Sonic Youth was an American rock band based in New York City, formed in 1981. Founding members Thurston Moore, Kim Gordon and Lee Ranaldo remained together for the entire history of the band, while Steve Shelley followed a series of short-term drummers in 1985, rounding out the core line-up. Jim O'Rourke was a member of the band from 1999 to 2005. Sonic Youth emerged from the experimental no wave art and music scene in New York before evolving into a more conventional rock band and becoming a prominent member of the American noise rock scene. Sonic Youth have been praised for having "redefined what rock guitar could do" using a wide variety of unorthodox guitar tunings and preparing guitars with objects like drum sticks and screwdrivers to alter the instruments' timbre; the band is considered to be a pivotal influence on the indie rock movements. After gaining a large underground following and critical praise through releases with SST Records in the late 1980s, the band experienced mainstream success throughout the 1990s and 2000s after signing to major label DGC in 1990 and headlining the 1995 Lollapalooza festival.
In 2011, Ranaldo announced that the band was "ending for a while" following the separation of married couple Gordon and Moore. Thurston Moore updated and clarified the position in May 2014: "Sonic Youth is on hiatus; the band is a democracy of sorts, as long as Kim and I are working out our situation, the band can't function reasonably." Gordon refers several times in her 2015 autobiography Girl in a Band to the band having "split up". Shortly after guitarist Thurston Moore moved to New York City in early 1977, he formed a group, Room Tone, with his roommates, who changed their name to the Coachmen. After the breakup of the Coachmen, Moore began jamming with Stanton Miranda, whose band, CKM, featured Kim Gordon. Moore and Gordon formed a band, appearing under names like Male Bonding and Red Milk and the Arcadians, before settling on Sonic Youth just before June 1981; the name came from combining the nickname of MC5's Fred "Sonic" Smith with "Youth" from reggae artist Big Youth. Gordon recalled that "as soon as Thurston came up with the name Sonic Youth, a certain sound, more of what we wanted to do came about."
The band played Noise Fest in June 1981 at New York's White Columns gallery, where Lee Ranaldo was playing as a member of Glenn Branca's electric guitar ensemble. Their performance impressed Moore, who described them as "the most ferocious guitar band that I had seen in my life", he invited Ranaldo to join the band; the new threesome played three songs at the festival in the week without a drummer. Each band member took. Branca signed Sonic Youth as the first act on his record label Neutral Records. In December 1981 the group recorded five songs in a studio in New York's Radio City Music Hall; the material was released as the Sonic Youth that, while ignored, was sent to a few key members of the US press, who gave it uniformly favorable reviews. The album featured a conventional post-punk style, in contrast to their releases. After their first release, Edson was replaced by Bob Bert. During their early days as part of the New York music scene, Sonic Youth formed a friendship with fellow New York noise rock band Swans.
The bands came to share the same rehearsal space, Sonic Youth embarked on its first tour, a two-week journey through the southern United States starting in November 1982, supporting Swans. During a second tour with Swans of the Midwest the following month, tensions ran high and Moore criticized Bert's drumming, which he felt was not "in the pocket". Bert was fired afterwards and replaced by Jim Sclavunos, who played drums on the band's first studio album, 1983's Confusion Is Sex, which featured a louder and more dissonant sound than their debut EP. Sonic Youth set up a two-week tour of Europe for the summer of 1983. Sclavunos, quit after only a few months; the group asked Bert to rejoin, he agreed, on the condition that he would not be fired again after the tour's conclusion. Bert went on to play on the band's Kill Yr Idols EP. Sonic Youth found themselves well received in Europe, but the New York press ignored the local noise rock scene; as the press began to take notice of the genre, Sonic Youth was grouped along with bands like Big Black, the Butthole Surfers and Pussy Galore under the "pigfucker" label by Village Voice editor Robert Christgau.
After a substandard September concert in New York, another critic from The Village Voice panned it. Gordon wrote a scornful letter to the newspaper, criticizing it for not supporting its local music scene, to which Christgau responded by saying they are not obligated to support them. Moore retaliated by renaming the song "Kill Yr Idols" to "I Killed Christgau With My Big Fucking Dick", before the two sorted out their differences amicably. During another tour of Europe in 1984, Sonic Youth's disastrous London debut resulted in rave reviews in Sounds and the NME. By the time they returned to New York, they were so popular they played shows every week; that same year and Gordon were married, Sonic Youth released Bad Moon Rising, a self-described "Americana" album that served as a reaction to the state of the nation at the time. The album, recorded by Martin Bisi, was built around transitional pieces that Moore and Ranaldo had come up with in order to take up time onstage while the other guitarist was busy tuning his instrument.
The Art Institute of Portland was a for-profit art school in Portland, which operated as a non-profit institution before it closed in 2018. The school was one of a number of Art Institutes, a franchise of for-profit art colleges with many branches in North America and operated by Education Management Corporation. EDMC owned the college from 1998 until 2017, facing significant financial problems and declining enrollment, the company sold the Art Institute of Portland, along with 30 other Art Institute schools, to Dream Center Education, a Los Angeles-based Pentecostal organization. Dream Center permanently closed 18 Art Institute schools, including the Art Institute of Portland, at the end of 2018. Located in Portland's Pearl District, the school had twelve computer labs, multiple animation and video labs, a recording studio, a public art gallery; the Marcia Policar Gallery at The Art Institute of Portland displayed both student work and work of local artists and designers. The school was named Bassist College and was acquired by Education Management Corporation in 1998.
Bassist College was founded in 1963 by Donald Bassist as a fashion institute for women. A required course schedule of four full-time quarters, including summer term, makes it possible to complete a four-year degree in three years; the school is accredited by the Northwest Commission of Universities. Accreditation of an institution of higher education by the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities indicates that the institution meets or exceeds criteria for the assessment of institutional quality evaluated through a peer review process. On March 3, 2017, EDMC announced the execution of a definitive agreement for the sale of all the assets of EDMC and its schools to Dream Center Foundation, a not-for-profit foundation; the sale was completed in October 17, 2017. On July 2, 2018, the staff and faculty of the Art Institute of Portland were informed that the school would close on December 31, 2018
Nicholas Paul Enright AM was an Australian dramatist and playwright and theatre director. Enright was born to a prosperous East Maitland professional Catholic family, he was drama captain of St Ignatius' College, Riverview in 1964, like Gerard Windsor and Justin Fleming, he was taught by Melvyn Morrow. At that school, he won the 1sts Debating Premiership in both 1966 and 1967, it was expected. During 1971 and 1972 Enright was a member of Sydney's Genesian Theatre, performing in A Doll's House and Uncle Vanya, directing London Assurance. Enright received a pass BA from Sydney University in 1972, having decided not to proceed to an honours degree as might have been expected of one so formidably intelligent, he worked as a gofer for Sydney's Nimrod Theatre before being appointed a trainee director at the Melbourne Theatre Company. He won an Australia Council Fellowship to study directing at New York University, graduating in 1977. On his return to Australia, he joined the State Theatre Company of South Australia as actor and director becoming Associate Director.
He was Head of Acting at the NIDA in 1983 and 1984. He was encouraged to write plays while at NYU by one of his teachers, the playwright Israel Horovitz, his many plays include: Good Works, Daylight Saving, The Female Factory, A Man with Five Children, On the Wallaby, A Poor Student, many of them published by Currency Press. His plays – which include French and Italian translations and adaptations – have been performed by all major Australian theatre companies, including Sydney Theatre Company, Company B, the Australian Opera, Melbourne Theatre Company, Queensland Theatre Company, State Theatre Company of South Australia, the Ensemble Theatre, Playbox, La Boite Theatre, the Australian Theatre for Young People, his one-act theatre-in-education play A Property of the Clan was developed into the full-length play, film, Blackrock. He wrote the book and lyrics to a number of musical works: three musicals with Terence Clarke – The Venetian Twins, he wrote the book of the original version of The Boy from Oz, from the biography of the same name written by Stephen McLean, produced by Ben Gannon with great success around Australia, after his death, in New York.
His adaptation, with Justin Monjo, of Tim Winton's Cloudstreet enjoyed huge critical and box-office success at the Festivals of Sydney and Perth, on tour of Australia, at the Festival of Dublin, in London. He wrote including Watching over Israel, his non-dramatic work includes a book for children, The Maitland and Morpeth String Quartet, a set of verses for The Carnival of the Animals, occasional verse. He edited Holding the Man, a memoir by his former NIDA student, Timothy Conigrave, following Conigrave's death, saw it to publication by Penguin Books, his plays deal sympathetically and insightfully with lower-class Australians. Two exceptions concern his time at Riverview: St. James Infirmary Blues, a teleplay for the ABC, he had a great ease with, love of, which made him an outstanding lyricist – a talent he tended to deprecate. Although he was gay, he never found his longed-for committed relationship. After 15 years in remission, melanoma recurred. Three years after his death, Happy Feet was dedicated to his memory.
Enright was co-nominated for an Academy Award for his screenplay of Lorenzo's Oil, co-written with its director George Miller. He received the Major AWGIE Award from the Australian Writers Guild four times, for the play Daylight Saving, the play A Property of the Clan, the film screenplay Blackrock and the stage adaptation of Cloudstreet, he received the inaugural Play Award at the New South Wales Premier's Literary Awards in 1983 with composer Terence Clarke for the musical Variations. This award is now named the Nick Enright Prize for Playwriting, he won a Helpmann Award for Best New Australian Work in 2001 for the musical The Boy from Oz, was nominated in the same category the following year for A Man with Five Children. His many other awards include those from the Sidney Myer Performing Arts Awards and the Green Room Awards, he had been appointed an Adjunct Professor in the School of Drama at the Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts. In June 2004 his appointment as a Member of the Order of Australia was posthumously announced, although it was deemed effective from 14 November 2002.
The citation read:'For service to the performing arts as a playwright, actor, as a mentor of emerging talent'. List of playwrights Nick Enright at Find a Grave Rights to Nick Enright's Plays Nick Enright on AustralianPlays.org SMH Obituary Findaid.library.uwa.edu.au Doollee.com Nick Enright in