Wuchang forms part of the urban core of and is one of 13 districts of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province, China. It is the oldest of the three cities that merged into modern-day Wuhan, stood on the right bank of the Yangtze River, opposite the mouth of the Han River; the two other cities and Hankou, were on the left bank, separated from each other by the Han. The name "Wuchang" remains in common use for the part of urban Wuhan south of the Yangtze River. Administratively, however, it is split between several districts of the City of Wuhan; the historic center of Wuchang lies within the modern Wuchang District, which has an area of 82.4 square kilometres and a population of 1,003,400. Other parts of what is colloquially known as Wuchang are within Hongshan District and Qingshan District. Presently, on the right bank of the Yangtze, it borders the districts of Qingshan to the northeast and Hongshan to the east and south. On 10 October 1911, the New Army stationed in the city started the Wuchang Uprising, a turning point of the Xinhai Revolution that overthrew the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China.
In 221, warlord Sun Quan moved the capital of Eastern Wu from Gong'an county, Jingzhou to È county, renamed È to Wuchang. In the year Cao Pi proclaimed himself the emperor of Cao Wei. Sun Quan declared independence in the following year, started to build forts and palaces in Wuchang. Sun Quan proclaimed himself the emperor of Eastern Wu in 229, moved the capital to Jianye. Sun Hao, the emperor of Eastern Wu between 264 and 280, moved the capital back to Wuchang in 265. In 589, the Wuchang commandery was abolished and the Wuchang county was transferred to a new commandery named Ezhou, remained in the administration since then; the Wuchang commandery was set up when È was renamed to Wuchang, included six counties. In 223 the commandery was renamed to Jiangxia, the capital of the commandery moved to Xiakou; the name of the town was switched back and forth between Wuchang and Jiangxia several times in the following centuries. The present-day version of Wuying Pagoda, the oldest standing architecture in Hubei Province, was built around the time of fall of the Southern Song Dynasty.
After 1301, the Wuchang prefecture, headquartered in the town, became the capital of Hubei province. During the Taiping Rebellion and the surrounding area changed hands several times after the Taiping capture of the city in the Battle of Wuchang. At the end of the Qing Empire, the Wuchang Prefecture was the capital of the combined provinces of Hubei and Hunan, called the'two Hu' or Huguang Viceroyalty, it was the seat of the provincial government of Huguang, at the head of, a viceroy of Huguang. Next to Nanjing and Guangzhou, it was one of the most important vice-royalties in the empire, it possessed a mint. The provincial government established ironworks for the manufacture of rails and other railway material; as the works did not pay under official management, they were transferred to the director-general of railways. Wuchang was not open to foreign trade and residence, but a considerable number of missionaries, both Roman Catholic and Protestant, lived within the walls; the native population was estimated at 800,000 including cities on both banks.
At that time, Wuchang was an important junction on the trunk railway from Beijing to Guangzhou. In Wuchang on October 10, 1911, a revolt broke out against the Qing Dynasty; this event, now called the Wuchang Uprising and celebrated as Double Ten Day, was the catalyst that started the Xinhai Revolution, which led to the development of the Republic of China. In 1912, the Wuchang prefecture was abolished and a new Wuchang county was created. In 1926 the Wuchang town was promoted to a city, merged with Hankou and Hanyang to form a new city named Wuhan. After 1949, the more urban part of the Wuchang County was absorbed into the new Wuhan City and was administratively partitioned into Wuchang and Hongshan districts, while the remaining rural, southern part retained the name of Wuchang County. In 1995, Wuchang County became Jiangxia District of Wuhan. Wuchang District administers: The Wuchang fish is named after the town. Official website of Wuchang District Government
Jiangsu is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the leading provinces in finance, education and tourism, with its capital in Nanjing. Jiangsu is the third smallest, but the fifth most populous and the most densely populated of the 23 provinces of the People's Republic of China. Jiangsu has the highest GDP per capita of Chinese provinces and second-highest GDP of Chinese provinces, after Guangdong. Jiangsu borders Shandong in the north, Anhui to the west, Zhejiang and Shanghai to the south. Jiangsu has a coastline of over 1,000 kilometres along the Yellow Sea, the Yangtze River passes through the southern part of the province. Since the Sui and Tang dynasties, Jiangsu has been a national economic and commercial center due to the construction of Grand Canal. Cities such as Nanjing, Wuxi and Shanghai are all major Chinese economic hubs. Since the initiation of economic reforms in 1990, Jiangsu has become a focal point for economic development, it is regarded as China's most developed province measured by its Human Development Index.
Jiangsu is home to many of the world's leading exporters of electronic equipment and textiles. It has been China's largest recipient of foreign direct investment since 2006, its 2014 nominal GDP was more than 1 trillion US dollars, the sixth-highest of all country subdivisions. Jiangsu's name is a compound of the first elements of the names of the two cities of Jiangning and Suzhou; the abbreviation for this province is "苏", the second character of its name. During the earliest Chinese dynasties, the area, now Jiangsu was far away from the center of Chinese civilization, in the northwest Henan. During the Zhou dynasty more contact was made, the state of Wu appeared as a vassal to the Zhou dynasty in south Jiangsu, one of the many hundreds of states that existed across northern and central China at that time. Near the end of the Spring and Autumn period, Wu became a great power under King Helu of Wu, defeated in 484 BC the state of Qi, a major power in the north in modern-day Shandong province, contest for the position of overlord over all states of China.
The state of Wu was subjugated in 473 BC by the state of Yue, another state that had emerged to the south in modern-day Zhejiang province. Yue was in turn subjugated by the powerful state of Chu from the west in 333 BC; the state of Qin swept away all the other states, unified China in 221 BC. Under the reign of the Han dynasty, Jiangsu was removed from the centers of civilization in the North China Plain, was administered under two zhou: Xuzhou Province in the north, Yangzhou Province in the south. During the Three Kingdoms period, southern Jiangsu became the base of the Eastern Wu, whose capital, Jianye, is modern Nanking; when nomadic invasions overran northern China in the 4th century, the imperial court of the Jin dynasty moved to Jiankang. Cities in southern and central Jiangsu swelled with the influx of migrants from the north. Jiankang remained as the capital for four successive Southern dynasties and became the largest commercial and cultural center in China. After the Sui dynasty united the country in 581, the political center of the country shifted back to the north, but the Grand Canal was built through Jiangsu to link the Central Plain with the prosperous Yangtze Delta.
The Tang dynasty relied on southern Jiangsu for annual deliveries of grain. It was during the Song dynasty, which saw the development of a wealthy mercantile class and emergent market economy in China, that south Jiangsu emerged as a center of trade. From onwards, south Jiangsu major cities like Suzhou or Yangzhou, would be synonymous with opulence and luxury in China. Today south Jiangsu remains one of the richest parts of China, Shanghai, arguably the wealthiest and most cosmopolitan of mainland China cities, is a direct extension of south Jiangsu culture; the Jurchen Jin dynasty gained control of North China in 1127 during the Jin-Song wars, Huai River, which used to cut through north Jiangsu to reach the Yellow Sea, was the border between the north, under the Jin, the south, under the Southern Song dynasty. The Mongols took control of China in the thirteenth century; the Ming dynasty, established in 1368 after driving out the Mongols who had occupied China put its capital in Nanjing. Following a coup by Zhu Di, the capital was moved to Beijing, far to the north.
The entirety of modern-day Jiangsu as well as neighbouring Anhui province kept their special status, however, as territory-governed directly by the central government, were called Nanzhili. Meanwhile, South Jiangsu continued to be an important center of trade in China; the Qing dynasty changed this situation by establishing Nanzhili as Jiangnan province. "In 1727 the to-min or "idle people" of Cheh Kiang province, the yoh-hu or "music people" of Shan Si provi
Sun Yat-sen was a Chinese politician, medical doctor and philosopher who served as the provisional first president of the Republic of China. He is referred to as the "Father of the Nation" in the Republic of China due to his role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty during the Xinhai Revolution. Sun remains a unique figure among 20th-century Chinese characters for being revered in both mainland China and Taiwan. Although Sun is considered to be one of the greatest leaders of modern China, his political life was one of constant struggle and frequent exile. After the success of the revolution and the Han Chinese regaining power after 268 years of living under Manchurian rule, he resigned from his post as President of the newly founded Republic of China to Yuan Shikai, led successive revolutionary governments as a challenge to the warlords who controlled much of the nation. Sun did not live to see his party consolidate its power over the country during the Northern Expedition, his party, which formed a fragile alliance with the Chinese Communist Party, split into two factions after his death.
Sun's chief legacy resides in his developing of the political philosophy known as the Three Principles of the People: nationalism, "rights of the people", sometimes translated as "democracy", the people's livelihood. Sun was born as Sun Wen, his genealogical name was Sun Deming; as a child, his pet name was Tai Tseung. Sun's courtesy name was Zaizhi, his baptized name was Rixin. While at school in Hong Kong he got the art name Yat-sen. Sūn Zhōngshān, the most popular of his Chinese names, is derived from his Japanese name Nakayama Shō, the pseudonym given to him by Tōten Miyazaki while in hiding in Japan. Sun Yat-sen was born on 12 November 1866 to Madame Yang, his birthplace was the village of Xiangshan County, Guangdong. He had a cultural background of Cantonese, his father owned little land and worked as a tailor in Macau, as a journeyman and a porter. After finishing primary education, he moved to Honolulu in the Kingdom of Hawaii, where he lived a comfortable life of modest wealth supported by his elder brother Sun Mei.
At the age of 10, Sun Yat-sen began seeking schooling, he met childhood friend Lu Haodong. By age 13 in 1878, after receiving a few years of local schooling, Sun went to live with his elder brother, Sun Mei in Honolulu. Sun Mei financed Sun Yat-sen's education and would be a major contributor for the overthrow of the Manchus. During his stay in Honolulu, Sun Yat-sen went to ʻIolani School where he studied English, British history, mathematics and Christianity. While he was unable to speak English, Sun Yat-sen picked up the language and received a prize for academic achievement from King David Kalākaua before graduating in 1882, he attended Oahu College for one semester. In 1883 he was sent home to China as his brother was becoming worried that Sun Yat-sen was beginning to embrace Christianity; when he returned to China in 1883 at age 17, Sun met up with his childhood friend Lu Haodong again at Beijidian, a temple in Cuiheng Village. They saw many villagers worshipping the Beiji Emperor-God in the temple, were dissatisfied with their ancient healing methods.
They broke the statue, incurring the wrath of fellow villagers, escaped to Hong Kong. While in Hong Kong in 1883 he studied at the Diocesan Boys' School, from 1884 to 1886 he was at The Government Central School. In 1886 Sun studied medicine at the Guangzhou Boji Hospital under the Christian missionary John G. Kerr, he earned the license of Christian practice as a medical doctor from the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese in 1892. Notably, of his class of 12 students, Sun was one of the only two. In the early 1880s, Sun Mei sent his brother to ʻIolani School, under the supervision of British Anglicans and directed by an Anglican prelate named Alfred Willis; the language of instruction was English. Although Bishop Willis emphasized that no one was forced to accept Christianity, the students were required to attend chapel on Sunday. At Iolani School, young Sun Wen first came in contact with Christianity, it made a deep impression on him. Schriffin writes that Christianity was to have a great influence on Sun's whole future political life.
Sun was baptized in Hong Kong by Rev. C. R. Hager an American missionary of the Congregational Church of the United States to his brother's disdain; the minister would develop a friendship with Sun. Sun attended To Tsai Church, founded by the London Missionary Society in 1888, while he studied Western Medicine in Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese. Sun pictured a revolution as similar to the salvation mission of the Christian church, his conversion to Christianity was related to his revolutionary ideals and push for advancement. In 1924 Liao Chongzhen, a prominent and influential government official of the day, arranged a meeting between Sun and Martha Root, a well-known journalist and traveling teacher of the Bahá'í Faith in the late 19th and early 20th century. In this meeting Sun came into contact with the Teachings of the Bahá'í Faith, expressing his appreciation for the Cause and declaring it "highly relevant to the
Zhao Bingjun was the third premier of the Republic of China from 25 September 1912 to 1 May 1913. Zhao was a public security official during the Qing dynasty and became minister of the interior during the republic before becoming premier, he was directly implicated in the assassination of Song Jiaoren, the man most to be his successor. The murder was most ordered by the provisional president, Yuan Shikai, angry that Song wanted to fill the cabinet with Nationalists that would obstruct Yuan's policies. Zhao resigned to protect Yuan's government, he was made governor of Zhili. Zhao was mysteriously poisoned in 1914, most by Yuan to prevent him from leaking more details of Song's death to the press. Premier of the Republic of China
Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan, Singapore, Philippines and among overseas Chinese communities. In ancient times two types of surnames existed, namely xing or clan names, shi or lineage names. Chinese family names are patrilineal. Women do not change their surnames upon marriage, except in places with more Western influences such as Hong Kong. Traditionally Chinese surnames have been exogamous; the colloquial expressions laobaixing and bǎixìng are used in Chinese to mean "ordinary folks", "the people", or "commoners". Prior to the Warring States period, only the ruling families and the aristocratic elite had surnames. There was a difference between clan names or xing and lineage names or shi. Xing were surnames held by the noble clans, they are composed of a nü radical, taken by some as evidence they originated from matriarchal societies based on maternal lineages. Another hypothesis has been proposed by sinologist Léon Vandermeersch upon observation of the evolution of characters in oracular scripture from the Shang dynasty through the Zhou.
The "female" radical seems to appear at the Zhou period next to Shang sinograms indicating an ethnic group or a tribe. This combination seems to designate a female and could mean "lady of such or such clan"; the structure of the xing sinogram could reflect the fact that in the royal court of Zhou, at least in the beginning, only females were called by their birth clan name, while the men were designated by their title or fief. Prior to the Qin dynasty China was a fengjian society; as fiefdoms were divided and subdivided among descendants, so additional sub-surnames known as shi were created to distinguish between noble lineages according to seniority, though in theory they shared the same ancestor. In this way, a nobleman would hold a xing; the difference between xing and shi was blurring for women since the Spring and Autumn period. After the states of China were unified by Qin Shi Huang in 221 BC, surnames spread to the lower classes. Many shi surnames survive to the present day. According to Kiang Kang-Hu, there are 18 sources from which Chinese surnames may be derived, while others suggested at least 24.
These may be names associated with a ruling dynasty such as the various titles and names of rulers and dynasty, or they may be place names of various territories, towns and specific locations, the title of official posts or occupations, or names of objects, or they may be derived from the names of family members or clans, in a few cases, names of contempt given by a ruler. The following are some of the common sources: Xing: These were reserved for the central lineage of the royal family, with collateral lineages taking their own shi; the traditional description was what were known as the "Eight Great Xings of High Antiquity", namely Jiāng, Jī, Yáo, Yíng, Sì, Yún, Guī and Rèn, though some sources quote Jí as the last one instead of Rèn. Of these xings, only Jiang and Yao have survived in their original form to modern days as occurring surnames. Royal decree by the Emperor, such as Kuang. State name: Many nobles and commoners took the name of their state, either to show their continuing allegiance or as a matter of national and ethnic identity.
These are some of the most common Chinese surnames. Name of a fief or place of origin: Fiefdoms were granted to collateral branches of the aristocracy and it was natural as part of the process of sub-surnaming for their names to be used. An example is Marquis of Ouyangting, whose descendants took the surname Ouyang. There are some two hundred examples of this identified of two-character surnames, but few have survived to the present. Names of an ancestor: Like the previous example, this was a common origin with close to 500 or 600 examples, 200 of which are two-character surnames. An ancestor's courtesy name would be used. For example, Yuan Taotu took the second character of his grandfather's courtesy name Boyuan as his surname. Sometimes titles granted to ancestors could be taken as surnames. Seniority within the family: In ancient usage, the characters of meng, shu and ji were used to denote the first, second and fourth eldest sons in a family; these were sometimes adopted as surnames. Of these, Meng is the best known.
Occupation From official positions, such as Shǐ, Jí, Líng, Cāng, Kù, Jiàn, Shàngguān, Tàishǐ, Zhōngháng, Yuèzhèng, in the case of Shang's "Five Officials", namely Sīmǎ, Sītú, Sīkōng, Sīshì and Sīkòu.
Hunan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze watershed in South Central China. With a population of just over 67 million as of 2014 residing in an area of 210,000 km2, it is China's 7th most populous and the 10th most extensive province-level by area; the name Hunan means "south of the lake". The lake, referred to is Dongting Lake, a lake in the northeast of the province, its capital and largest city is Changsha, which abuts the Xiang River. Hunan's primeval forests were first occupied by the ancestors of the modern Miao, Tujia and Yao peoples; the province entered written Chinese history around 350 BC, when under the kings of the Zhou dynasty, the province became part of the State of Chu. After Qin conquered the Chu heartland in 278 BC, the region came under the control of Qin, the Han dynasty. At this time, for hundreds of years thereafter, the province was a magnet for settlement of Han Chinese from the north, who displaced and assimilated the original indigenous inhabitants, cleared forests and began farming rice in the valleys and plains.
The agricultural colonization of the lowlands was carried out in part by the Han state, which managed river dikes to protect farmland from floods. To this day many of the small villages in Hunan are named after the Han families who settled there. Migration from the north was prevalent during the Eastern Jin dynasty and the Northern and Southern dynasties periods, when nomadic invaders pushed these peoples south. During the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Hunan was home to its own independent regime, Ma Chu. Hunan and Hubei became a part of the province of Huguang until the Qing dynasty. Hunan province was created in 1664 from Huguang, renamed to its current name in 1723. Hunan became an important communications center due to its position on the Yangzi River, it was an important centre of scholarly activity and Confucian thought in the Yuelu Academy in Changsha. It was on the Imperial Highway constructed between northern and southern China; the land produced grain so abundantly. The population continued to climb until, by the nineteenth century, Hunan became overcrowded and prone to peasant uprisings.
Some of the uprisings, such as the ten-year Miao Rebellion of 1795–1806, were caused by ethnic tensions. The Taiping Rebellion began in the south in Guangxi Province in 1850; the rebellion spread into Hunan and further eastward along the Yangzi River valley. It was a Hunanese army under Zeng Guofan who marched into Nanjing to put down the uprising in 1864. Hunan was quiet until 1910 when there were uprisings against the crumbling Qing dynasty, which were followed by the Communist's Autumn Harvest Uprising of 1927, it was led by Hunanese native Mao Zedong, established a short-lived Hunan Soviet in 1927. The Communists maintained a guerrilla army in the mountains along the Hunan-Jiangxi border until 1934. Under pressure from the Nationalist Kuomintang forces, they began the Long March to bases in Shaanxi Province. After the departure of the Communists, the KMT army fought against the Japanese in the second Sino-Japanese war, they defended Changsha until it fell in 1944. Japan launched a plan to control the railroad from Wuchang to Guangzhou.
Hunan was unscathed by the civil war that followed the defeat of the Japanese in 1945. In 1949, the Communists returned once more; as Mao Zedong's home province, Hunan supported the Cultural Revolution of 1966–1976. However, it was slower than most provinces in adopting the reforms implemented by Deng Xiaoping in the years that followed Mao's death in 1976. In addition to Mao Zedong, a number of other first-generation communist leaders were from Hunan: President Liu Shaoqi. An example of a more recent leader from Hunan is former Premier Zhu Rongji. Hunan is located on the south bank of the Yangtze River, about half way along its length, situated between 108° 47'–114° 16' east longitude and 24° 37'–30° 08' north latitude. Hunan covers an area of 211,800 square kilometres, making it the 10th largest provincial-level division; the east and west sides of the province are surrounded by mountains and hills, such as the Wuling Mountains to the northwest, the Xuefeng Mountains to the west, the Nanling Mountains to the south, the Luoxiao Mountains to the east.
Mountains and hills occupy more than 80% of the province, plains less than 20%. At 2115.2 meters above sea level, the highest point in Hunan province is Lingfeng. The Xiang, the Zi, the Yuan and the Lishui Rivers converge on the Yangtze River at Lake Dongting in the north of Hunan; the center and northern parts are somewhat low and a U-shaped basin, open in the north and with Lake Dongting as its center. Most of Hunan lies in the basins of four major tributaries of the Yangtze River. Lake Dongting is the second largest freshwater lake of China; the Xiaoxiang area and Lake Dongting figure