbosa noted that ships from the Kingdom of Cambaya sailed to Mogadishu with cloths and spices for which they in return received gold, wax. Barbaso highlighted the abundance of meat, barley and fruit on the coastal markets, the center of a thriving weaving industry known as toob benadir Trading across the Arabian Sea enabled major ports like Mogadishu to prosper during the Middle Ages. Ross E. Somali merchants from Mogadishu established a colony in Mozambique to extract gold from the mines in Sofala, during the 14th century, Mogadishu established its own Mogadishu currency for its medieval trading empire in the Indian Ocean. It centralized its commercial hegemony by minting coins to facilitate regional trade, the currency bore the names of the 23 successive Sultans of Mogadishu. The oldest pieces date back to 1323-24 and on the front bear the name of Abu Bakr ibn Muhaamad, on the back of the coins, the names of the four Caliphs of the Rashidun Caliphate are inscribed.
Other coins were minted in the style of the extant Fatimid. Mogadishan coins were in widespread circulation, pieces have been found as far away as modern United Arab Emirates, where a coin bearing the name of a 15th-century Somali Sultan Ali b
Somalis are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa. The overwhelming majority of Somalis speak the Somali language, which is part of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family, ethnic Somalis number around 16-20 million and are principally concentrated in Somalia, Ethiopia and Djibouti. Expatriate Somalis are found in parts of the Middle East, North America, Samaale, the oldest common ancestor of several Somali clans, is generally regarded as the source of the ethnonym Somali. The name Somali is, in turn, held to be derived from the words soo and maal, another plausible etymology proposes that the term Somali is derived from the Arabic for wealthy, again referring to Somali riches in livestock. The first clear reference of the sobriquet Somali, however. Simur was an ancient Harari alias for the Somali people, Ancient rock paintings, which date back 5000 years, have been found in the northern part of Somalia, these depict early life in the territory. In other places, such as the northern Dhambalin region, a depiction of a man on a horse is postulated as being one of the earliest known examples of a mounted huntsman.
Inscriptions have been found many of the rock paintings. During the Stone age, the Doian and Hargeisan cultures flourished here with their industries and factories. The oldest evidence of burial customs in the Horn of Africa comes from cemeteries in Somalia dating back to 4th millennium BC. The stone implements from the Jalelo site in northern Somalia are said to be the most important link in evidence of the universality in palaeolithic times between the East and the West. In antiquity, the ancestors of the Somali people were an important link in the Horn of Africa connecting the regions commerce with the rest of the ancient world. According to most scholars, the ancient Land of Punt and its inhabitants formed part of the ethnogenesis of the Somali people, the ancient Puntites were a nation of people that had close relations with Pharaonic Egypt during the times of Pharaoh Sahure and Queen Hatshepsut. The pyramidal structures and ancient houses of dressed stone littered around Somalia are said to date from this period, the city of Mogadishu came to be known as the City of Islam, and controlled the East African gold trade for several centuries.
The Sultanate of Ifat, led by the Walashma dynasty with its capital at Zeila, ruled parts of what is now eastern Ethiopia, Djibouti. The historian al-Umari records that Ifat was situated near the Red Sea coast and its army numbered 15,000 horsemen and 20,000 foot soldiers. Al-Umari credits Ifat with seven cities, Kuljura, Shewa, Jamme. The Harla, an early Hamitic group of tall stature who inhabited parts of Somalia and other areas in the Horn and these masons are believed to have been ancestral to the Somalis