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Perceptron

In machine learning, the perceptron is an algorithm for supervised learning of binary classifiers. A binary classifier is a function which can decide whether or not an input, represented by a vector of numbers, belongs to some specific class, it is a type of linear classifier, i.e. a classification algorithm that makes its predictions based on a linear predictor function combining a set of weights with the feature vector. The perceptron algorithm was invented in 1958 at the Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory by Frank Rosenblatt, funded by the United States Office of Naval Research; the perceptron was intended to be a machine, rather than a program, while its first implementation was in software for the IBM 704, it was subsequently implemented in custom-built hardware as the "Mark 1 perceptron". This machine was designed for image recognition: it had an array of 400 photocells, randomly connected to the "neurons". Weights were encoded in potentiometers, weight updates during learning were performed by electric motors.

In a 1958 press conference organized by the US Navy, Rosenblatt made statements about the perceptron that caused a heated controversy among the fledgling AI community. This caused the field of neural network research to stagnate for many years, before it was recognised that a feedforward neural network with two or more layers had greater processing power than perceptrons with one layer. Single layer perceptrons are only capable of learning linearly separable patterns. For a classification task with some step activation function a single node will have a single line dividing the data points forming the patterns. More nodes can create more dividing lines, but those lines must somehow be combined to form more complex classifications. A second layer of perceptrons, or linear nodes, are sufficient to solve a lot of otherwise non-separable problems. In 1969 a famous book entitled Perceptrons by Marvin Minsky and Seymour Papert showed that it was impossible for these classes of network to learn an XOR function.

It is believed that they conjectured that a similar result would hold for a multi-layer perceptron network. However, this is not true, as both Minsky and Papert knew that multi-layer perceptrons were capable of producing an XOR function; the often-miscited Minsky/Papert text caused a significant decline in interest and funding of neural network research. It took; this text was reprinted in 1987 as "Perceptrons - Expanded Edition" where some errors in the original text are shown and corrected. The kernel perceptron algorithm was introduced in 1964 by Aizerman et al. Margin bounds guarantees were given for the Perceptron algorithm in the general non-separable case first by Freund and Schapire, more by Mohri and Rostamizadeh who extend previous results and give new L1 bounds; the perceptron is a simplified model of a biological neuron. While the complexity of biological neuron models is required to understand neural behavior, research suggests a perceptron-like linear model can produce some behavior seen in real neurons.

In the modern sense, the perceptron is an algorithm for learning a binary classifier called a threshold function: a function that maps its input x to an output value f: f = { 1 if w ⋅ x + b > 0, 0 otherwise where w is a vector of real-valued weights, w ⋅ x is the dot product ∑ i = 1 m w i x i, where m is the number of inputs to the perceptron, b is the bias. The bias does not depend on any input value; the value of f is used to classify x as either a positive or a negative instance, in the case of a binary classification problem. If b is negative the weighted combination of inputs must produce a positive value greater than | b | in order to push the classifier neuron over the 0 threshold. Spatially, the bias alters the position of the decision boundary; the perceptron learning algorithm does not terminate. If the vectors are not linearly separable learning will never reach a point where all vectors are classified properly; the most famous example of the perceptron's inabilit

Religious views of Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin's views on religion have been the subject of much interest and dispute. His pivotal work in the development of modern biology and evolution theory played a prominent part in debates about religion and science at the time. In the early 20th century, his contributions became a focus of the creation–evolution controversy in the United States though Darwin himself saw no conflict between evolution and creation. While Darwin came to dispute the dogmatic prescriptions of the Christian church in life he clarified his position as an agnostic in response to a letter from John Fordyce: "In my most extreme fluctuations I have never been an atheist in the sense of denying the existence of a God.— I think that but not always, that an agnostic would be the most correct description of my state of mind."Charles Darwin had a non-conformist Unitarian background, but attended an Anglican school. With the aim of becoming a clergyman he went to the University of Cambridge for the required Bachelor of Arts degree, which included studies of Anglican theology.

He took great interest in natural history and became filled with zeal for science as defined by John Herschel, based on the natural theology of William Paley which presented the argument from divine design in nature to explain adaptation as God acting through laws of nature. On the voyage of the Beagle he remained orthodox and looked for "centres of creation" to explain distribution, but towards the end of the voyage began to doubt that species were fixed. By this time he was critical of the Bible as history, wondered why all religions should not be valid. Following his return in October 1836, he developed his novel ideas of geology while speculating about transmutation of species and thinking about religion. Following Darwin's marriage to Emma Wedgwood in January 1839, they shared discussions about Christianity for several years, Emma's views being Unitarian like much of her family; the theodicy of Paley and Thomas Malthus vindicated evils such as starvation as a result of a benevolent creator's laws which had an overall good effect.

To Darwin, natural selection produced the good of adaptation but removed the need for design, he could not see the work of an omnipotent deity in all the pain and suffering such as the ichneumon wasp paralysing caterpillars as live food for its eggs. Until 1844 he followed Paley in viewing organisms as adapted with only a few imperfections, only modified that view by 1859. On the Origin of Species reflects theological views. Though he thought of religion as a tribal survival strategy, Darwin still believed that God was the ultimate lawgiver, recollected that at the time he was convinced of the existence of God as a First Cause and deserved to be called a theist; this view subsequently fluctuated, he continued to explore conscientious doubts, without forming fixed opinions on certain religious matters. Darwin continued to play a leading part in the parish work of the local church, but from around 1849 would go for a walk on Sundays while his family attended church. Though reticent about his religious views, in 1879 he responded that he had never been an atheist in the sense of denying the existence of a god, that "an Agnostic would be the more correct description of my state of mind."

He went as far as saying that "Science has nothing to do with Christ, except insofar as the habit of scientific research makes a man cautious in admitting evidence. For myself, I do not believe that there has been any revelation; as for a future life, every man must judge for himself between conflicting vague probabilities." Charles Darwin was born during the Napoleonic Wars and grew up in their aftermath, a conservative time when Tory-dominated government associated with the established Anglican Church of England repressed Radicalism, but when family memories recalled the 18th-century Enlightenment and a multitude of Non-conformist churches held differing interpretations of Christianity. His Whig supporting extended family of Darwins and Wedgwoods was Unitarian, though one of his grandfathers, Erasmus Darwin, was a freethinker, his father was a freethinker but as a physician avoided any social conflict with his wealthy Anglican patrons. While Darwin's parents were open enough to changing social pressures to have Charles baptised in the Church of England, his pious mother took the children to the Unitarian chapel.

After her death when he was only eight he became a boarder at the Shrewsbury School, an Anglican public school. The two universities in England namely Oxford and Cambridge, were under the Church of England and required students to sign the Thirty-nine Articles of the Anglican faith, so many English Non-conformists sent their children to the Scottish universities which had a better reputation in fields like medicine. Charles attended the University of Edinburgh, while he was put off medicine he took an active interest in natural history at the Plinian Society. One of his proposers for the society was the radical William A. F. Browne, on 27 March 1827 Browne argued that mind and consciousness were aspects of brain activity, not "souls" or spiritual entities separate from the body. A furious debate ensued, someone struck out all mention of this materialist heresy from the minutes; this was the first time that Darwin was exposed to militant freethought and the arguments it aroused. On one occasion Robert Edmund Grant discussed Lamarck's evolutionary ideas.

Darwin was astonished, but had read the similar ideas of his grandfather Erasmus and remained indifferent. Natural history had grown from the idea that the different kinds of plants and animals showed the wonder of God's creation, making their study and cataloguing int

Holiša

Holiša is a village and municipality in the Lučenec District in the Banská Bystrica Region of Slovakia. In historical records, the village was first mentioned in 1246, it belonged to local nobles Lossonczy. From 1554 to 1594 it was occupied by Turks, after it passed to Forgách, Koháry and Coburg. A castle had existed in the village until the 15th century. From 1938 to 1945 it belonged to Hungary; the records for genealogical research are available at the state archive "Statny Archiv in Banska Bystrica, Slovakia" Roman Catholic church records: 1773-1892 Lutheran church records: 1783-1895 List of municipalities and towns in Slovakia https://web.archive.org/web/20081026090138/http://www.holisa.ocu.sk/index.html https://web.archive.org/web/20080111223415/http://www.statistics.sk/mosmis/eng/run.html http://www.e-obce.sk/obec/holisa/holisa.htmlSurnames of living people in Holisa

Boris Gujić

Boris Gujić is a Bosnian-Herzegovinian footballer who plays for Las Vegas Legends professional team in Major Arena Soccer League in USA. Born in Zenica, SR Bosnia and Herzegovina, SFR Yugoslavia, he started his career at FK Bratstvo from Bratunac. In 2006, he joined Serbian side FK Senta, between 2006 and 2008 he played for FK Senta tier. In 2008, he moved to Hungary where he played the following 4 seasons in the Nemzeti Bajnokság I with Kaposvári Rákóczi FC. In summer 2012 he joined Premier League side FK Sarajevo. However, during the winter break of the 2012–13 season, he returned to Serbia to his former club FK Senta now playing in the Serbian third level, the Serbian League Vojvodina. In summer 2013 he joined newly promoted Bosnian Premier League side FK Mladost Velika Obarska. From Avgust 2014 Boris is playing in Major Arena Soccer League in USA for Las Vegas Legends from Las Vegas, he was part of Serbia national team, which participated in Indoor Soccer World Cup played 2015 in USA

Garran, Australian Capital Territory

Garran is a suburb in the Woden district of Canberra in the Australian Capital Territory. Garran was named after Sir Robert Garran who made numerous contributions to the development of higher education in Canberra; the streets in Garran are named after Australian writers. The suburb was first settled in 1966 and has an area of 2.74 km². The Canberra Hospital is located in Garran; the suburb contains three primary schools: a government school, Garran Primary. Peter & Paul Primary School. At the 2016 census, Garran had a population of 3,497 people. 58.2% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were India 5.5% and England 4.5%. 65.3% of people spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Malayalam 3.9% and Mandarin 3.4%. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 30.4% and Catholic 25.2%. Garran contains volcanic materials from the Silurian Age. Deakin volcanics purple and green tuff is under the Canberra hospital, around Ingamells Street in the north and the base of Davidson Hill.

Deakin Volcanics coarse dark purple rhyodacite is under Fitchett Couvreur Street areas. Deakin Volcanics green grey and purple rhyodacite is in the south of Garran. ABC RealMedia story on the suburb from the Canberra's Suburbs series