Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse
Raymond VII of Saint-Gilles was Count of Toulouse, Duke of Narbonne and Marquis of Provence from 1222 until his death. Raymond was born at the son of Raymond VI of Toulouse and Joan of England. Through his mother, he was a grandson of Henry II of England and a nephew of kings Richard I and John of England. Raymond VII married firstly, in Sancha of Aragon, Countess of Toulouse, they had one daughter and were divorced in 1241. He was engaged to Sanchia of Provence. In 1243 Raymond married Margaret of Lusignan, the daughter of Hugh X of Lusignan and Isabella of Angoulême, they had the Council of Lyons in 1245 granted Raymond a divorce. He tried to get support of Blanche, Queen mother of France to marry Beatrice of Provence, who had just become Countess of Provence, but Beatrice married Blanche's son Charles instead. During the Albigensian Crusade in May 1216, he set out from Marseille and besieged Beaucaire, which he captured on 24 August, he fought to reconquer the county of Toulouse from Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester and Simon's son Amaury VI of Montfort.
He succeeded his father in 1222. At the moment of his accession, he and the new count of Foix, Roger Bernard II the Great, besieged Carcassonne. On 14 September 1224, the Albigensian Crusaders surrendered and the war came to an end, each southern lord making peace with the church. However, in 1225, the council of Bourges excommunicated him and launched a crusade against him, the king of France, Louis VIII, called the Lion, wanting to renew the conflict in order to enforce his royal rights in Languedoc. Roger-Bernard tried to keep the peace, but the king rejected his embassy and the counts of Foix and Toulouse took up arms again; the war was a discontinuous series of skirmishes and, in January 1229, defeated, was forced to sign the Treaty of Paris. By this treaty he ceded the former viscounty of Trencavel to Louis IX and his daughter Joan was forced to marry Alphonse, brother of the king; when Raymond died, Alphonse became count of Toulouse, after Alphonse's death the county was annexed by France.
Raymond VII was buried beside his mother Joan in Fontevrault Abbey. Barber, Malcolm; the Cathars: Dualist Heretics in Languedoc in the High Middle Ages. Routledge. Macé, Laurent. "Raymond VII of Toulouse: The Son of Queen Joanne,'Young Count' and Light of the World." The World of Eleanor of Aquitaine: Literature and Society in Southern France between the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries, edd. Marcus Bull and Catherine Léglu. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2005. ISBN 1-84383-114-7. Smith, Damian J.. Crusade and Inquisition in the Lands of the Crown of Aragon:. Brill. Weiler, Björn K. U.. England and Europe in the Reign of Henry III. Ashgate. Wolff, Robert Lee. A History of the Crusades. Vol. II; the University of Wisconsin Press
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toulouse
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toulouse is an archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church in France. The diocese comprises the Department of Haute-Garonne, its see is Toulouse Cathedral, in the city of Toulouse, the current archbishop is Robert Jean Louis Le Gall, appointed in 2006 and translated from the Diocese of Mende. The Archdiocese has 7 suffragan dioceses and archdioceses: Archdiocese of Albi, Archdiocese of Auch, Diocese of Cahors, Diocese of Montauban, Diocese of Pamiers, Diocese of Rodez, Diocese of Tarbes-et-Lourdes; as re-established by the Concordat of 1802, it included the departments of Haute-Garonne and Ariège, at which time, the archbishop joined to his own the title of Auch, jurisdiction over Auch being given to the Diocese of Agen the title of Narbonne, an archdiocese over which jurisdiction went by the Concordat to the Diocese of Carcassonne, the title of Albi, over which, though an archdiocese, jurisdiction went by the Concordat to the See of Montpellier. In consequence of the creation of the Archdiocese of Auch and Archdiocese of Albi under the Restoration, the Archbishop of Toulouse only styled himself Archbishop of Toulouse and Narbonne, when the Diocese of Pamiers was created the limits of the Archdiocese were restricted to the Department of Haute-Garonne.
As thus marked off by the Bull Paternae Caritatis, July, 1822, the Archdiocese of Toulouse includes the whole of the ancient Diocese of Toulouse, Diocese of Rieux, Diocese of Comminges, a few small portions of the ancient Diocese of Montauban, Diocese of Lavaur, Diocese of St-Papoul, Diocese of Mirepoix, Diocese of Lombez. Toulouse, chief town of the Tectosagi, at the end of the second century B. C. tried to shake off the yoke of Rome during the invasion of the Cimbri, but at the beginning of the empire it was a prosperous Roman civitas with famous schools in which the three brothers of the Emperor Constantine were pupils. In the fourth century it was reckoned the fifteenth town in importance in the empire. In 413 it was taken by Astulph, the Goth, in 419 under Wallia it became the capital of the Visigothic Kingdom. In 508 after conquest by Clovis it became Frankish. Legends of more or less recent date claim that it was evangelized by St. Martial, but as far as historical evidence goes the see seems to have been founded by St. Saturninus in the middle of the third century.
The Passio Sancti Saturnini corroborates this date as that of his martyrdom. Subsequent tradition claims. St. Papoul like him a martyr. St. Honoratus, given in some lists as St. Saturninus's successor, is recognised as a pre-Schism Western saint by the Orthodox Church and it is therefore wrong to suggest that he seems just to have crept in through error from the fabulous legend of St. Firminus of Amiens. Among the bishops of Toulouse may be mentioned: Rhodanius, exiled by Constantius to Phrygia because of his efforts against Arianism at the Council of Béziers in 356. From being the capital of the Duchy of Aquitaine, from 631, Toulouse became in 778 the capital of the County of Toulouse created by Charlemagne, which in the tenth century was one of the main fiefs of the crown. Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, known as Raymond de Saint Gilles, was one of the leaders of the First Crusade. Raymond VI and Raymond VII, Counts of Toulouse, had leanings towards the Cathars. Simon of Montfort in 1218 died under the walls of Toulouse, At this time Toulouse had as bishop Fulk of Marseilles, who fought against Raymond VI and protected the Friars-Preachers in their early days.
The marriage of Jeanne, daughter of Raymond VII, with Alphonse de Poitiers, brother of Louis IX of France, led to the uniting in 1271 of the County of Toulouse to the Crown of France, Toulouse became the capital of the Province of Languedoc. The See of Toulouse was for a time made famous by St. Louis, son of Charles II, King of Naples and the Two Sicilies, of Mary, daughter of the King of Hungary: he was nephew of St. Elizabeth of Hungary and grand-nephew of St. Louis, King of France. Louis had resigned to his brother Robert all rights over the Kingdom of Naples, had accepted from Pope Boniface VIII the See of Toulouse after becoming a Franciscan friar, his successor was Peter de la Chapelle Taillefer, created cardinal in 1305. To this epoch belongs a change that took place in the history of the Diocese of Toulouse, it increased in dignity. Before 1295 the Diocese of Toulouse was extensive. At the beginning of the thirteenth century Bishop Fulk had wished to divide it into several dioceses. In 1295 a portion of territory was cut off by Boniface VIII to form the Diocese of Pamiers.
In 1319 John XXII cut off the Diocese of Toulouse from the metropolitan church of Narbonne and made it a metropolitan with the Sees of Montauban, Saint-Papoul and Lombez as suffragans. The majority of these sees were composed of territory cut off from the ancient See of Toulous
Chanson de geste
The chanson de geste is a medieval narrative, a type of epic poem that appears at the dawn of French literature. The earliest known poems of this genre date from the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries, before the emergence of the lyric poetry of the trouvères and the earliest verse romances, they reached their apogee in the period 1150–1250. Composed in verse, these narrative poems of moderate length were sung, or recited, by minstrels or jongleurs. More than one hundred chansons de geste have survived in around three hundred manuscripts that date from the 12th to the 15th century. Since the 19th century, much critical debate has centered on the origins of the chansons de geste, on explaining the length of time between the composition of the chansons and the actual historical events which they reference; the historical events the chansons allude to occur in the eighth through tenth centuries, yet the earliest chansons we have were composed at the end of the eleventh century: only three chansons de geste have a composition that incontestably dates from before 1150: the Chanson de Guillaume, The Song of Roland and Gormont et Isembart: the first half of the Chanson de Guillaume may date from as early as the eleventh century.
Three early theories of the origin of chansons de geste believe in the continued existence of epic material in these intervening two or three centuries. Critics like Claude Charles Fauriel, François Raynouard and German Romanticists like Jacob Grimm posited the spontaneous creation of lyric poems by the people as a whole at the time of the historic battles, which were put together to form the epics; this was the basis for the "cantilena" theory of epic origin, elaborated by Gaston Paris, although he maintained that single authors, rather than the multitude, were responsible for the songs. This theory was supported by Robert Fawtier and by Léon Gautier. At the end of the nineteenth century, Pio Rajna, seeing similarities between the chansons de geste and old Germanic/Merovingian tales, posited a Germanic origin for the French poems. A different theory, introduced by the medievalist Paul Meyer, suggested the poems were based on old prose narrations of the original events. Another theory, developed by Joseph Bédier, posited that the early chansons were recent creations, not earlier than the year 1000, developed by singers who, emulating the songs of "saints lives" sung in front of churches, created epic stories based on the heroes whose shrines and tombs dotted the great pilgrimage routes, as a way of drawing pilgrims to these churches.
Critics have suggested that knowledge by clerics of ancient Latin epics may have played a role in their composition. Subsequent criticism has vacillated between "traditionalists" and "individualists", but more recent historical research has done much to fill in gaps in the literary record and complicate the question of origins. Critics have discovered manuscripts and other traces of the legendary heroes, further explored the continued existence of a Latin literary tradition in the intervening centuries; the work of Jean Rychner on the art of the minstrels and the work of Parry and Lord on Yugoslavian oral traditional poetry, Homeric verse and oral composition have been suggested to shed light on the oral composition of the chansons, although this view is not without its critics who maintain the importance of writing not only in the preservation of the texts, but in their composition for the more sophisticated poems. Composed in Old French and intended for oral performance by jongleurs, the chansons de geste narrate legendary incidents in the history of France during the eighth and tenth centuries, the age of Charles Martel and Louis the Pious, with emphasis on their conflicts with the Moors and Saracens, disputes between kings and their vassals.
The traditional subject matter of the chansons de geste became known as the Matter of France. This distinguished them from romances concerned with the Matter of Britain, that is, King Arthur and his knights. A key theme of the chansons de geste, which set them off from the romances, is their critique and celebration of community/collectivity and their representation of the complexities of feudal relations and service; the subject matter of the chansons evolved according to public taste. Alongside the great battles and scenes of historic prowess of the early chansons there began to appear other themes. Realistic elements and elements from the new court culture began to appear. Other fantasy and adventure elements, derived from the romances, were added: giants and monsters appear among the foes along with Muslims. There is an increasing dose of Eas
An epic poem, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation. Another type of epic poetry is epyllion, a brief narrative poem with a romantic or mythological theme; the term, which means "little epic", came into use in the nineteenth century. It refers to the erudite, shorter hexameter poems of the Hellenistic period and the similar works composed at Rome from the age of the neoterics; the most famous example of classical epyllion is Catullus 64. The English word epic comes from the Latin epicus, which itself comes from the Ancient Greek adjective ἐπικός, from ἔπος, "word, poem". Originating before the invention of writing, primary epics were composed by bards who used complex rhetorical and metrical schemes by which they could memorize the epic as received in tradition and add to the epic in their performances.
Hence aside from writers like Dante, Camões, Milton, Apollonius of Rhodes in his Argonautica and Virgil in Aeneid adopted and adapted Homer's style and subject matter, but used devices available only to those who write, in their works Nonnus' Dionysiaca and Tulsidas' Sri Ramacharit Manas used stylistic elements typical of epics. The oldest epic recognized is the Epic of Gilgamesh, recorded In ancient Sumer during the Neo-Sumerian Empire; the poem details the exploits of Gilgamesh, the king of Uruk. Although recognized as a historical figure, Gilgamesh, as represented in the epic, is a legendary or mythical figure; the longest epic written is the ancient Indian Mahabharata, which consists of 100,000 ślokas or over 200,000 verse lines, as well as long prose passages, so that at about 1.8 million words it is about four times the length of the Rāmāyaṇa, ten times the length of the Iliad and the Odyssey combined. Famous examples of epic poetry include the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh, the ancient Indian Mahabharata and Rāmāyaṇa, the Tamil Silappatikaram, the Persian Shahnameh, the Ancient Greek Odyssey and Iliad, Virgil's Aeneid, the Old English Beowulf, Dante's Divine Comedy, the Finnish Kalevala, the German Nibelungenlied, the French Song of Roland, the Spanish Cantar de mio Cid, the Portuguese Os Lusíadas, John Milton's Paradise Lost, Adam Mickiewicz's Pan Tadeusz.
The first epics were products of oral history poetic traditions. Oral tradition was used alongside written scriptures to communicate and facilitate the spread of culture. In these traditions, poetry is transmitted to the audience and from performer to performer by purely oral means. Early twentieth-century study of living oral epic traditions in the Balkans by Milman Parry and Albert Lord demonstrated the paratactic model used for composing these poems. What they demonstrated was that oral epics tend to be constructed in short episodes, each of equal status and importance; this facilitates memorization, as the poet is recalling each episode in turn and using the completed episodes to recreate the entire epic as he performs it. Parry and Lord contend that the most source for written texts of the epics of Homer was dictation from an oral performance. Milman Parry and Albert Lord have argued that the Homeric epics, the earliest works of Western literature, were fundamentally an oral poetic form.
These works form the basis of the epic genre in Western literature. Nearly all of Western epic self-consciously presents itself as a continuation of the tradition begun by these poems. Classical epic poetry employs a meter called dactylic hexameter and recounts a journey, either physical or mental or both. Epics tend to highlight cultural norms and to define or call into question cultural values as they pertain to heroism. In his work Poetics, Aristotle defines an epic as one of the forms of poetry, contrasted with lyric poetry and with drama in the form of tragedy and comedy. In A Handbook to Literature and Holman define an epic: Epic: a long narrative poem in elevated style presenting characters of high position in adventures forming an organic whole through their relation to a central heroic figure and through their development of episodes important to the history of a nation or race. An attempt to delineate ten main characteristics of an epic: Begins in medias res; the setting is vast, covering the world or the universe.
Begins with an invocation to a muse. Begins with a statement of the theme. Includes the use of epithets. Contains long called an epic catalogue. Features long and formal speeches. Shows divine intervention on human affairs. Features heroes that embody the values of the civilization. Features the tragic hero's descent into the underworld or hell; the hero participates in a cyclical journey or quest, faces adversaries that try to defeat him in his journey and returns home transformed by his journey. The epic hero illustrates traits, performs deeds, exemplifies certain morals that are valued by the society the epic originates from. Many epic heroes are recurring characters in the legends of their native culture. Conventions of epics: Proposition: Opens by stating the cause of the epic; this may take the form
Gui de Cavalhon
Gui de Cavalhon, Cavaillo, or Gavaillo was a Provençal nobleman: a diplomat and man of letters. He was also the Guionet who composed tensos and partimens with Cadenet, Raimbaut de Vaqueiras, Mainart Ros, a certain Guillem. Gui was born at Cavaillon in the Valclusa, he is first encountered at the court of Alfonso II of Provence in 1200–07. In 1204 he was present at the marriage of Alfonso's elder brother, Peter II of Aragon, Maria of Montpellier. Beginning in 1209 he was in the service of Raymond VI of Toulouse fighting the Albigensian Crusade. In 1215 he accompanied Raymond to the Fourth Lateran Council. In 1216–17 he was fighting in Provence, where he was a counsellor of Raymond Berengar IV. In 1220 he was besieged in Castel-Nou, now Castèlnòu d'Arri, by Amaury de Montfort, he entered the Templar Order and became a counsellor of Raymond VII. For Raymond he led an embassy to Pope Honorius III and in 1225 he was rewarded with the title of viscount of Cavaillon. Gui was last mentioned in 1229. Gui's career would have been little out of the ordinary for a 13th-century nobleman if not for his literary pursuits, for he was an accomplished troubadour in the Occitan language, leaving behind five or six lyric poems, including a sirventes and several tensos.
His fame as a troubadour was enough that a vida of his life, long by the genre's standards, survives. He is described in glowing terms as generous, charming, loved of the ladies and the people, a capable knight and warrior. Besides his surviving work, his biographer records his composition of coblas about love and "conversation", his earliest tenso was with an otherwise unknown "Falco", which can be dated to 1200–07 on the basis of a charge of Falco's that Gui lived off the gifts of his patron, Count Alfonso: Senh'En Guy, del comte, / don enquer vos sove, / N'Anfos vostre senhor, / don ac man palafre / ses fre vostra seror. The last part of this line is an obscene joke, with or without basis, that Gui's sister had a sexual relationship with Alfonso. In 1215, on their way to IV Lateran and his Raymond VI composed a short partimen about the invasion of Raymond's land and the possible recovery of lost ground. In 1220 while besieged in Castèlnòu d'Arri he addressed a poem to Bertran Folcon d'Avignon which survives in its entirety appended to his vida.
Gui creatively composed a "tenso" with his own mantle. Gui vies for the identity of the "Esperdut" who composed three poems: a canso, a partimen with Pons de Monlaur, a sirventes. Gui has been posited as the co-author of a tenso with Garsenda of Forcalquier, the wife of Alfonso II, his vida repeats the rumour. In her tenso, after she declares her love for him, Gui responds courteously but carefully: Gui's lone surviving sirventes was written against Guilhem dels Baus, who, in 1215, had been confirmed by Frederick II in the titles King of Arles and Vienne; the sirventes was written between Summer 1216 and Guilhem's death, in an Avignonese prison, in June 1218. Since the early 19th century, the identity of Gui with the "Cabrit" of the poem Cabrit, al meu vejaire, written with Ricau de Tarascon, has been accepted, it found support among T. B. Eméric-David, Paul Meyer, Ludwig Selbach, Stanislaw Stronski, C. Fabre, Adolf Kolsen, Carl Appel, D. J. Jones, Martín de Riquer, Dietmar Rieger, Andrea Brusoni, P. T. Ricketts.
The identification has rested on the attribution in three chansonniers, called D, I, K. The rubric in these works gives the author as Ricautz de Tarascon e.n Guis de Cavaillon: "Ricau de Tarascon and Lord Gui de Cavalhon". In all other cases where there is an onomastic difference between a tenso and the ascription of the chansonnier, the latter is known to be correct. Further, in manuscript C, where the attribution is Tenso d'en Cabrit e d'eu Ricau, it precedes a selection of Gui's pieces that, in the same way, are assigned to Guionet and Esperdut, other nicknames Gui used. Only Martín Aurell has objected to the identification, he argues that Cabrit must have been a member of the urban noblesse of Arles and owner of a small parcel of land near Tarascon, documented in a notarial act of August 1203 at the house of Bertran Porcelet and dead by 1225. A Guillelmus Aldebertus Cabritus was a consul of Arles in 1197 and man known only as Cabritus was a consul in 1209. Guillem Aldebert Cabrit witnessed the testament of Rostanh Porcelet in 1186 and an 1198 donation to the Knights Templar in Arles by the Porcelet family.
That these figures named Cabritus all acted in the same geographical theatre and in connexion with the family over a period of thirty years suggests that it was a single individual of some prominence at Arles. That this figure held land at Tarascon suggests that he may have been Ricau's interlocutor. Gui is a major figure in the Canso de la crosada, he is mentioned among the bravest and most loyal of the Count of Toulouse' followers. The author of the second part of the Canso puts an eloquent speech in Gui's mouth, in which he praises the Paratge and denounces lo coms de Monfort que destrui los baros e la gleiza de Roma; the speech was delivered upon the return of Raymonds VI and VII to Toulouse on 12 September 1217. It was designed as an instructive word of wisdom from the aged Gui to the young R
Paul Meyer (philologist)
Marie-Paul-Hyacinthe Meyer, was a French philologist. Meyer was born in Paris and educated at the Lycée Louis le Grand and the École des Chartes, specializing in the Romance languages. In 1863 he joined the manuscript department of the Bibliothèque Nationale, he was keeper of the national archives from 1866 to 1872. In 1876 he became professor of the languages and literatures of southern Europe at the Collège de France. In 1882 he was made director of the École des Chartes, a year was nominated a member of the Academy of Inscriptions, he was one of the founders of the Revue critique, a founder and the chief contributor to Romania. Paul Meyer began with the study of old Provençal literature, but subsequently did valuable work in many different departments of romance literature, ranked as the chief authority on the French language of his era, he was a member of the Institute of France, an associate of the British Academy. Rapports sur les documents manuscrits de l'ancienne littérature de la France conservés dans les bibliothèques de la Grande Bretagne Recueil d'anciens textes bas-latins, provençaux et français Alexandre le Grand dans la littérature française du Moyen âge.
L'Apocalypse en français au XIIIe siècle He edited several old French texts for the Société des anciens textes français, the Société de l'histoire de France and independently. Among these may be mentioned: Aye d'Avignon, with Guessard Flamenca the Histoire of Guillaume le Maréchal Raoul de Cambrai, with Auguste Longnon Fragments d'une vie de Saint Thomas de Canterbury Guillaume de la Barre, he became honorary professor at the College of France in 1906. Commander in the Legion of Honor This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Meyer, Paul Hyacinthe". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Meyer, Paul Hyacinthe". Encyclopedia Americana. Works by or about Paul Meyer at Internet Archive Works written by or about Paul Meyer at Wikisource