Norwich is a historic city in Norfolk, England. Situated on the River Wensum in East Anglia, it lies 100 miles north-east of London, it is the county town of Norfolk and is considered the capital of East Anglia, with a population of 141,300. From the Middle Ages until the Industrial Revolution, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, one of the most important; the city is the most complete medieval city in the UK, including cobbled streets such as Elm Hill, Timber Hill and Tombland, ancient buildings such as St Andrew's Hall, half-timbered houses such as Dragon Hall, The Guildhall and Strangers' Hall, the Art Nouveau of the 1899 Royal Arcade, many medieval lanes and the winding River Wensum that flows through the city centre towards Norwich Castle. The city has two universities, the University of East Anglia and the Norwich University of the Arts, two cathedrals, Norwich Cathedral and St John the Baptist Cathedral. Norwich is the only city containing part of a National Park, the Norfolk Broads, it holds the largest permanent undercover market in Europe.
The urban area of Norwich had a population of 213,166 according to the 2011 Census. The parliamentary seats cross over into adjacent local-government districts. A total of 132,512 people live in the City of Norwich and the population of the Norwich Travel to Work Area is 282,000. Norwich is the fourth most densely populated local-government district in the East of England, with 3,480 people per square kilometre. In May 2012, Norwich was designated England's first UNESCO City of Literature. One of the UK's most popular tourist destinations, it was voted by The Guardian in 2016 as the "happiest city to work in the UK" and in 2013 as one of the best small cities in the world by The Times Good University Guide. In 2018, Norwich was voted one of the "Best Places To Live" in the UK by The Sunday Times; the capital of the Iceni tribe was a settlement located near to the village of Caistor St. Edmund on the River Tas 8 kilometres to the south of modern-day Norwich. Following an uprising led by Boudica around AD 60 the Caistor area became the Roman capital of East Anglia named Venta Icenorum "the marketplace of the Iceni".
The Roman settlement fell into disuse around 450 and the Anglo-Saxons settled on the site of the modern city between the 5th and 7th centuries, founding the towns of Northwic and the secondary settlement at Thorpe. According to a local rhyme, the demise of Venta Icenorum led to the development of Norwich: "Caistor was a city when Norwich was none, Norwich was built of Caistor stone." There are two suggested models of development for Norwich. It is possible that three separate early Anglo-Saxon settlements, one on the north of the river and two either side on the south, joined together as they grew or that one Anglo-Saxon settlement, on the north of the river, emerged in the mid-7th century after the abandonment of the previous three; the ancient city was a thriving centre for trade and commerce in East Anglia in 1004 when it was raided and burnt by Swein Forkbeard the Viking king of Denmark. Mercian coins and shards of pottery from the Rhineland dating from the 8th century suggest that long-distance trade was happening long before this.
Between 924 and 939, Norwich became established as a town, with its own mint. The word Norvic appears on coins across Europe minted during this period, in the reign of King Athelstan; the Vikings were a strong cultural influence in Norwich for 40 to 50 years at the end of the 9th century, setting up an Anglo-Scandinavian district near the north end of present day King Street. At the time of the Norman Conquest the city was one of the largest in England; the Domesday Book states that it had 25 churches and a population of between 5,000 and 10,000. It records the site of an Anglo-Saxon church in Tombland, the site of the Saxon market place and the Norman cathedral. Norwich continued to be a major centre for trade, the River Wensum being a convenient export route to the River Yare and Great Yarmouth, which served as the port for Norwich. Quern stones and other artefacts from Scandinavia and the Rhineland have been found during excavations in Norwich city centre; these date from the 11th century onwards.
Norwich Castle was founded soon after the Norman Conquest. The Domesday Book records; the Normans established a new focus of settlement around the Castle and the area to the west of it: this became known as the "New" or "French" borough, centred on the Normans' own market place which survives to the present day as Norwich Market. In 1096, Herbert de Losinga, Bishop of Thetford, began construction of Norwich Cathedral; the chief building material for the Cathedral was limestone. To transport the building stone to the site, a canal was cut from the river, all the way up to the east wall. Herbert de Losinga moved his See there to what became the cathedral church for the Diocese of Norwich; the Bishop of Norwich still signs himself Norvic. Norwich received a royal charter from Henry II in 1158, another one from Richard the Lionheart in 1194. Following a riot in the city in 1274, Norwich has the distinction of being the only complete English city to be excommunicated by the Pope; the first recorded presence of Jews in Norwich is 1134.
In 1144, the Jews of Norwich were accused of ritual murder after a boy was found dead with stab wounds. William acquired the status of martyr
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Sir Thomas Allin, 1st Baronet
Admiral Sir Thomas Allin, 1st Baronet was an officer of the Royal Navy who saw service in the English Civil War, the Second and Third Anglo-Dutch Wars. A Royalist during the Civil War, he returned to service after the Restoration and rose to the rank of Admiral of the White after serving under some of the most distinguished military figures of the era, including Prince Rupert of the Rhine. Thomas Allin was born in the son of Robert Allin, he lived at what is now 29/30 High Street in Lowestoft for the first part of his life, where he was a merchant and shipowner. On the outbreak of the English Civil War in 1642, Allin sided with the Royalists, in common with most of the town, he played a significant part in the subsequent privateering operations against Lowestoft's Parliamentarian rivals at Great Yarmouth, transferred his operations to the Netherlands for greater security. He remained in the service of Prince Rupert of the Rhine in the exiled royalist fleet after the Civil War, as evidenced by the issuing of Prince Rupert's Further Instructions for Captain Thomas Allen.
He commanded the Royalists' Charles in 1648 until her capture in 1649, subsequently commanded the Convertine in 1650. Allin was rewarded for his loyalty to the monarchy after the English Restoration by being given command of HMS Dover on 24 June 1660, he went on to command HMS Plymouth and HMS Foresight during 1661, HMS Lion during 1662 and HMS Rainbow during 1663. During 1663 he was made Commander-in-Chief, the Downs with the rank of commodore, flying his pennant aboard HMS St Andrew from 15 April 1664. In 1664 Allin was nominated to succeed Sir John Lawson as commander in the Mediterranean, sailed to take up his command aboard the Plymouth from 26 June, in company with HMS Crown, he operated out of Tangier and while operating in the Straits of Gibraltar he and his fleet intercepted and engaged the Dutch Smyrna fleet on 9 December and sinking several of the Dutch ships. Allin returned to England in the spring of 1665, took part in the Battle of Lowestoft on 13 June 1665. For his achievements he was awarded a knighthood on 24 June and was appointed an Admiral of the Blue squadron under the Earl of Sandwich.
He flew his flag in HMS Royal James from 19 July 1665 and became an Admiral of the White on 16 March 1666. Prince Rupert came aboard, with orders to take the squadron into the English Channel to intercept a French fleet believed to sailing up the Channel to join with the Dutch. Rupert retained Allin as his first captain for this assignment, but the intelligence was proved to be false, no French fleet was found. By now though the rest of the English fleet under the Duke of Albemarle had sailed out to engage a Dutch fleet under Michiel de Ruyter, the Four Days Battle had broken out. Rupert and Allin hurried back and met up with the harried and outnumbered English fleet on the third day, managing to hold the Dutch off long enough to allow a successful disengagement and covering the retreat; the next engagement with the Dutch fleet took place on 4 August 1666, at the St. James's Day Battle. Allin was in command of the van squadron, led the attack, engaging the Dutch van throughout the day, chasing them from the battle scene the following day contributing to the English victory.
Allin was placed in command of a squadron off Dungeness, on 17 September after a battle with an allied French and Dutch fleet he captured the French ship Rubis, taken into service as HMS French Ruby. Allin's next command was to take over the Mediterranean forces in 1668, after the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War, to operate against the Barbary corsairs. A treaty was duly signed with the Algerians, but by 1669 Allin was employed again in chastising the pirates for breaches of the treaty, during which time he captured and destroyed a large number of pirate vessels, he returned to England after this and on 15 April 1671 he became Comptroller of the Navy, a post he held throughout the Third Anglo-Dutch War and continued to hold until 28 January 1680. On 7 February 1673 Allin was created a baronet for his services, he returned to active service in 1678 when the threat of war with France emerged, Allin became commander in chief of the fleet in the Narrow Seas, with HMS Royal James as his flagship.
He resigned the command. Allin retired from active service in 1678, settling at his country seat at Somerleyton Hall, Somerleyton, he served as Captain of Sandgate Castle, a Master of Trinity House. He died in 1685, was buried in the parish church at Somerleyton on 5 October 1685, he had been twice married, his first marriage producing his son and heir Thomas Allin, two daughters, his second marriage produced another daughter
The rood screen is a common feature in late medieval church architecture. It is an ornate partition between the chancel and nave, of more or less open tracery constructed of wood, stone, or wrought iron; the rood screen would have been surmounted by a rood loft carrying the Great Rood, a sculptural representation of the Crucifixion. In English and Welsh cathedral and collegiate churches, there were two transverse screens, with a rood screen or rood beam located one bay west of the pulpitum screen, but this double arrangement nowhere survives complete, accordingly the preserved pulpitum in such churches is sometimes referred to as a rood screen. At Wells Cathedral the medieval arrangement was restored in the 20th century, with the medieval strainer arch supporting a rood, placed in front of the pulpitum and organ. Rood screens can be found in churches in many parts of Europe: the German word for one is Lettner. However, in Catholic countries they were removed during the Counter-reformation, when the retention of any visual barrier between the laity and the high altar was seen as inconsistent with the decrees of the Council of Trent.
Accordingly, rood screens now survive in much greater numbers in Lutheran churches. The iconostasis in Eastern Christian churches is a visually similar barrier, but is now considered to have a different origin, deriving from the ancient altar screen or templon; the word rood is derived from the Saxon word rood or rode, meaning "cross". The rood screen is so called because it was surmounted by the Rood itself, a large figure of the crucified Christ. To either side of the Rood, there stood supporting statues of saints Mary and St John, in an arrangement comparable to the Deesis always found in the centre of an Orthodox iconostasis. Latterly in England and Wales the Rood tended to rise above a narrow loft, which could be substantial enough to be used as a singing gallery; the panels and uprights of the screen did not support the loft, which instead rested on a substantial transverse beam called the "rood beam" or "candle beam". Access was via a narrow rood stair set into the piers supporting the chancel arch.
In parish churches, the space between the rood beam and the chancel arch was filled by a boarded or lath and plaster tympanum, set behind the rood figures and painted with a representation of the Last Judgement. The roof panels of the first bay of the nave were richly decorated to form a celure or canopy of honour; the carving or construction of the rood screen included latticework, which makes it possible to see through the screen from the nave into the chancel. The term "chancel" itself derives from the Latin word cancelli meaning "lattice"; the passage through the rood screen was fitted with doors, which were kept locked except during services. The terms. From this it was concluded by Victorian liturgists that the specification ad pulpitum for the location for Gospel lections in the rubrics of the Use of Sarum referred both to the cathedral pulpitum screen and the parish rood loft. However, rood stairs in English parish churches are if found to have been built wide enough to accommodate the Gospel procession required in the Sarum Use.
The specific functions of the late medieval parish rood loft and above supporting the rood and its lights, remain an issue of conjecture and debate. In this respect it may be significant that, although there are terms for a rood screen in the vernacular languages of Europe, there is no counterpart specific term in liturgical Latin. Nor does the 13th century liturgical commentator Durandus refer directly to rood screens or rood lofts; this is consistent with the ritual uses of rood lofts being a late medieval development. Until the 6th century the altar of Christian churches would have been in full view of the congregation, separated only by a low altar rail around it. Large churches had a ciborium, or canopy on four columns, over the altar, from which hung altar curtains which were closed at certain points in the liturgy. However, following the example of the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, churches began to surround their altars with a colonnade or templon which supported a decorated architrave beam along which a curtain could be drawn to veil the altar at specific points in the consecration of the Eucharist.
In Rome the ritual choir tended to be located west of the altar screen, this choir area was surrounded by cancelli, or low chancel screens. These arrangements still survive in the Roman basilicas of San Clemente and Santa Maria in Cosmedin, as well as St Mark's Basilica in Venice. In the Eastern Church, the templon and its associated curtains and decorations evolved into the modern iconostasis. In the
East Suffolk (district)
East Suffolk is a local government district in Suffolk, established on 1 April 2019, following the merger of the existing Suffolk Coastal and Waveney districts. At the 2011 census, the two districts had a combined population of 239,552; the main towns in the new district include Lowestoft, Bungay, Saxmundham, Leiston, as well parts of the wider Ipswich built-up area including Kesgrave and Woodbridge. The district covers a smaller area compared to the former administrative county of East Suffolk, abolished by the Local Government Act 1972. 2019 structural changes to local government in England West Suffolk, another district, created in Suffolk on 1 April 2019. Official website
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri
The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th-century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church. These events were, in part, associated with the wider process of the European Protestant Reformation, a religious and political movement that affected the practice of Christianity across western and central Europe during this period. Many factors contributed to the process: the decline of feudalism and the rise of nationalism, the rise of the common law, the invention of the printing press and increased circulation of the Bible, the transmission of new knowledge and ideas among scholars, the upper and middle classes and readers in general. However, the various phases of the English Reformation, which covered Wales and Ireland, were driven by changes in government policy, to which public opinion accommodated itself. Based on Henry VIII's desire for an annulment of his marriage, the English Reformation was at the outset more of a political affair than a theological dispute.
The reality of political differences between Rome and England allowed growing theological disputes to come to the fore. Until the break with Rome, it was general councils of the Church that decided doctrine. Church law was governed by canon law with final jurisdiction in Rome. Church taxes were paid straight to Rome, the Pope had the final word in the appointment of bishops; the break with Rome was effected by a series of acts of Parliament passed between 1532 and 1534, among them the 1534 Act of Supremacy, which declared that Henry was the "Supreme Head on earth of the Church of England". Final authority in doctrinal and legal disputes now rested with the monarch, the papacy was deprived of revenue and the final say on the appointment of bishops; the theology and liturgy of the Church of England became markedly Protestant during the reign of Henry's son Edward VI along lines laid down by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer. Under Mary, the whole process was reversed and the Church of England was again placed under papal jurisdiction.
Soon after, Elizabeth reintroduced the Protestant faith but in a more moderate manner. The structure and theology of the church was a matter of fierce dispute for generations; the violent aspect of these disputes, manifested in the English Civil Wars, ended when the last Roman Catholic monarch, James II, was deposed, Parliament asked William III and Mary II to rule jointly in conjunction with the English Bill of Rights in 1688, from which emerged a church polity with an established church and a number of non-conformist churches whose members at first suffered various civil disabilities that were removed over time. The legacy of the past Roman Catholic Establishment remained an issue for some time, still exists today. A substantial minority remained Roman Catholic in England, in an effort to disestablish it from British systems, their church organisation remained illegal until the 19th century; the Reformation was a clash of two opposed schemes of salvation. The Roman Catholic Church taught that the contrite person could cooperate with God towards their salvation by performing good works.
Protestants taught that fallen humanity was helpless and under condemnation until given the grace of God through faith. An earlier reform movement that anticipated some Protestant teachings but remained outside the religious mainstream was Lollardy. Derived from the writings of John Wycliffe, a 14th-century theologian and Bible translator, Lollardy stressed the primacy of scripture and emphasised the preaching of the word over the sacrament of the altar, holding the latter to be but a memorial. Unlike Protestants, the early Lollards lacked access to the printing press and failed to gain a foothold among the church's most popular communicators, the friars. Unable to gain access to the levers of power, the Lollards were much reduced in numbers and influence by the 15th century, they sometimes faced investigation and persecution and produced new literature after 1450. Lollards could still be found—especially in London and the Thames Valley, in Essex and Kent, Bristol and in the North—and many would be receptive to Protestant ideas.
More respectable and orthodox calls for reform came from Renaissance humanists, such as Erasmus, John Colet, Dean of St Paul's, Thomas More. Humanists downplayed the role of rites and ceremonies in achieving salvation and criticised the superstitious veneration of relics. Erasmus and Colet emphasised a simple, personal piety and a return ad fontes, back to the sources of Christian faith—the scriptures as understood through textual and linguistic scholarship. Colet's commentaries on the Pauline epistles emphasized double predestination and the worthlessness of human works. Anne Boleyn's own religious views were shaped by French humanists such as Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples, whose 1512 commentaries on Paul's epistles stated that human works were irrelevant to salvation five years before Luther published the same views. Humanist scholarship provided arguments against papal primacy and support for the claim that popes had usurped powers that rightfully belonged to kings. In 1534, Lorenzo Valla's On the Donation of Constantine—which proved that one of the pillars of the papacy's temporal authority was a hoax—was published in London.
Thomas Cromwell paid for an English translation of Marsiglio of Padua's Defensor pacis in 1535. The conservative cleric Stephen Gardiner used Marsiglio's theory of a unitary realm to defend royal power over spiritual as w