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Somerset County, New Jersey

Somerset County is a county located in the central of the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2018 Census estimate, the county's population was 331,164, a 3.7% increase from the 2010 United States Census, making it the 13th most populous of the state's 21 counties. Somerset County is part of the New York Metropolitan Area, its county seat is Somerville. The most populous place was Franklin Township, with 62,300 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, while Hillsborough Township, covered 55.00 square miles, the largest total area of any municipality. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $86,468, the second highest in New Jersey and ranked 25th of 3,113 counties in the United States. Somerset County, as of the 2000 Census, was the seventh wealthiest county in the United States by median household income at $76,933, fourth in median family income at $90,655 and ranked seventh by per capita income at $37,970; the Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 11th-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States as of 2009.

In 2012, 49.8 percent of Somerset County residents were college graduates, the highest percentage in the state. Somerset County was ranked number 3 of 21 NJ counties as one of the healthiest counties in New Jersey, according to an annual report by County Health Rankings and Roadmaps. Somerset County was created on May 1688, from portions of Middlesex County. Somerset County is one of America's oldest counties, is named after the English county of Somerset; the area was first settled in 1681, in the vicinity of Bound Brook, the county was established by charter on May 22, 1688. Most of the early residents were Dutch. General George Washington and his troops marched through the county on several occasions and slept in many of the homes located throughout the area. Somerset County played an important part during both World War I and World War II with weapons depots and the manufacturing of the army's woolen blankets. For much of its history, Somerset County was an agricultural county. In the late 19th century, the Somerset Hills area of Somerset County became a popular country home for wealthy industrialists.

The area is still the home of wealthy pharmaceutical industrialists. In 1917, Somerset County, in cooperation with Rutgers University, hired its first agricultural agent to connect local farmers with expert advice; the Rutgers Cooperative Extension of Somerset County, located in Bridgewater, serves residents in the areas of agriculture and natural resources, 4-H youth development and family and community health sciences. In the 1960s, townships that were once agricultural were transformed into suburban communities. Examples include Bridgewater Township and the Watchung Hills communities of Watchung, Green Brook and Warren Township; this growth was aided by the development of the county's strong pharmaceutical and technology presence. Warren Township used to be considered "the greenest place in New Jersey." More there has been an influx of New York City commuters who use NJ Transit's Raritan Valley Line and Gladstone Branch or use Interstate 78. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 304.86 square miles, including 301.81 square miles of land and 3.04 square miles of water.

The high point is on Mine Mountain in Bernardsville, at 860 feet above sea level. The lowest point is just above sea level on the Raritan River at the Middlesex County line. Somerset County borders the following counties: Morris County – north Union County – east Middlesex County – southeast Mercer County – south Hunterdon County – west In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Somerville have ranged from a low of 18 °F in January to a high of 85 °F in July, although a record low of −16 °F was recorded in January 1984 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in August 1955. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.84 inches in February to 4.83 inches in July. The county has a humid continental climate, hot-summer except on Mine Mountain west of Bernardsville where it is warm-summer; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 323,444 people, 117,759 households, 84,668.721 families living in the county. The population density was 1,071.7 per square mile. There were 123,127 housing units at an average density of 408 per square mile.

The racial makeup of the county was 70.06% White, 8.95% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 14.11% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 4.13% from other races, 2.55% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.01% of the population. There were 117,759 households out of which 35.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.8% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.1% were non-families. 23.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.22. In the county, the population was spread out with 25% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 29.8% from 45 to 64, 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.2 years. For every 100 females there were 95.1 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 91.8 males. At the 2000 United States Census there were 297,490 people, 108,984 households

Alais, Yselda, and Carenza

Alais and Yselda were two young noble trobairitz sisters or nuns, who wrote an Occitan tenso with an elderly woman named Carenza. Their poem begins Na Carenza al bel cors avinen, the first two stanzas were composed by Alais and Yselda, it is the last two stanzas, composed by Carenza. Magda Bogin and Peter Dronke have read the opening line of both her stanzas as beginning with the address N'Alais i na Iselda. There is, however, an alternative interpretation that sees the address as to a "N'Alaisina Iselda". Under this interpretation, there are two, not three, interlocutors in the poem: Carenza and Alaisina Yselda. Within the poem, in favour of the multiplicity of younger women is the phrase nos doas serors, but against it is the continuous use of the first person singular; the poem is preserved amidst a collection of coblas esparsas in only one Italian chansonnier. Whoever wrote it, Na Carenza al bel cors avinen is eludes full comprehension. Bogin went so far as to classify the last four lines of Carenza's part as trobar clus, making it only the second example in trobairitz literature after that of Lombarda.

The language is religious in others colloquial. Carenza's reference to marriage with Coronat de Scienza has raised eyebrows; the obscure phrase is a Cathar or Gnostic name for Jesus Christ, but just a colourfully orthodox senhal for God. Parallel to the colloquial/religious lexical dichotomy is the general contrast in tenor between the "serious" and "playful" portions of the text. References to Carenza's sagging breasts are balanced by the sisters' earnest plea for answers to their questions about marital decisions. According to Bogin, Carenza is advising her interlocutor to avoid earthly marriage and "marry God". Under the interpretation of Pierre Bec, Carenza is recommending marriage to an educated cleric, who will appreciate virginity and give her a glorious son. Renat Nelli explains the entire débat as a Cathar exercise in worldly renunciation, while Angelica Rieger treats it as a traditional debate tenso on the value of marriage; the most unconventional interpretation has been put forward by Patrician Anderson.

Anderson theorises. Carenza therefore represents the virgin, Alais the peasant, Iselda the noblewoman. Intertextually, Na Carenza has links with works by Arnaut de Maruelh and with the court of Azalais, the daughter of Raymond V of Toulouse and wife of Roger II Trencavel. English translations exist by Bogin and Rieger

Pennsylvania Young Republicans

The Pennsylvania Young Republicans is an organization for members of the Republican Party of the United States between the ages of 18 and 40 in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Known as the Young Republicans of Pennsylvania or the Pennsylvania Federation of Young Republicans, the organization is composed of chapters located in counties in Pennsylvania; the chapters of the Pennsylvania Young Republicans are both political in nature. Many of them sponsor networking events for members. In addition, the chapters assist Republican political causes; the oldest Young Republican chapter in Pennsylvania is the Chester County Young Republican chapter, founded on July 4, 1931. The Pennsylvania Young Republican organization is an active member of the Young Republican National Federation; the PAYR is the parent organization for its local chapters. The state organization approves and oversees its local chapters organized by county or multi-county bodies; the PAYR is led by the state chairman. The chairman is head of the executive committee, which includes the vice chair, national committee man & national committee woman, secretary, executive director and appointees of the chairman.

The chairman leads the board of directors, an advisory body composed of appointees and the chairs of recognized chapters. State officers are elected at biannual state conventions during odd years. Voting rights belong to each member of the executive committee and delegates appointed by local chapters. Chapters may be formally recognized by the state organization after having a small group of active members petition for a charter and by having the chapter re-apply on an annual basis. Unsanctioned chapters are those who have not gained formal approval from the Executive Committee of the Pennsylvania Young Republicans and are in violation of trademark laws when using the term "Young Republican", owned by the Young Republican National Federation and, through the formal association with the national organization, granted to its chapters by the Pennsylvania Young Republicans; the PAYR is formally chartered by the Young Republican National Federation and recognized by the Republican Party of Pennsylvania as its youth auxiliary with its state chairman serving as a member of the state party's leadership committee.

The YRNF owns the trademark to the term "Young Republican" and the YRNF logo. Official chapters of the Pennsylvania Young Republicans: Allegheny County Chapter Blair County Chapter Bedford County Chapter Berks County Chapter Bucks County Chapter Butler County Chapter Centre County Chapter Chester County Chapter Crawford County Chapter Cumberland County Chapter Dauphin County Chapter Delaware County Chapter Erie County Chapter Fayette County Chapter Franklin County Chapter Lackawanna County Chapter Lancaster County Chapter Lebanon County Chapter Lehigh Valley Chapter consisting of Lehigh and Northampton counties Luzerne County Chapter Lycoming County Chapter Monroe County Chapter Montgomery County Chapter Perry County Chapter Philadelphia County Chapter Pike County Chapter Schuylkill County Chapter Susquehanna Valley Chapter consisting of Snyder and Northumberland counties Warren County Chapter Washington County Chapter Westmoreland County Chapter Wyoming County Chapter York County Chapter Jim Cawley, Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania Scott Perry, Pennsylvania 4th Congressional District Rick Santorum, former U.

S. Senator of Pennsylvania Greg Rothman, Pennsylvania State Representative College Republicans Teen Age Republicans Republicans Overseas Jon Grinspan, "'Young Men for War': The Wide Awakes and Lincoln's 1860 Presidential Campaign," Journal of American History, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 357–378. In JSTOR "PA Young Republicans Elect New Leadership," Pottstown Mercury. Digital First Media Pennsylvania Young Republicans Young Republican National Federation

Chris Jack

Christopher Raymond Jack is a former New Zealand rugby union player who played as a lock. He played for Canterbury and the Tasman Mako in the National Provincial Championship and its successor, the Air New Zealand Cup, his test debut for the All Blacks was against Argentina on 23 June 2001 in Christchurch. With his size and athleticism, he established himself as a regular in the All Blacks side, it was announced on 7 June 2006 that Jack had signed a two-year contract with the newly formed Tasman Rugby Union. He spent two years with the English Premiership side Saracens joining after the 2007 Rugby World Cup, joining another New Zealand player, Glen Jackson. In April 2009 he re-signed with the New Zealand Rugby Union until 2011, he played with South African side Western Province and made a return to Super 14 side Crusaders for the 2010 season. Retiring in 2015, Jack has taken up a builders apprenticeship. Based in Nelson, Jack has taken up the position as the Nelson Child Cancer Foundation ambassador.

His father is involved in the building industry. In 2002, Jack was named the New Zealand rugby player of the year. Scored a try 11 minutes after coming on as a replacement against Argentina on his international debut in 2001. Scored a try in New Zealand’s opening match of the RWC 2007 against Italy. Played in six RWC matches, five in 2003 and one in 2007. Chris Jack at AllBlacks.com

Florence and Cripple Creek Railroad

The Florence and Cripple Creek Railroad was a 3 ft narrow-gauge railroad running northward from junctions with the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad at the mill towns of Florence and moved to Cañon City, Colorado, on the banks of the Arkansas River, up steep and narrow Phantom Canyon to the Cripple Creek Mining District, west of Pikes Peak. It was founded in 1893 and went out of business in 1915 Started in 1893, it was the first railroad to reach the new, booming mining district from the "outside world" and as a result it earned substantial profits in its first years; the railroad hauled people and goods into the mining district, ore concentrates from the mines south for milling in either Florence, through a branch line to Canon City, or transfer to the D&RG for milling in Pueblo, Colorado. The F&CC's first main terminal was located in Victor, the "second city" of the district but its branch lines served many of the largest mines within the area; the F&CC began to struggle financially as other competing railroads, built to the 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge, Midland Terminal and Colorado Springs & Cripple Creek District Railroads entered the district from Colorado Springs from the north or east.

In addition, flash floods washed out significant sections of the F&CC mainline in the narrows of Phantom Canyon several times. By the early 1900s, the railroad was in serious financial trouble and merged with other railroads of the area under the Cripple Creek Central holding company. A final, large flash flood destroyed enough of the F&CC's right-of-way to convince its new owners it was financially unwise to spend money rebuilding it; the railroad went out of business in 1915. The F&CC's well-kept motive power, twelve 2-8-0 Consolidation freight engines, six 4-6-0 Ten-Wheelers passenger engines, one 2-4-4 T engine to power commuter trains were sold to other area 3 ft gauge railroads. An F&CC subsidiary, the Golden Circle Railroad, which operated 3 ft commuter routes within the district itself, continued to operate for several more years after its parent's abandonment. Today Phantom Canyon Road, which incorporates much of the original grade for this route but has fewer crossings of the creek, is part of the Gold Belt Byway and is open to traffic for most of the summer months.

The Canon City branch follows County Road 123 from the Phantom Canyon Road to US 50 near Canon City. The graded gravel Phantom Canyon road has a unique bent bridge. Cripple Creek & Victor Narrow Gauge Railroad Cafky, Morris Rails Around Gold Hill Feitz, Cripple Creek Railroads, 1968, Golden Bell Press Ferrell, M. H.. The Cripple Creek Road. Lewis, Allan C.. Florence & Cripple Creak Railroad: Forty Miles to Fortune. Denver, CO: Sundance Publications, Limited. ISBN 978-0-913582-72-5. McFarland, Edward M; the Cripple Creek Road: a Midland Terminal guide and data book. Boulder, CO: Pruett Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-87108-647-1. OCLC 9044886. Wilkins, Tivis E. Colorado Rail Annual No. 13: A History of the Florence & Cripple Creek Railroad THE FLORENCE AND CRIPPLE CREEK RAILROAD from The Cripple Creek Times New Year 1903 The History of the Florence & Cripple Creek Railroad

Sat Gambuj Mosque

The Sat Gambuj Mosque is near the northwestern outskirts of Dhaka in the Jafarbad area. It is a fine example of the provincial Mughal style of architecture introduced in Bangladesh in the 17th century; the mosque's most notable features are its seven bulbous domes crowning the roof and covering the main prayer hall. Erected by Governor Shaista Khan, the monument stands in a romantic setting on a buttressed 15-foot-high bank overlooking an extensive flood plain. A few kilometers to the north of Peelkhana, for long the end of Mughal Dhaka, was the Jafarbad or Katasur area part of mouza Sarai Begumpur. Many of the mouzas were delineated during the reign of Shershah and by Kartalab Khan. A small urban settlement on a route along the river, this was an alternative to reach Brahmaputra or Garh Jaripa without having to go through the hostile areas along the main stream of Sitalakhya and Brahmaputra on the east; this is evident from its geographic and strategic location, origin of the names of the locality, the remnants around it.

The place where the seven-domed mosque is was known as Sarai Jafarbad or Katasur, under Sarai Begumpur. There was a small agricultural community in between Pilkhana and Jafarbad where the Sat Gambuj Mosque was built; the area became like a jungle due to disuse and desertion during the British period. However, in last 55 years, it has become one of the most planned and most expensive residential enclaves of Dhaka; the Sat Masjid Road is the major peripheral road of the district to its west and is believed to have been built along where the old Bank river Turag was. Picturesquely situated on the edge of a river, the Sat Gambuj Mosque's exterior is the most innovative of all the Dhaka Mughal-period monuments; the north and south ends of this three-domed rectangular mosque are each marked by two enormous double-storied corner pavilions. On the east are three cusped entrances arches flanked by shallow niches. Slender engaged, its interior compares favourably with that of others dating to the second half of the 17th century.

The central mihrab has two rows of cusping, its surface is embellished with moulded plaster relief, recalling the ornateness of the mihrab in the mosque of Haji Khwaja Shahbaz. It used forms shapes — octagon, square and circle — all beautifully juxtaposed. Besides the typical three domes on the main prayer hall, there are four hollow double-storey domed corner towers that gave rise to its name; the corner turret provided structural stability and visual balance to the 38'×27' building on a river bank and was used as viewing galleries for enjoying the river. The upper level of the octagonal turrets starts from around half the height of the main prayer hall. Both levels have arched panels and windows, surmounted by cornice and capped by domes with kalasha finials planted on lotus base. Otherwise with a bigger dome in the middle flanked by two smaller ones, the mosque bears all the characteristic features of Shaista Khani style. However, though the qibla facades of most such buildings remain unadorned, that of the Sat Gambuj Mosque is decorated with recessions within moulded panels, the middle portion delineated by two slender pilasters protruding.

These are much bigger than those seen at the front. The three central panels have an arch-shape on the lower part; the mosque has three cusped entrance arches, the middle one being taller and edged with multi-foil arch, a late-Mughal refinement, flanked by shallow niches and rectangular panels and echoed by mihrabs on the qibla wall, slender engaged pilasters with bulbous base demarcating the central bay, mihrab surface embellished with moulded plaster relief, corner turret stretched above merlon parapet with pinnacles, openings on side walls, etc. The side entrances have mere decoration applied to their external faces some of which may not be original. All these elements emphasize the symmetrical and axial arrangement along with the central dome and the mihrab; the style is common among most of the surviving historic mosques of Dhaka. Built on a spacious and solid podium, it has many elements resembling those in Khwaja Shahbaz Mosque, Khan Muhammad Mirdha's Mosque, the mosque inside the Lalbagh Fort.

The heights of the entrances and other openings have been distorted or dwarfed by elevation of the plinth level as the ground around was elevated to remain above flood level. However, the two slender pinnacles rising on both sides of the panel provide a kind of vertically to this otherwise horizontal and stout structure; this element achieved a level of perfection and hence elegance in the Mridha's Mosque built quarter of a century later. There are eight small panels on each side of the door; the transition from the square to the circle of the dome base is made by pendentives. However, the domes are conventional, rest on octagonal drum shoulder, embellished with blind merlons; the brick lime walls of the cool structures are 4 feet deep. There is a graveyard in front of the mosque used as late as the 1950s, it was inside a wider garden, eroded by river and encroached by buildings. A distinct gateway in front of the sahn, now subsided because of gradual rise in the surrounding levels can be climbed over for azan.

The river Turag on which the picturesque structure was standing few decades back, has now moved nearly a kilometer away from it due to silt, e