Navarre. The capital city is Pamplona; the first documented use of a name resembling Navarra, Nafarroa, or Naparroa is a reference to navarros, in Eginhard's early-9th-century chronicle of the feats of the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne. Other Royal Frankish Annals feature nabarros. There are two proposed etymologies for the name. Basque nabar: "brownish", "multicolour". Basque naba: "valley", "plain" + Basque herri; the linguist Joan Coromines considers naba to be linguistically part of a wider Vasconic or Aquitanian language substrate, rather than Basque per se. During the Roman Empire, the Vascones, a pre-Roman tribe, populated the southern slopes of the Pyrenees, including the area which would become Navarre. In the mountainous north, the Vascones escaped large-scale Roman settlement, except for some coastal areas—for example Oiasso —and the flatter areas to the south, which were amenable to large-scale Roman farming—vineyards and wheat crops. There is no evidence of battles fought or general hostility between Romans and Basques, as they had the same enemies.
Neither the Visigoths nor the Franks completely subjugated the area. The Vascones assimilated neighbouring tribes as of the 7th century AD. In the year 778, the Basques defeated a Frankish army at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass. Following the Battle of Roncevaux Pass, the Basque chieftain Iñigo Arista was elected King of Pamplona supported by the muwallad Banu Qasi of Tudela, establishing a Basque kingdom, called Navarre; that kingdom reached its zenith during the reign of Sancho III, comprising most of the Christian realms to the south of the Pyrenees, a short overlordship of Gascony. When Sancho III died in 1035, the kingdom was divided between his sons, it never recovered its political power, while its commercial importance increased as traders and pilgrims poured into the kingdom via the Way of Saint James. In 1200, Navarre lost the key western Basque districts to Alphonse VIII of Castile, leaving the kingdom landlocked. Navarre contributed with a small but symbolic force of 200 knights to the decisive Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 against the Almohads.
The native line of kings came to an end in 1234. However, the Navarrese kept most of their strong institutions; the death of Queen Blanche I inaugurated a civil war period between the Beaumont and Agramont confederacies with the intervention of the Castilian-Aragonese House of Trastámara in Navarre's internal affairs. In 1512, Navarre was invaded by Ferdinand the Catholic's troops, with Queen Catherine and King John III withdrawing to the north of the Pyrenees, establishing a Kingdom of Navarre-Béarn, led by Queen Joan III as of 1555. To the south of the Pyrenees, Navarre was annexed to the Crown of Castile, but kept a separate ambiguous status, a shaky balance up to 1610—King Henry III ready to march over Spanish Navarre. A Chartered Government was established, the kingdom managed to keep home rule. Tensions with the Spanish government came to a head as of 1794, when Spanish premier Manuel Godoy attempted to suppress Navarrese and Basque self-government altogether, with the end of the First Carlist War bringing the kingdom and its home rule to an end.
After the 1839 Convention of Bergara, a reduced version of home rule was passed in 1839. However, the 1841 Act for the Modification of Fueros made the kingdom into a province after a compromise was reached by the Spanish government with officials of the Provincial Council of Navarre; the relocation of customs from the Ebro river to the Pyrenees in 1841 prompted the collapse of Navarre’s customary cross-Pyrenean trade and the rise of smuggling. Amid instability in Spain, Carlists took over in the rest of the Basque provinces. An actual Basque state was established during the Third Carlist War with Estella as its capital, but King Alfonso XII's restoration in the throne of Spain and a counter-attack prompted the Carlist defeat; the end of the Third Carlist War saw a renewed wave of Spanish centralisation directly affecting Navarre. In 1893–1894 the Gamazada popular uprising took place centred in Pamplona against Madrid's governmental decisions breaching the 1841 chartered provisions. Except for a small faction, all parties in Navarre agreed on the need for a new political framework based on home rule within the Laurak Bat, the Basque districts in Spain.
Among these, the Carlists stood out, who politically dominated the province, resented an increased string of rulings and laws passed by Madrid, as well as left leaning influences. Unlike Biscay or Gipuzkoa, Navarre did not develop manufacturing during this period, remaining a rural economy. In 1932, a Basque Country's separate statute failed to take off over disagreements on the centrality of Catholicism, a scene of political radicalisation ensued dividing the leftist and rightist forces during the 2nd
Cantabrian brown bear
Cantabrian brown bear refers to a population of Eurasian brown bears living in the Cantabrian Mountains of Spain. Females weigh, on average, 85 kg. Males average 115 kg though can weigh as much as 200 kg; the bear measures between 0.90 -1 m at shoulder height. In Spain, it is known as the Oso pardo cantábrico and, more locally, in Asturias as Osu, it will avoid human contact whenever possible. The Cantabrian brown bear can live for around 25–30 years in the wild. Believed to have originated in Asia, the brown bear spread across the Northern Hemisphere, colonising much of the Eurasian land mass as well as North America. Ursidae experts are continuing debate on the scientific classification of bears, of which there are eight recognised species although some experts recognise more subspecies. In the early 20th century, Cabrera considered the Cantabrian brown bear to be a distinct subspecies of European brown bear, Ursus arctos arctos, named it Ursus arctos pyrenaicus, characterised by the yellow colouring of the points of its hair and by its black paws.
Since however and mitochondrial DNA research has led to the general scientific consensus that the European brown bear is not a separate subspecies. These recent studies have found that the European populations fall into two major genetic lineages; the Cantabrian brown bear forms a part of the western type, the effective barriers of the Pleistocene ice sheets of the Alps and the Balkans having directed the spread of the brown bear north and eastwards and south and westwards. A further distinction of two clades has been made within the western lineage following post-glacial recolonisation after the Last Glacial Maximum; this leaves the remnant population of brown bears in the south of Sweden as the nearest relatives of the Cantabrian brown bear. The last indigenous, reproductive female in the Pyrenees, was shot by a hunter in 2004. Brown bears from Slovenia are now being introduced to the Pyrenees. Having once roamed most of the Iberian peninsula, since the first half of the 20th century the Cantabrian brown bear has been reduced to two isolated populations in the Cantabrian mountains of Northern Spain through human persecution and by loss of habitat due to agriculture and construction.
These two populations occupy a combined territory total of between 5,000 – 7,000 km2 covering the provinces of, in the West, Asturias, León and Lugo and, in the east, Palencia, León, Cantabria and Asturias. Population figures from 2007 gave between 100-110 bears in the western enclave and between 20-30 in the eastern, a situation which put the smaller population at risk from in-breeding; the two populations are separated by some 30–40 km, a rupture, interpreted as the consequence of the development of communication infrastructures and human pressure. However, in 2008 genetic evidence was obtained from Redes Natural Park indicating recent interbreeding between the two populations. In 2005 the presence of brown bears was reported near the Portuguese border on the Trevinca range, based on footprints left on a big mud pad, it is plausible that brown bears, cross the border on some occasions. The Cantabrian brown bear is catalogued on the Spanish Red List of Endangered Species as in danger of extinction.
In Europe it is listed in the European Mammal Assessment as critically endangered. On an international level, it is listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species as being of least concern due to the existence of healthy populations of brown bears elsewhere. In Spain there is a maximum fine of €300,000 for killing a bear following a ban on hunting of the species in 1973. In the smaller eastern population, endogamy has led to genetic complications including the higher probability of birth defects and a higher ratio of male to female births. Added to this is the extreme philopatry exhibited by female brown bears which leads to a slow dispersal rate of reproductive females. Another present threat comes in the form of the EU's Bovine spongiform encephalopathy laws which are enforcing the removal of carcasses from the countryside. Though only a small part of the Cantabrian brown bear's vegetarian diet, carrion is important for the building of fat reserves ready for the winter and, in spring, is a vital source of sustenance following the rigours of the winter.
It is hoped that these disease containment measures will be revised following a meeting of concerned Spanish environmentalists with the European Commission in October 2007. There has been concern that recent mild winters due to climate change, have not been severe enough to necessitate hibernation. However, the bears are sometimes active during cold winter weather for reasons which are not clear. Man-made infrastructures such as roads and railways inhibit the population growth of the Cantabrian brown bear; the most recent human threat is a proposal to build a ski/winter leisure resort in the San Glorio pass, a site in the eastern region of the bears' habitat. Despite the fact that Spain's ministry of the environment, in its Catálogo Nacional de Especies Amenazadas lists the brown bear as in danger of extinction in Spain, the existence of heavy fines aim
The Basques are an indigenous ethnic group characterised by the Basque language, a common culture and shared genetic ancestry to the ancient Vascones and Aquitanians. Basques are indigenous to and inhabit an area traditionally known as the Basque Country, a region, located around the western end of the Pyrenees on the coast of the Bay of Biscay and straddles parts of north-central Spain and south-western France; the English word Basque may be pronounced or and derives from the French Basque, derived from Gascon Basco, cognate with Spanish Vasco. These, in turn, come from plural Vascones; the Latin labial-velar approximant /w/ evolved into the bilabials /b/ and /β̞/ in Gascon and Spanish under the influence of Basque and Aquitanian, a language related to old Basque and spoken in Gascony in Antiquity. Several coins from the 2nd and 1st centuries BC found in the Basque Country bear the inscription barscunes; the place where they were minted is not certain, but is thought to be somewhere near Pamplona, in the heartland of the area that historians believe was inhabited by the Vascones.
Some scholars have suggested a Celtic etymology based on bhar-s-, meaning "summit", "point" or "leaves", according to which barscunes may have meant "the mountain people", "the tall ones" or "the proud ones", while others have posited a relationship to a proto-Indo-European root *bar- meaning "border", "frontier", "march". In Basque, people call themselves singular euskaldun, formed from euskal - and - dun. Not all Basques are Basque-speakers. Therefore, the neologism euskotar, plural euskotarrak, was coined in the 19th century to mean a culturally Basque person, whether Basque-speaking or not. Alfonso Irigoyen posits that the word euskara is derived from an ancient Basque verb enautsi "to say" and the suffix -ara, thus euskara would mean "way of saying", "way of speaking". One item of evidence in favour of this hypothesis is found in the Spanish book Compendio Historial, written in 1571 by the Basque writer Esteban de Garibay, he records the name of the Basque language as enusquera. It may, however, be a writing mistake.
In the 19th century, the Basque nationalist activist Sabino Arana posited an original root euzko which, he thought, came from eguzkiko. On the basis of this putative root, Arana proposed the name Euzkadi for an independent Basque nation, composed of seven Basque historical territories. Arana's neologism Euzkadi is still used in both Basque and Spanish, since it is now the official name of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. Since the Basque language is unrelated to Indo-European, it has long been thought to represent the people or culture that occupied Europe before the spread of Indo-European languages there. A comprehensive analysis of Basque genetic patterns has shown that Basque genetic uniqueness predates the arrival of agriculture in the Iberian Peninsula, about 7,000 years ago, it is thought that Basques are a remnant of the early inhabitants of Western Europe those of the Franco-Cantabrian region. Basque tribes were mentioned in Roman times by Strabo and Pliny, including the Vascones, the Aquitani, others.
There is enough evidence to support the hypothesis that at that time and they spoke old varieties of the Basque language. In the Early Middle Ages the territory between the Ebro and Garonne rivers was known as Vasconia, a vaguely defined ethnic area and political entity struggling to fend off pressure from the Iberian Visigothic kingdom and Arab rule to the south, as well as the Frankish push from the north. By the turn of the first millennium, the territory of Vasconia had fragmented into different feudal regions, such as Soule and Labourd, while south of the Pyrenees the Castile and the Pyrenean counties of Aragon, Sobrarbe and Pallars emerged as the main regional entities with Basque population in the 9th and 10th centuries; the Kingdom of Pamplona, a central Basque realm known as Navarre, underwent a process of feudalization and was subject to the influence of its much larger Aragonese and French neighbours. Castile deprived Navarre of its coastline by conquering key western territories, leaving the kingdom landlocked.
The Basques were ravaged by the War of the Bands, bitter partisan wars between local ruling families. Weakened by the Navarrese civil war, the bulk of the realm fell before the onslaught of the Spanish armies. However, the Navarrese territory north of the Pyrenees remained beyond the reach of an powerful Spain. Lower Navarre became a province of France in 1620; the Basques enjoyed a great deal of self-government until the French Revolution and the Carlist Wars, when the Basques supported heir apparent Carlos V and his descendants. On either side of the Pyrenees, the Basques lost their native institutions and laws held during the Ancien régime. Since despite the current limited self-governing status of the Basque Autonomous Community and Navarre as settled by the Spanish Constitution, many Basques have attempted higher degrees of self-empowerment, sometimes by acts
Francisco Espoz y Mina
Francisco Espoz Ilundáin, being better known as Francisco Espoz y Mina, was a Spanish guerrilla leader and general. He was born in Idocin in Navarre, his father, Juan Esteban Espoz y Mina, his mother, Maria Teresa Hundain y Ardaiz, belonged to the class of yeomen, rural smallholders. Mina worked on the small family farm until 1808; when Napoleon endeavoured to seize Spain in that year he enlisted in the Doyle regiment, entered the guerrilla group commanded by his nephew Francisco Javier Mina. When Javier was captured by the French on 21 March 1810, seven men of the group chose to follow Francisco, on 1 April 1810 the Junta of Aragon gave him the command of the guerrilleros of Navarre, his first act was to arrest and shoot at Estella a certain Echevarria, under pretence of being a guerrillero, was in fact a brigand. The national government in Cadiz gave him rank, by 7 September 1812 he had been promoted to the rank of commander-in-chief in Upper Aragon, on the left bank of the Ebro. In the interval he claimed that he had fought 143 actions big and little, had been wounded with bullet and lance, had taken 13 fortified posts, 14,000 prisoners, had never been surprised by the French.
Though some maintain that he was not at his best as a leader in battle, as a strategist Espoz y Mina was successful and displayed great organizing capacity. The French authorities were compelled to allow him to levy customs dues on all goods imported into Spain, except contraband of war, which he would not allow to pass without fighting; the money thus obtained was used to pay his bands a regular salary. He was able to avoid levying excessive contributions on the country and to maintain discipline among his men, whom he had brought to a respectable state of efficiency in 1812. Espoz y Mina claimed that he immobilized 26,000 French troops which would but for him have served with Marshal Marmont in the Salamanca campaign. In the campaign of 1813 and 1814 he served with distinction under the Duke of Wellington. After the restoration of Ferdinand VII he fell into disfavour. On 25/26 September he attempted to bring about an uprising at Pamplona in favor of the Liberal party, but failed, went into exile.
His political opinions were democratic and radical, as a yeoman he disliked the "hidalgos". The Revolution of 1820 brought him back, he served the Liberal party during the Trienio Liberal in Galicia and Catalonia. In this last district he made the only vigorous resistance to the French intervention in favor of Ferdinand VII. On 1 November 1823 he was compelled to capitulate, the French allowed him to escape to England by sea. In 1830 he took part in an unsuccessful rising against Ferdinand. On the death of the king he was recalled to Spain, the government of the regent Christina gave him the command against the Carlists in 1835, though they feared his Radicalism. By this time, years and wounds had undermined his health, he was opposed to Tomás de Zumalacárregui, an old officer of his in the War of Independence, an greater master of irregular mountain warfare. His health compelled him to resign in April 1835, his command in Catalonia was only memorable for the part he took in forcing the regent to grant a constitution in August 1836.
He died at Barcelona on 24 December 1836. In 1825 Espoz y Mina published A Short Extract from the Life of General Mina, in Spanish and English, in London. Mention is made of him in all histories of the affairs of Spain during the first third of the 19th century, his full Memoirs were published by his widow at Madrid in 1851–52. The Plaza de Mina in Cadiz, Spain is named after him. Notes Sources This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Mina, Francisco Espoz y". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. P. 500–501
Napoléon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French as Napoleon I from 1804 until 1814 and again in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars, he won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over much of continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history, he was born in Corsica to a modest family of Italian origin from minor nobility. He was serving as an artillery officer in the French army when the French Revolution erupted in 1789.
He rose through the ranks of the military, seizing the new opportunities presented by the Revolution and becoming a general at age 24. The French Directory gave him command of the Army of Italy after he suppressed a revolt against the government from royalist insurgents. At age 26, he began his first military campaign against the Austrians and the Italian monarchs aligned with the Habsburgs—winning every battle, conquering the Italian Peninsula in a year while establishing "sister republics" with local support, becoming a war hero in France. In 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt, he became First Consul of the Republic. Napoleon's ambition and public approval inspired him to go further, he became the first Emperor of the French in 1804. Intractable differences with the British meant that the French were facing a Third Coalition by 1805. Napoleon shattered this coalition with decisive victories in the Ulm Campaign and a historic triumph over the Russian Empire and Austrian Empire at the Battle of Austerlitz which led to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.
In 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became worried about growing French influence on the continent. Napoleon defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt marched his Grande Armée deep into Eastern Europe and annihilated the Russians in June 1807 at the Battle of Friedland. France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. Tilsit signified the high-water mark of the French Empire. In 1809, the Austrians and the British challenged the French again during the War of the Fifth Coalition, but Napoleon solidified his grip over Europe after triumphing at the Battle of Wagram in July. Napoleon invaded the Iberian Peninsula, hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, declared his brother Joseph Bonaparte the King of Spain in 1808; the Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support. The Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, ended in victory for the Allies against Napoleon.
The Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states Russia. The Russians were unwilling to bear the economic consequences of reduced trade and violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon into another war; the French launched a major invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The campaign did not yield the decisive victory Napoleon wanted, it resulted in the collapse of the Grande Armée and inspired a renewed push against Napoleon by his enemies. In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in the War of the Sixth Coalition against France. A lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, but his tactical victory at the minor Battle of Hanau allowed retreat onto French soil; the Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April. He was exiled to the island of Elba off the coast of Tuscany, the Bourbon dynasty was restored to power.
Napoleon took control of France once again. The Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition which defeated him at the Battle of Waterloo in June; the British exiled him to the remote island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died six years at the age of 51. Napoleon's influence on the modern world brought liberal reforms to the numerous territories that he conquered and controlled, such as the Low Countries and large parts of modern Italy and Germany, he implemented fundamental liberal policies throughout Western Europe. His Napoleonic Code has influenced the legal systems of more than 70 nations around the world. British historian Andrew Roberts states: "The ideas that underpin our modern world—meritocracy, equality before the law, property rights, religious toleration, modern secular education, sound finances, so on—were championed, consolidated and geographically extended by Napoleon. To them he added a rational and efficient local administration, an end to rural banditry, the encouragement of science and the arts, the abolition of feudalism and the greatest codification of laws since the fall of the Roman Empire".
The ancestors of Napoleon descended from minor Italian nobility of Tuscan origin who had come to Corsica fr
Fort du Portalet
The Fort du Portalet is a fort in the Aspe Valley in Bearn, French Pyrenees, built from 1842 to 1870. The fort, built by order of Louis Philippe I, guards the border of the Pyrenees and protects access to the Col du Somport. Fort du Portalet is located on a cliff face underneath the Chemin de la Mâture and overlooks the torrential river Gave d'Aspe. Begun in 1842 and finished in 1870, the fort replaced an earlier structure further north. Capable of accommodating 400 men, the fort served as depot and barracks for the 18th Regiment of Infantry between 1871 and 1925, it ceased to be used as a full-time military facility. During World War II, the Vichy regime arrested and interned Léon Blum, Édouard Daladier, Paul Reynaud, Georges Mandel and Maurice Gamelin as political prisoners at the fort. After the Riom Trials, Reynaud was held in Germany. Mandel was taken to Paris, where he was executed in 1944 by the Milice in retaliation for the assassination earlier that year of Philippe Henriot, a Vichy official, by the Resistance.
After the war, Philippe Pétain, the head of the Vichy government, was imprisoned in the fort from 15 August to 16 November 1945. After the government abandoned the fort, it was bought by the local authorities in 1999, they are restoring it. "Fort du Portalet: Story and photo gallery Translated via Google, 2006 The Tourist Office of the Aspe Valley Translated via Google
Louis-Gabriel Suchet, Duke of Albufera, was a French Marshal of the Empire and one of the most successful commanders of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. Suchet was born to a silk manufacturer in Lyon, he intended to follow his father's business but, serving as a volunteer in the cavalry of the National Guard at Lyon, he displayed abilities which secured rapid military promotions. In 1793, he was serving as a battalion chief when he captured the British general Charles O'Hara at Toulon. During the 1796 Italian campaign, he was wounded at Cerea on 11 October. In October 1797, he was promoted to command of a half-brigade. In May 1797, Suchet was one of three lieutenant colonels of the 18th Infantry Demi-brigade, with little hope of advancement, he was sent to Venice to procure uniforms for the troops. Since the Venetians believed that they might in future be ruled by the French, Suchet and an aide were treated like royalty. For two months, they enjoyed living in a palace, having a personal gondola and holding reserved seats at the opera.
On 28 October 1797, 150 officers of André Masséna's division hosted a large dinner. The colonel of the 32nd Line, Dominique Martin Dupuy brought Suchet to Napoleon Bonaparte's table and said, "Well general, when will you make our friend Suchet a colonel?" Bonaparte tried to brush him off with the reply, "Soon: we will see about it." Thereupon Dupuy took off one of his epaulettes and placed it on Suchet's shoulder, saying, "By my almightiness, I make thee colonel." This clownish action was successful. His services in the Tyrol under Joubert that year and in Switzerland under Brune over the next were recognized by his promotion to the rank of brigadier general, he took no part in the Egyptian campaign but was made Brune's chief of staff in August and restored the efficiency and discipline of the army in Italy. In July 1799, he was made Joubert's chief of staff in Italy. In 1800, he was named second-in-command to Masséna, his dexterous resistance to the superior forces of the Austrians with the left wing of Masséna's army, when the right and centre were shut up in Genoa, not only prevented the invasion of France from this direction but contributed to the success of Napoleon's crossing the Alps, which culminated in the battle of Marengo on 14 June.
He took a prominent part in the rest of the Italian campaign up to the armistice of Treviso. In the campaigns of 1805 and 1806, he enhanced his reputation at the Battles of Austerlitz, Jena, Pułtusk, Ostrolenka, in the last of which he commanded an infantry division, he obtained the title of count on 19 March 1808. Ordered to Spain, he took part in the Siege of Saragossa, after which he was named commander of the army of Aragon and governor of that region. Within two years, he brought the area into complete submission by wise and adroit administration no less than by his brilliant valor. Beaten by the Spanish at Alcañiz, he sprung back and soundly defeated the army of Blake y Joyes at María on 14 June 1809. On 22 April 1810, he defeated O'Donnell at Lleida. After the siege of Tarragona, he was named marshal of France on 8 July 1811. In 1812, he captured Valencia, for which he was rewarded with the dukedom of Albufera nearby, on 24 January; when the tide turned against France, Suchet defended his conquests one by one until compelled to withdraw from Spain, after which he took part in Soult's defensive campaign of 1814.
The restored Bourbon king Louis XVIII made him a peer of France on 4 June with a seat in the upper house, but this was forfeited by his support of Napoleon's return during the Hundred Days. During Napoleon's brief restoration, Suchet was given command of an army on the Alpine frontier, he died in the Castle of Saint-Joseph near Marseille on 3 January 1826. His memoirs was published in two volumes from 1829 to'34; the chicken dish poularde à. He married Honorine Anthoine de Saint-Joseph, a niece of Julie Clary, the wife of Joseph Bonaparte, on 16 November 1808, they had three children: Louise-Honorine Louis-Napoleon Anne-Marie Napoleonic Wars List of French generals of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars French cuisine Asensio Nebot Phipps, Ramsay Weston. The Armies of the First French Republic and the Rise of the Marshals of Napoleon I: The Army of Italy and the Army of the Interior, The Coup d'Etat of Fructidor. 4. Pickle Partners Publishing. ISBN 978-1-908692-27-6. Suchet, Memoirs of the War in Spain, from 1808 to 1814, 2, London: Henry Colburn, p. 439Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. "Suchet, Louis Gabriel", Encyclopædia Britannica, 26, Cambridge University Press, p. 7 "Louis Gabriel Suchet, Duc d'Albufera", Encyclopædia Britannica, 22, 1887, p. 617 Suchet, Louis-Gabriel, St. Cyr-Nogues, ed. Mémoires Suchet, Louis-Gabriel, Pete, ed. Memoirs of the War in Spain, London: Henry Colburn, ISBN 1-85818-477-0