Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; the chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals. Aluminium is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and building industries, such as building facades and window frames; the oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium. Despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals; because of these salts' abundance, the potential for a biological role for them is of continuing interest, studies continue.
Of aluminium isotopes, only 27Al is stable. This is consistent with aluminium having an odd atomic number, it is the only aluminium isotope that has existed on Earth in its current form since the creation of the planet. Nearly all the element on Earth is present as this isotope, which makes aluminium a mononuclidic element and means that its standard atomic weight equates to that of the isotope; the standard atomic weight of aluminium is low in comparison with many other metals, which has consequences for the element's properties. All other isotopes of aluminium are radioactive; the most stable of these is 26Al and therefore could not have survived since the formation of the planet. However, 26Al is produced from argon in the atmosphere by spallation caused by cosmic ray protons; the ratio of 26Al to 10Be has been used for radiodating of geological processes over 105 to 106 year time scales, in particular transport, sediment storage, burial times, erosion. Most meteorite scientists believe that the energy released by the decay of 26Al was responsible for the melting and differentiation of some asteroids after their formation 4.55 billion years ago.
The remaining isotopes of aluminium, with mass numbers ranging from 21 to 43, all have half-lives well under an hour. Three metastable states are known, all with half-lives under a minute. An aluminium atom has 13 electrons, arranged in an electron configuration of 3s23p1, with three electrons beyond a stable noble gas configuration. Accordingly, the combined first three ionization energies of aluminium are far lower than the fourth ionization energy alone. Aluminium can easily surrender its three outermost electrons in many chemical reactions; the electronegativity of aluminium is 1.61. A free aluminium atom has a radius of 143 pm. With the three outermost electrons removed, the radius shrinks to 39 pm for a 4-coordinated atom or 53.5 pm for a 6-coordinated atom. At standard temperature and pressure, aluminium atoms form a face-centered cubic crystal system bound by metallic bonding provided by atoms' outermost electrons; this crystal system is shared by some other metals, such as copper. Aluminium metal, when in quantity, is shiny and resembles silver because it preferentially absorbs far ultraviolet radiation while reflecting all visible light so it does not impart any color to reflected light, unlike the reflectance spectra of copper and gold.
Another important characteristic of aluminium is its low density, 2.70 g/cm3. Aluminium is a soft, lightweight and malleable with appearance ranging from silvery to dull gray, depending on the surface roughness, it is nonmagnetic and does not ignite. A fresh film of aluminium serves as a good reflector of visible light and an excellent reflector of medium and far infrared radiation; the yield strength of pure aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Aluminium has stiffness of steel, it is machined, cast and extruded. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a face-centered cubic structure. Aluminium has a stacking-fault energy of 200 mJ/m2. Aluminium is a good thermal and electrical conductor, having 59% the conductivity of copper, both thermal and electrical, while having only 30% of copper's density. Aluminium is capable of superconductivity, with a superconducting critical temperature of 1.2 kelvin and a critical magnetic field of about 100 gauss.
Aluminium is the most common material for the fabrication of superconducting qubits. Aluminium's corrosion resistance can be excellent due to a thin surface layer of aluminium oxide that forms when the bare metal is exposed to air preventing further oxidation, in a process termed passivation; the strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. This corrosion resistance is reduced by aqueous salts in the presence of dissimilar metals. In acidic solutions, aluminium reacts with water to form hydrogen, in alkaline ones to form aluminates—protective passivation under these conditions is negligible; because it is corroded by dissolved chlorides, such as common sodium chloride, household plumbing is never made from aluminium. However, because
Berbera is a coastal city and capital of the Sahil region in the self-declared but internationally unrecognised Republic of Somaliland. It is the former capital of Somaliland. In antiquity, Berbera was part of a chain of commercial port cities along the Somali seaboard. During the early modern period, Berbera was the most important place of trade in the entire Horn of Africa, it served as the capital of the British Somaliland protectorate from 1884 to 1941, when it was replaced by Hargeisa. In 1960, the British Somaliland protectorate gained independence as the State of Somaliland and united five days with the Trust Territory of Somalia to form the Somali Republic. Located strategically on the oil route, the city has a deep seaport, which serves as the region's main commercial harbour. Berbera was part of the classical Somali city-states that engaged in a lucrative trade network connecting Somali merchants with Phoenicia, Ptolemic Egypt, Ancient Greece, Parthian Persia, Saba and the Roman Empire.
Somali sailors used the ancient Somali maritime vessel known as the beden to transport their cargo. Berbera preserves the ancient name of the coast along the southern shore of the Gulf of Aden, it is thought to be the city Malao described as 800 stadia beyond the city of the Avalites, described in the eighth chapter of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, written by a Greek merchant in the first century AD. In the Periplus it is described as an open roadstead, sheltered by a spit running out from the east. Here the natives are more peaceable. There are imported into this place the things mentioned, many tunics, cloaks from Arsinoe and dyed. There are exported from these places myrrh, a little frankincense, the harder cinnamon, Indian copal and macir, which are imported into Arabia. Duan Chengshi, a Chinese Tang dynasty scholar, described in his written work of AD 863 the slave trade, ivory trade, ambergris trade of Bobali, thought to be Berbera; the great city was later mentioned by the Islamic traveller Ibn Sa'id as well as Ibn Battuta in the thirteenth century.
Berbera was a powerful and well built city that served as a major harbor port for various of powerful Somali Kingdoms in the Middle Ages like the early Adal Kingdom, Ifat Sultanate and Adal Sultanate. It made Zeila the regional capital due to the latter's strategic location on the Red Sea. In Abu'l-Fida's, A Sketch of the Countries, the present-day Gulf of Aden was called the Gulf of Berbera, which shows how important Berbera was in both regional and international trade during the medieval period. One certainty about Berbera over the following centuries was that it was the site of an annual fair, held between October and April, which Mordechai Abir describes as "among the most important commercial events of the east coast of Africa." The major Somali clan of Isaaq in Somaliland, caravans from Harar and the interior, Banyan merchants from Porbandar and Mumbai gathered to trade. All of this was kept secret from European merchants. Lieutenant C. J. Cruttenden, who wrote a memoir describing this portion of the Somali coast dated 12 May 1848, provided an account of the Berbera fair and an account of the historic environs of the town: "an aqueduct of stone and chunam, some nine miles in length", which had once emptied into a presently dry reservoir adjacent to the ruins of a mosque.
He explored part of its course from the reservoir past a number of tombs built of stones taken from the aqueduct to reach a spring, above which lay "the remains of a small fort or tower of chunam and stone... on the hill-side over the spring." Cruttenden noted that in "style it was different to any houses now found on the Somali coast", concluded with noting the presence in "the neighbourhood of the fort above mentioned abundance of broken glass and pottery... from which I infer that it was a place of considerable antiquity. For centuries, Berbera had extensive trade relations with several historic ports in the Indian Subcontinent, Arabian Peninsula and beyond. Additionally, the Somali and Ethiopian interiors were dependent on Berbera for trade, where most of the goods for export arrived from. During the 1833 trading season, the port town swelled to over 70,000 people, upwards of 6,000 camels laden with goods arrived from the interior within a single day. Berbera was the main marketplace in the entire Somali seaboard for various goods procured from the interior, such as livestock, frankincense, acacia gum, feathers, hide and ivory.
According to a trade journal published in 1856, Berbera was described as “the freest port in the world, the most important trading place on the whole Arabian Gulf.”: Historically, the port of Berbera was controlled indigenously between the mercantile Reer Ahmed Nur and Reer Yunis Nuh sub-clans of the Habar Awal. In the year 1845, the two brotherly sub-clans had a dissension over the control of the trade of Berbera, which lead to a wider altercation in which each side sought outside support. With the backing of Haji Sharmarke Ali Saleh, the Reer Ahmed Nuh drove out their kinsmen and declared themselves the sole commercial masters of Berbera; the defeated Reer Yunis Nuh moved westwards and established the port of Bulhar, which became a trading rival to BerberaBerbera commanded most of the trade traffic with the Somali and Ethiopian interiors. The t
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, reflectivity of any metal; the metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form, as an alloy with gold and other metals, in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold and zinc refining. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many bullion coins, sometimes alongside gold: while it is more abundant than gold, it is much less abundant as a native metal, its purity is measured on a per-mille basis. As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had an enduring role in most human cultures. Other than in currency and as an investment medium, silver is used in solar panels, water filtration, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils, in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, in catalysis of chemical reactions, as a colorant in stained glass and in specialised confectionery.
Its compounds are used in X-ray film. Dilute solutions of silver nitrate and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings and other medical instruments. Silver is similar in its physical and chemical properties to its two vertical neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table and gold, its 47 electrons are arranged in the configuration 4d105s1 to copper and gold. This distinctive electron configuration, with a single electron in the highest occupied s subshell over a filled d subshell, accounts for many of the singular properties of metallic silver. Silver is an soft and malleable transition metal, though it is less malleable than gold. Silver crystallizes in a face-centered cubic lattice with bulk coordination number 12, where only the single 5s electron is delocalized to copper and gold. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in silver are lacking a covalent character and are weak; this observation explains the low high ductility of single crystals of silver.
Silver has a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a high polish, and, so characteristic that the name of the metal itself has become a colour name. Unlike copper and gold, the energy required to excite an electron from the filled d band to the s-p conduction band in silver is large enough that it no longer corresponds to absorption in the visible region of the spectrum, but rather in the ultraviolet. Protected silver has greater optical reflectivity than aluminium at all wavelengths longer than ~450 nm. At wavelengths shorter than 450 nm, silver's reflectivity is inferior to that of aluminium and drops to zero near 310 nm. High electrical and thermal conductivity is common to the elements in group 11, because their single s electron is free and does not interact with the filled d subshell, as such interactions lower electron mobility; the electrical conductivity of silver is the greatest of all metals, greater than copper, but it is not used for this property because of the higher cost.
An exception is in radio-frequency engineering at VHF and higher frequencies where silver plating improves electrical conductivity because those currents tend to flow on the surface of conductors rather than through the interior. During World War II in the US, 13540 tons of silver were used in electromagnets for enriching uranium because of the wartime shortage of copper. Pure silver has the highest thermal conductivity of any metal, although the conductivity of carbon and superfluid helium-4 are higher. Silver has the lowest contact resistance of any metal. Silver forms alloys with copper and gold, as well as zinc. Zinc-silver alloys with low zinc concentration may be considered as face-centred cubic solid solutions of zinc in silver, as the structure of the silver is unchanged while the electron concentration rises as more zinc is added. Increasing the electron concentration further leads to body-centred cubic, complex cubic, hexagonal close-packed phases. Occurring silver is composed of two stable isotopes, 107Ag and 109Ag, with 107Ag being more abundant.
This equal abundance is rare in the periodic table. The atomic weight is 107.8682 u. Both isotopes of silver are produced in stars via the s-process, as well as in supernovas via the r-process. Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 105Ag with a half-life of 41.29 days, 111Ag with a half-life of 7.45 days, 112Ag with a half-life of 3.13 hours. Silver has numerous nuclear isomers, the most stable being 108mAg, 110mAg and 106mAg. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than an hour, the majority of these have half-lives of less than three minutes. Isotopes of silver range in relative atomic mass from 92.950 u
British Pobjoy Mint is a held company-sector mint located in Surrey, which produces commemorative coins, medal and bullion. The mint manufacturers circulating currency for some British Overseas Territories and sovereign countries including Sierra Leone and Vanuatu; the mint was founded in 1965 by Derek Pobjoy who purchased a coin press after leaving his father Ernest Pobjoy's jewellery and masonry business to set up a mint. Upon the death of Winston Churchill in the same year the small mint produced a series of gold medals to commemorate coins. Since 1974, the mint has become involved in the production and international sale of new-issue postage stamps and exclusively coordinates the coin and stamp programmes of seven countries; as manufacturers of gold chains and enamel badges and escutcheons and insignia of all kinds, the Pobjoy Mint has been contractor to the British Crown Agents and various London jewellers, for whom it has executed commissions involving precious metals and gemstones of all kinds.
In the 1970s, the company developed a new metal alloy similar to German Silver known as Virenium which consisted of 81% Copper, 10% Zinc and 9% Nickel. This alloy has been used in non-circulating commemoratives since 1978; the company created the Manx noble, a bullion coin containing one Troy ounce of platinum. The mint's gold angel coin is quoted daily by the Financial Times and Reuters. In 1999, Pobjoy Mint issued the world's first titanium coin, the 1999 Gibraltar Millennium £5 coin The Pobjoy Mint has struck non-circulating and pattern coins for nearly 20% of the world's governments and central banks as well as undertaking sub-contracted work for certain national mints. Many medallion issues have been produced, notably for Hong Kong and the Arab States; the mint has produced eighty different medallions for the World Wide Fund for Nature collection. The mint has struck coins for the following territories Since 1984, Pobjoy Mint has been presented with eighteen awards and other accolades including eighteen Coin of the Year Awards.
Pobjoy Mint was awarded its first Coin of the Year Award in 1984, this has since been followed by various other awards and accolades including the prestigious Queen's Award for Export. In 1991 Pobjoy Mint was nominated in eight categories of the Coin of the Year Award 1990 and was proud when it won four awards including the Overall Coin of the Year. Pobjoy Mint's Awards include: 2011 COTY Most Innovative Coin, First Place Unique Idea Solution for the Silver & Blue Crystal Life of the Sea Turtle, British Indian Ocean Territory 2009 2009 Coin Constellation, First Place Successful Artistic Solution, Sterling Silver Tutankhamun Canopic Coffinette Pyramid Coin, Isle of Man 2008 2009 COTY, Most Innovative Coin, Centenary of the First Colour Photograph, British Virgin Islands 2007 2004 COTY, Most Innovative Coin, Currency Converter, Isle of Man 2002 2003 COTY, Most Inspirational Coin, Florence Nightingale Crown, Gibraltar 2001 2000 COTY, Most Inspirational Coin, Dove of Peace, Bosnia & Herzegovina 1988 1999 COTY, Most Inspirational Coin, Mother Teresa and Princess Diana, Sierra Leone 1997 1998 COTY, Best Contemporary Event, Dayton Peace Accord, Bosnia & Herzegovina 1996 1995 COTY, Most Popular Coin, Stegosaurus Crown, Gibraltar 1993 1994 Children Society Award, awarded to Pobjoy Mint for support and participation in the Daily Mail Le Walk Appeal 1993 ANA Appreciation Award, awarded to Derek Pobjoy by the American Numismatic Association for an outstanding contribution to numismatics 1993 Vreneli-Preis, awarded to Derek Pobjoy by Münzen-Revue for outstanding contribution to numismatics 1992 Medal of Merit, awarded to Derek Pobjoy by the Board of Governors of the American Numismatic Association for dedication and distinguished service to the ANA 1992 COTY, Best Crown, Penny Black Crown, Isle of Man 1990 1992 COTY, Most Popular Coin, Alley Cat Crown, Isle of Man 1990 1992 COTY, Most Innovative Coinage, Penny Black Crown, Isle of Man 1990 1992 COTY, Coin of the Year, Penny Black Crown, Isle of Man 1990 1990 Winner of Queen's Award for Export Achievement 1989 COTY, Best Crown, Olympics – Seoul Games, Cook Islands 1987 1986 COTY, Best Gold Coin, Isle of Man 1984 Official website
Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc, in proportions which can be varied to achieve varying mechanical and electrical properties. It is a substitutional alloy: atoms of the two constituents may replace each other within the same crystal structure. Bronze is an alloy containing copper, but instead of zinc it has tin. Both bronze and brass may include small proportions of a range of other elements including arsenic, phosphorus, aluminium and silicon; the distinction is historical. Modern practice in museums and archaeology avoids both terms for historical objects in favour of the all-embracing "copper alloy". Brass is used for decoration for its bright gold-like appearance, it is used in zippers. Brass is used in situations in which it is important that sparks not be struck, such as in fittings and tools used near flammable or explosive materials. Brass has higher malleability than zinc; the low melting point of brass and its flow characteristics make it a easy material to cast. By varying the proportions of copper and zinc, the properties of the brass can be changed, allowing hard and soft brasses.
The density of brass is 8.4 to 8.73 grams per cubic centimetre. Today 90% of all brass alloys are recycled; because brass is not ferromagnetic, it can be separated from ferrous scrap by passing the scrap near a powerful magnet. Brass scrap is transported to the foundry where it is melted and recast into billets. Billets are extruded into the desired form and size; the general softness of brass means that it can be machined without the use of cutting fluid, though there are exceptions to this. Aluminium makes brass more corrosion-resistant. Aluminium causes a beneficial hard layer of aluminium oxide to be formed on the surface, thin and self-healing. Tin has a similar effect and finds its use in seawater applications. Combinations of iron, aluminium and manganese make brass wear and tear resistant. To enhance the machinability of brass, lead is added in concentrations of around 2%. Since lead has a lower melting point than the other constituents of the brass, it tends to migrate towards the grain boundaries in the form of globules as it cools from casting.
The pattern the globules form on the surface of the brass increases the available lead surface area which in turn affects the degree of leaching. In addition, cutting operations can smear the lead globules over the surface; these effects can lead to significant lead leaching from brasses of comparatively low lead content. In October 1999 the California State Attorney General sued 13 key manufacturers and distributors over lead content. In laboratory tests, state researchers found the average brass key, new or old, exceeded the California Proposition 65 limits by an average factor of 19, assuming handling twice a day. In April 2001 manufacturers agreed to reduce lead content to 1.5%, or face a requirement to warn consumers about lead content. Keys plated with other metals are not affected by the settlement, may continue to use brass alloys with higher percentage of lead content. In California, lead-free materials must be used for "each component that comes into contact with the wetted surface of pipes and pipe fittings, plumbing fittings and fixtures."
On January 1, 2010, the maximum amount of lead in "lead-free brass" in California was reduced from 4% to 0.25% lead. The so-called dezincification resistant brasses, sometimes referred to as CR brasses, are used where there is a large corrosion risk and where normal brasses do not meet the standards. Applications with high water temperatures, chlorides present, or deviating water qualities play a role. DZR-brass is excellent in water boiler systems; this brass alloy must be produced with great care, with special attention placed on a balanced composition and proper production temperatures and parameters to avoid long-term failures. The high malleability and workability good resistance to corrosion, traditionally attributed acoustic properties of brass, have made it the usual metal of choice for construction of musical instruments whose acoustic resonators consist of long narrow tubing folded or coiled for compactness. Collectively known as brass instruments, these include the trombone, trumpet, baritone horn, tenor horn, French horn, many other "horns", many in variously-sized families, such as the saxhorns.
Other wind instruments may be constructed of brass or other metals, indeed most modern student-model flutes and piccolos are made of some variety of brass a cupronickel alloy similar to nickel silver/German silver. Clarinets low clarinets such as the contrabass and subcontrabass, are sometimes made of metal because of limited supplies of the dense, fine-grained tropical hardwoods traditionally preferred for smaller woodwinds. For the same reason, some low clarinets and contrabassoons feature a hybrid construction, with long, straight sections of wood, curved joints, and/or bell of metal; the use of metal avoids the risks of exposing wooden instruments to changes in temperature or humid
A mint mark is a letter, symbol or an inscription on a coin indicating the mint where the coin was produced. Mint marks were first developed to locate a problem. If a coin was underweight, or overweight, the mint mark would tell where the coin was minted, the problem could be located and fixed. Another problem which could occur would be a dishonest mint official debasing the coin, or putting less precious metal in the coin than specified; the first mint marks, called "Magistrate Marks" were developed by the Greeks, named the Magistrate in charge of producing that coin. Debasing a coin, or otherwise tampering with it, was a serious crime punishable by death in many civilizations. For example, in 1649, the directors of the Spanish colonial American Mint at Potosi, in what is today Bolivia, were condemned to death for debasing the coinage; the initials of the assayer as well as the mint mark were immediate identifiers when the coins were inspected. In some cases the symbols found in the field of ancient Greek coins indicated mints, not magistrates.
Mints in territories conquered by Alexander the Great struck coins with the types he used in Macedon but marked with a local symbol. For example, Rhodes struck coins with Alexander’s types marked with a rose, a local symbol used on its own coins. A reform of Diocletian made mint marks a regular feature of ancient Roman coinage; these mint marks were contained three parts. The first part indicates that this was a coin with either SM for Sacra Moneta, M for Moneta, or P for Pecurnia; the second part was an abbreviation of the name of the mint such as ROM for LON for London. The final part indicated the workshop within the mint; the reform of Anastasius, the traditional dividing point between the coinage of the Roman and the Later Roman empires, replaced the mint marks on gold coins by the inscription CONOB, meaning the pure standard of Constantinople, used by a variety of mints. Mint marks continued on copper coinage until the second half of the seventh century, however. Mint names became mandatory under Charlemagne.
In 1389, Charles IV adopted. This scheme placed a dot under the first letter of the legend on coins of Crémieu, under the second letter for Romans, up to the twenty-second letter for Bourges. In the fifteenth century letters or symbols placed at the end of the legend indicating the mint were used in addition to Secret Points. In 1540, Francis I discontinued Secret Points in favor of a system of letters, he made it the rule for mint-masters to place their personal marks on coins, as they had done with increasing frequency since the coinage of Louis XI. This was one of the few royal practices continued by the Republic of France; the mint letters continued until 1898 and the mint-masters marks, supplemented by the mark of the Chief Engraver, are still used. Some Medieval English coins used mint names; when William III retired hammered coinage, branch mints which helped strike machine made coins to replace it put their initials below his bust. The Royal Mint established branches to coin sovereigns near the sources of gold.
These issues show the initials of Sydney, Melbourne and Perth Australia as well as Canada, South Africa, India. The owned Soho Mint obtained a contract to strike royal copper coins with steam presses and put its name on these coins and on coins it minted for other countries; when it closed, Ralph Heaton acquired its equipment, founded the Birmingham Mint, put his H mint mark on coins of Canada, among others. The Spanish Empire introduced mint marks to the New World when they authorized Mexico City to open a mint on 11 May 1535; the Spanish Empire established mints throughout its American territories, each with their own mint mark. After its revolution, Mexico continued to use its colonial Mo monogram mint mark shown on either side of the date in the Spanish Milled Dollar; the United States of America established mints in Charlotte, North Carolina and Dahlonega, Georgia in 1838 after the Georgia Gold Rush and put its first mint marks on the gold coins struck there. Like other countries, the United States has since placed mint marks not only on its own coins but those of its territories, such as the Philippines, other countries for which it has contracts to strike coins, such as Fiji.
In the 19th century, numismatists did not collect coins according to mint mark. A turnaround began after 1893, when A. G. Heaton's "A Treatise on Coinage of the United States Branch Mints" was published. Heaton cited example after example of mint-marked coins that were much scarcer than Philadelphia products and that should bring high premiums; when the United States abandoned silver coinage in 1964, mint marks were removed from the new copper-nickel coins in the belief that it would reduce the removal of coins from circulation by collectors. The silver coins disappeared from circulation, it was feared that if collectors saved too many of the new coins, there would be a serious shortage of coinage. Mint marks were returned to United States coins in 1968; the current mint marks on United States coinage are P, D, S, W for the 4 operating US Mints. The letter P is used for the Philadelphia Mint, D for the Denver Mint, S for the San Francisco Mint, W for the West Point Mint. Over time there have been 9 official United States Mints.
The first US Mint was in Philadelphia which began coin production with large cents and the half cents of pure coppe
The Somali shilling is the official currency of Somalia. It is subdivided into cents or centesimi; the shilling has been the currency of parts of Somalia since 1921, when the East African shilling was introduced to the former British Somaliland protectorate. Following independence in 1960, the somalo of Italian Somaliland and the East African shilling were replaced at par in 1962 by the Somali shilling. Names used for the denominations were cent and سنت together with shilling and شلن. On 15 October 1962, the Banca Nazionale Somala issued notes denominated as 5, 10, 20 and 100 scellini/shillings. In 1975, the Bankiga Qaranka Soomaaliyeed introduced notes for 10, 20 and 100 shilin/shillings; these were followed in 1978 by notes of the same denominations issued by the Bankiga Dhexe Ee Soomaaliya. 50 shilin/shillings notes were introduced in 1983, followed by 500 shilin/shillings in 1989 and 1000 shilin/shillings in 1990. In 1990 there was an attempt to reform the currency at 100 to 1, with new banknotes of 20 and 50 new shilin prepared for the redenomination.
In terms of coins, the East African shilling and somalo circulated. In 1967, coins were issued in the name of the Somali Republic in denominations of 5, 10 and 50 cents/centesimi and 1 shilling/scellino. In 1976, when the Somali names for the denominations were introduced, coins were issued in the name of the Somali Democratic Republic for 5, 10 and 50 senti and 1 shilling. Following the breakdown in central authority that accompanied the civil war, which began in the early 1990s, the value of the Somali shilling was disrupted; the Central Bank of Somalia, the nation's monetary authority shut down operations. Rival producers of the local currency, including autonomous regional entities such as the Somaliland territory, subsequently emerged; these included the Na shilling, which failed to gain widespread acceptance, the Balweyn I and II, which were forgeries of pre-1991 bank notes. Competition for seigniorage drove the value of the money down to about $0.04 per ShSo note the commodity cost. Consumers refused to accept bills larger than the 1991 denominations, which helped to stop the devaluation from spiraling further.
The pre-1991 notes and the subsequent forgeries were treated as the same currency. It took large bundles to make cash purchases, the United States dollar was used for larger transactions; the Somaliland shilling is the official currency of Somaliland, a self-declared republic, not internationally recognized and acts as an autonomous region of Somalia. The currency is not recognized as legal tender by the international community, it has no official exchange rate, it is regulated by the Bank of the regions central bank and Somaliland people. In the late 2000s, Somalia's newly established Transitional Federal Government revived the defunct Central Bank of Somalia. In terms of financial management, the monetary authority is in the process of assuming the task of both formulating and implementing monetary policy. Owing to a lack of confidence in the Somali shilling, the U. S. dollar is accepted as a medium of exchange alongside the Somali shilling. Dollarization notwithstanding, the large issuance of the Somali shilling has fueled price hikes for low-value transactions.
The new central bank of Somalia expects this inflationary environment to come to an end as soon as the Central Bank assumes full control of monetary policy and replaces the presently circulating currency introduced by the private sector. With a significant improvement in local security, Somali expatriates began returning to the country for investment opportunities. Coupled with modest foreign investment, the inflow of funds have helped the Somali shilling increase in value. By March 2014, the currency had appreciated by 60% against the U. S. dollar over the previous 12 months. The Somali shilling was the strongest among the 175 global currencies traded by Bloomberg, rising close to 50 percentage points higher than the next most robust global currency over the same period. Free market rates in Somalia: 2000 SOS/USD in June 1991 5000 SOS/USD in June 1993 13,400 SOS/USD in March 2006 14,406 SOS/USD in August 2006 15,000 SOS/USD in February 2007 25,000 SOS/USD in March 2008 35,000 SOS/USD in July 2008 28,250 SOS/USD in March 2009 33,300 SOS/USD in February 2010 27,000 SOS/USD in October 2011 19,000 SOS/USD in December 2012 15,000 SOS/USD in May 2013 1,001 SOS/USD in March 2014 725 SOS/USD in December 2014 697.5 SOS/USD in April 2015 Economy of Somalia The History of British Currency in the Middle East Somalia at Islamic Banknotes Somalia