The Soninke are a West African ethnic group found in eastern Senegal and its capital Dakar, northwestern Mali and Foute Djalon in Guinea, The Gambia and southern Mauritania. They speak the Soninke language called Maraka language, one of the Mande languages, they are one of the richest people in The Gambia Soninke people were the founders of the ancient empire of Ghana c. 750–1240 CE. Subgroups of Soninke include the Wangara; when the Ghana empire destroyed, the resulting diaspora brought Soninkes to Mali, Mauritania, Burkina Faso and Guinea-Bissau where some of this trading diaspora was called Wangara. Predominantly Muslims, the Soninke were one of the early ethnic groups from sub-Saharan West Africa to convert to Islam in about the 10th century; the contemporary population of Soninke people is estimated to be over 2 million. The cultural practices of Soninke people are similar to the Mandé peoples, those of the Imraguen of Mauritania, it includes traditional Islamic rites of marriage and social stratification.
Archaeological evidence suggests that the regions where Soninke people are found were inhabited in ancient times. These stone settlements were built on the rocky promontories of Tichit-Walata and the Tagant cliffs of Southern Mauritania. Though there are no surviving records to suggest which ethnic group these people were, the settlers of this region by between 2500 BCE and 600 BCE were related to the Soninke people. A significant agro-pastoral society had developed in this prehistoric era. According to Soninke oral tradition, the ancestor of the Soninke was Dinga, sometimes said to have come from the Middle East, an addition that may reflect Abrahamic religious influence, his sons included the founder of the Wagadu kingdom with its capital at Kumbi. Another Soninke tradition indicates that they migrated from Egypt. Theories or foreign origin are doubted by scholars and are believed to result from cultural influences. Archaeological evidence supports an evolution of the Ghana Empire and other Soninke states from roots in preceding local ancestral Soninke cultures such as that of Dhar Tichitt, rather than from North Africa or the Middle East.
The early written records about Soninke come from early Islamic historians. The Soninke, according to these records, were the founders of the ancient Ghana Empire called the Wagadu Empire; this empire has roots in the 5th century CE and was destroyed by about the 12th century, after the Muslim invasions of this region started in the 10th century. In contemporary time, the total population of Soninke people is above 2 million. Soninke people are found throughout West Africa and in France, given their migration when Senegal and Mali were a part of the French colonial empire. Most of the Soninke people are found in the valley of the upper Senegal river and along the Mali–Senegal–Mauritania border between Nara and Nioro du Sahel. Migrations under French colonial rule led many Soninke to build communities in Dakar, other cities in Africa and in France. Soninke community were the early settlers in France, their community is found in Paris and in southern French cities, their language is the primary dialect spoken among many Muslim communities of France.
There are many Soninke living in cities throughout Central Africa, a population that includes new migrants as well as descendants of migration dating back to the 1800s, such as the laptots who represented French mercantile and colonial interests in the region. Trade networks led by the Wangara mercantile confederations, spread Soninke people and culture throughout most of Mali and Senegal, southern Mauritania, northern Burkina Faso, as well as parts of the Gambia, Guinea-Bissau; the Maraka-Soninke merchant communities and plantations were an economic mainspring under the Bambara Empire, built trade routes in the West Africa region. The Soninke people were a coastal trade link between the Berber people of Maghreb and the Empires in sub-Saharan West Africa. In their early history, they helped exchange salt from the north and western coast for gold found inland; this trade brought Muslim traders to them Arab traders interested in gold, after Islam arrived in North Africa. The earliest passing mention of Soninke people's Ghana Empire is found in the works of the 8th century Arab geographer Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm al-Fazārī and a more complete record is found in works of another 11th century Arab geographer Al-Bakri.
The rulers and Soninke people of the Ghana Empire converted to Islam in the 11th century, they have been Muslim since. Some Islamic sources suggest that the conversion was triggered after the 1076 Almoravid conquest of the Ghana Empire; the Soninke people, like other Mande peoples, subscribe to the Maliki school of Sunni Islam. The Soninke society and its culture has many cultural practices with its neighboring ethnic groups the Mande peoples; this includes the religion of Islam, foods, the rites of passage, family structure and social stratification. Soninke society, like other groups in Mande and beyond, is shaped by various forms of social stratification; the Soninke strata have included a free category called Horro or Horon, a caste system category called Namaxala or Nyaxamalo, slaves called Komo. In the Jaara subgroup of the Soninke people, the nobility called. Soninke society became stratified after the 13th century; the slaves were the largest strata, one at the bottom among the Soninke like other West African ethnic groups, constituted up to half of the population.
The slaves among the Soninke people were hiera
John Wadsworth Barnes worked most notably in the educational film industry, best known for producing and writing for Encyclopædia Britannica Films. In his career he helped create over 100 film projects, he produced. He wrote for a radio drama series, made experimental Bolex films, produced the film To Live Together. John Barnes was born on March 1920 in Belford, New Jersey, he came from a blue-collar, East Coast background of craftsmen. In elementary school Barnes had rheumatic fever that sparked a love for books and learning, influential on him. Another early influence was his teenage rebellion against his mother that influenced his attitude towards people he thought of as inferior intellectually and those who caused inconvenience or challenged his choices artistically and professionally. In 1939 Barnes graduated from Monmouth Junior College in Long Branch New Jersey, he went on to attend the University of Chicago. John Barnes worked as an editor for the literary magazine of the University, he did not end up graduating.
John Barnes died in the New York University Medical Center on June 27, 2000. He was 80 years old at the time of his death. Following his time at the University of Chicago, Barnes went on to pursue writing for CBS, the local radio station. One of the main projects he worked on with CBS was a short radio-drama series, featuring Ken Nordine as the host, he was fiercely protective of this films and would demand those who asked for changes to his scripts and films to defend their request before considering it. Barnes' works starred notable actors such as Judi Dench, Douglass Campbell, Richard Kiley, as well as Frances Sternhagen. Barnes wrote and directed a series titled Shaw v. Shakespeare that featured George Bernard Shaw as played by actor Donald Moffat; the three part series has been accepted by many as Barnes's magnum opus. Barnes put much weight on casting actors who were excellent at their craft and with budget constraints he avoided casting lesser actors. Barnes worked with Encyclopædia Britannica for over 20 years.
His immense amount of educational films remain screened and present today. After going from making documentary film to academic, he stayed in educational film from the early 1950s and persevered into the late 1970s when educational film experienced a golden era. Educational films were used to ignite classroom discussions after the screening, that meant that the context and complete story had to be told in a short period of time; these discussion periods, according to educational theorists, engage with students better than lectures and reading by allowing students to express their opinions and learn from speaking to each other. Barnes moved away from film making and wrote plays, some were produced in the U. S. and Canada. In 1952 he embarked on his first project with EB Films, with Gordon Weisenborn as director and Barnes as writer and producer. People Along the Mississippi is said to be one of the first portrayals of the interaction between black and white children on film. Barnes fought against institutional censorship in southern schools which helped expand production and distribution of integrated educational films.
His Oscar nominated documentary The Living City, about urban issues in Chicago. Despite what Oscar nominations may allude to, those filmmakers who produced educational films made little and relied on others to finance them so that they could continue with this career, he is known for the abundance of social themes in his films, like in the films he made for Encyclopædia Britannica's'Bill of Rights' series. Barnes continued to produce and direct iconic literary adaptations like Macbeth: The Politics of Power as well as more politically oriented works such as Equality under the Law: The Lost Generation of Prince Edward County and People along the Mississippi that have interracial themes, influenced by his mother's racist actions towards a teenage friend of Barnes; the Living City was nominated for an academy award for best Documentary Short NET Festival won a primetime Emmy in 1970 for the episode "Cinderella: National Ballet of Canada" for Outstanding Variety or Musical Program - Classical Music John Barnes on IMDB John Barnes on Academic Film Archive
The rescue of Bat 21 Bravo, the call sign for Iceal "Gene" Hambleton, a navigator aboard an EB-66 aircraft shot down behind North Vietnamese lines, was the "largest and most complex search-and-rescue" operation during the Vietnam War. Five additional aircraft were shot down during rescue attempts, directly resulting in the deaths of 11 airmen, the capture of two others, another airman trying to evade capture. On 2 April 1972, the Easter Offensive, the largest combined arms operation of the entire Vietnam War, was in its third day. An early morning flight of two United States Air Force EB-66 aircraft was led by Bat 20, piloted by Lt. Col. Robert Singletary. Hambleton was a navigator aboard Bat 21; the two aircraft were escorting a cell of three B-52s. Bat 21 was configured to gather signals intelligence, including identifying North Vietnamese anti-aircraft radar installations to enable jamming. Bat 21 was destroyed by an SA-2 surface-to-air missile and Hambleton was the only survivor, parachuting behind the front lines into a battlefield filled with thousands of North Vietnamese Army soldiers.
Hambleton had Top Secret access to Strategic Air Command operations and was an expert in surface-to-air missile countermeasures. The North Vietnamese Army may have possessed information about his presence in Vietnam and his capture would have meant a huge intelligence bonanza for the Soviet Union. Hambleton and 1st Lt. Mark Clark, shot down during rescue operations, were recovered from behind the front lines on two different nights in covert, night-time rescues carried out by U. S. Navy SEAL Thomas R. Norris and VNN commandos. For their actions in rescuing the two men, Norris was awarded the Medal of Honor and VNN Petty Officer Nguyen Van Kiet was recognized with the Navy Cross. Nguyen was the only South Vietnamese sailor given that award during the war; the Air Force did not put limits on. The direct and indirect cost of rescuing Hambleton was enormous and became a watershed event in Air Force search and rescue. To prevent friendly fire incidents, the Americans imposed a standard no-fire zone within a 27 kilometers radius of Hambleton and diverted aircraft to aid in his rescue.
It is that South Vietnamese soldiers indirectly died as a result of their inability to obtain fire support. The added deaths, loss of aircraft, length of the rescue operation led the USAF to change the way they planned and conducted search and rescue missions; as a result, they developed new techniques and equipment to improve their ability to rescue downed airmen. At the time of Bat 21's mission, American combat forces had been vastly reduced in South Vietnam under President Richard Nixon's Vietnamization policy; the North Vietnamese Army launched the Nguyen Hue Offensive against the South Vietnamese Army and U. S. military on Friday, March 30, 1972. It was their largest attack of the war and was timed to take full advantage of the bad weather typical during monsoon season, offering low clouds and poor visibility. About 30,000 equipped NVA troops from the 304th and 308th Divisions and three separate infantry regiments of the B5 Front crossed the DMZ into I Corps zone across the five northernmost provinces of South Vietnam.
In the 8 kilometers area between the Cam Lo Bridge and Dong Ha Bridge, the NVA were supported by two tank regiments of 150 Soviet T-54 and PT-76 tanks, 75 tracked anti-aircraft vehicles, an artillery regiment of 47 towed 130mm guns, the largest concentration of anti-aircraft weaponry of the entire war, including the advanced SA-2 surface-to-air missile. Their main line of advance was along the axis of the north-south national highway QL-1; when General Creighton Abrams' headquarters in Saigon learned of large NVA movement south of the DMZ, a number of B-52s had been sent on "Arc Light" missions without escort, but were experiencing increased SAM activity. The 42nd Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron was tapped for assistance; the draw down of troops had left the unit shorthanded and Hambleton was the senior officer among a group of senior navigators. Hambleton assigned himself as navigator on the older EB-66C, configured to gather signals intelligence; the newer EB-66E was tasked with jamming SAM radar guidance systems so their missiles could not target the aircraft.
The EB-66's mission was to troll for missiles, let them lock on to their aircraft, execute a SAM break, a violent turn and dive designed to throw off the pursuing missile. The SA-2 was the size of a telephone pole and carried a proximity fused warhead, lethal within about 150 feet, but their guidance systems failed at about 2 Gs, while the EB-66 could achieve 5 Gs in its avoidance maneuver; the crew had pulled a SAM break more than 100 times. The presence of North Vietnamese surface-to-air missiles south of the DMZ had been tracked by Hambleton, but not everyone agreed they were present that far south. On Easter Sunday, 2 April 1972, two EB-66s were flying pathfinder escort for a cell of three B-52, which were given assignments to bomb Mu Gia or the Ban Karai Pass, the two primary access routes to the Ho Chi Minh Trail through Laos. Hambleton was aboard Bat 21, EB-66C serial number 54-0466, over Quảng Trị Province, just south of the Demilitarized Zone between North and South Vietnam; the airmen were surprised by the intensity of the anti-aircraft SAM activity.
The NVA 365th Air Defense Division fired two volleys of SA-2 surface-to-air missile at the U. S. planes, but the EB-66s thwarted the first volley. The NVA pointed their Fan Song radar at the B-52s, targeting them unsuccessfully with radar guided anti-aircraft fire; when those missed, the NVA fired two more SAMs optically at Bat 21
The Chanticleer Gift Shop is a historic house located at 103 West 3rd Street in Thibodaux, Louisiana. Built in c.1900, the structure is a single story frame residence in Queen Anne Revival style with Eastlake gallery details. The house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on April 29, 1986, it is one of 14 individually NRHP-listed properties in the "Thibodaux Multiple Resource Area", which includes: Bank of Lafourche Building Breaux House Building at 108 Green Street Citizens Bank of Lafourche Grand Theatre Lamartina Building McCulla House Peltier House Percy-Lobdell Building Riviere Building Riviere House Robichaux House St. Joseph Co-Cathedral and Rectory National Register of Historic Places listings in Lafourche Parish, Louisiana
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands was a denomination in the Netherlands which under that name existed from 1818 to 2004. In 2004, the denomination became a part of the Protestant Church in the Netherlands, the continuation of the Dutch Reformed Church, the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands and the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the first Lutheran congregations in the Netherlands were founded in the 16th century, but an organized'Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands' did not come into being until 1818. The city of Amsterdam was, still is, the centre of Dutch Lutheranism. Most Lutherans in the Netherlands are descendants of German or Scandinavian merchants, the Lutheran church has always been quite small; because of the urban and internationally oriented membership of the Lutheran Church, liberal influences have always been strong. The church was always counted among the most liberal denominations in the Netherlands.
They were among the first churches to ordain women. On May 1, 2004, the Lutheran Church's membership was down to a mere 14,000 when it merged with the Dutch Reformed Church and the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands to form the Protestant Church in the Netherlands
This the list of works of Stanisław Lem and its adaptations. Stanisław Lem was a Polish writer, best known for his science fiction, his works were translated into 40 languages and over 30 million copies have been sold. The Man from Mars, 1946. Short novel published in a magazine serial form. In 2009 for the first time a long excerpt from Chapter 1 was translated into English by Peter Swirski and published, with permission of Lem's family, in the online literary magazine Words Without Borders. Hospital of the Transfiguration – autobiographical novella about a doctor working in a Polish asylum during World War II, centred on a German Nazi euthanasia program Action T4, it was published in expanded form in 1955 as Czas nieutracony: Szpital przemienienia, translated into English by William Brand. In Poland it was made into a film in 1979; the Astronauts – young adult science fiction novel. In early 21st century, it is discovered that Tunguska meteorite was a crash of a reconnaissance ship from Venus, bound to invade the Earth.
A spaceship sent to investigate finds. It was made into a film in 1960. Not translated into English; the Magellanic Cloud - the first interstellar travel of mankind to the Alpha Centauri system. Not translated into English. Eden – Science fiction novel. Translated into English by Marc E. Heine; the Hunt The Investigation – philosophical mystery novel. Translated by Adele Milch; the book was made into a short film of the same name by Marek Piestrak in 1973. Memoirs Found in a Bathtub – Kafkaesque novel set in the distant future about a secret agent, whose mission in an unnamed ministry is so secret that no one can tell him what it is. Translated by Michael Kandel and Christine Rose Return from the Stars – Science fiction novel. An astronaut returns to Earth after a 127-year long mission. Translated by Barbara Marszal and Frank Simpson Solaris – science fiction novel; the crew of a remote space station is strangely influenced by the living ocean occupying a whole planet while they attempt communication with it.
Translated into English from the French translation by Joanna Kilmartin and Steve Cox. Made into two Russian films in 1968 and 1972, an American film in 2002; the Invincible – a hard science fiction novel credited with introducing nanotechnology into the genre. The crew of a space cruiser searches for a disappeared ship on the planet Regis III, discovering swarms of insect-like micromachines. Translated from German by Wendayne Ackerman, his Master's Voice – Science fiction novel about the effort to translate an extraterrestrial transmission. Translated by Michael Kandel; the Futurological Congress – An Ijon Tichy novella, published in the collection Bezsenność and Ze wspomnień Ijona Tichego. Translated by Michael Kandel and published as a standalone novella.. The Chain of Chance – borderline SF novel. A former US astronaut is sent to Italy to investigate a series of mysterious deaths. Translated by Louis Iribarne. Golem XIV – science novel. Expansion of an essay/story from the collection Wielkość urojona.
An English translation of the novel was included in the English edition of the collection. Observation on the Spot – Ijon Tichy novel about the planet Entia. Not translated into English. Fiasco – dystopian science fiction novel about an expedition to communicate with an alien civilization that results in a major fiasco. Translated by Michael Kandel Peace on Earth – Ijon Tichy novel. A callosotomised Tichy returns to Earth, trying to reconstruct the events of his recent visit to the Moon. Translated by Michael Kandel and Elinor Ford. Sezam – Linked collection of short fiction, dealing with time machines used to clean up Earth's history in order to be accepted into intergalactic society. Not translated into English; the Star Diaries – Collection of short fiction dealing with the voyages of Ijon Tichy. English translations of some stories were published in two volumes: the first, The Star Diaries, by Michael Kandel and the second, Memoirs of a space traveler: further reminiscences of Ijon Tichy, by Joel Stern and Maria Swiecicka-Ziemianek.
The Invasion from Aldebaran – Collection of nine science fiction stories, among them three Tales of Pirx the Pilot tales and Ciemność i pleśń, about the creation of Whisteria Cosmolytica, described as "a microbe annihilating matter and drawing its vital energy from that process", creating a grey goo scenario. Mortal Engines – Also contains The Hunt from Tales of Pirx the Pilot. Selected translation by Michael Kandel; the Cyberiad: Fables for the Cybernetic Ag