Sonoma County, California

Sonoma County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 United States Census, its population was 483,878, its county seat and largest city is Santa Rosa. It is to the south of Mendocino County, it is west of Lake County. Sonoma County comprises the Santa Rosa-Petaluma, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area, it is the northwesternmost county in the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region. Sonoma is the southwestern county and largest producer of California's Wine Country region, which includes Napa and Lake counties, it possesses thirteen approved over 350 wineries. In 2012, Sonoma County ranked as the 22nd county in the United States in agricultural production; as early as 1920, Sonoma County was ranked as the eighth most agriculturally productive US county and a leading producer of hops, prunes and dairy and poultry products due to the extent of available, fertile agricultural land in addition to the abundance of high quality irrigation water.

More than 8.4 million tourists visit each year, spending more than $1 billion in 2016. Sonoma County is the home of Santa Rosa Junior College. Sonoma County is home to several Native American tribes. By the 1830s, European settlement had set a new direction that would prove to radically alter the course of land use and resource management of this region. Sonoma County has rich agricultural land divided between two nearly monocultural uses as of 2009: grapes and pasturage; the voters have twice approved open space initiatives that have provided funding for public acquisition of natural areas, preserving forested areas, coastal habitat, other open space. The Pomo, Coast Miwok and Wappo peoples were the earliest human settlers of Sonoma County, between 8000 and 5000 BC living within the natural carrying capacity of the land. Archaeological evidence of these First people includes a number of occurrences of rock carvings in southern Sonoma County. Spaniards and other Europeans claimed and settled in the county from the late 16th to mid-19th century, seeking timber and farmland.

The Russians were the first newcomers to establish a permanent foothold in Sonoma County, with the Russian-American Company establishing Fort Ross on the Sonoma Coast in 1812. This settlement and its outlying Russian settlements came to include a population of several hundred Russian and Aleut settlers and a stockaded fort with artillery. However, the Russians abandoned it in 1841 and sold the fort to John Sutter and Mexican land grantee of Sacramento; the Mission San Francisco Solano, founded in 1823 as the last and northernmost of 21 California missions, is in the present City of Sonoma, at the northern end of El Camino Real. El Presidio de Sonoma, or Sonoma Barracks, was established in 1836 by Comandante General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, his duties included keeping an eye on the Russian traders at Fort Ross, secularizing the Mission, maintaining cooperation with the Native Americans of the entire region, doling out the lands for large estates and ranches. The City of Sonoma was the site of the Bear Flag Revolt in 1846.

Sonoma was one of the original counties formed when California became a state in 1850, with its county seat the town of Sonoma. However, by the early 1850s, Sonoma had declined in importance in both commerce and population, its county buildings were crumbling, it was remote; as a result, elements in the newer growing towns of Petaluma, Santa Rosa, Healdsburg began vying to move the county seat to their towns. The dispute was between the bigger, richer commercial town of Petaluma and the more centrally located, growing agricultural center of Santa Rosa; the fate was decided following an election for the state legislature in which James Bennett of Santa Rosa defeated Joseph Hooker of Sonoma and introduced a bill that resulted in Santa Rosa being confirmed as county seat in 1854. Several Santa Rosans, not caring to wait, decided to take action and, one night, rode down the Sonoma Valley to Sonoma, took the county seals and records, brought them to Santa Rosa; some of the county's land was annexed from Mendocino County between 1850 and 1860.

Early post-1847 settlement and development focused on the city of Sonoma the region's sole town and a common transit and resting point in overland travel between the region and Sacramento and the gold fields to the east. However, after 1850, a settlement that soon became the city of Petaluma began to grow near the farthest navigable point inland up the Petaluma River. A hunting camp used to obtain game to sell in other markets, by 1854 Petaluma had grown into a bustling center of trade, taking advantage of its position in the river near a region of productive agricultural land, being settled. Soon, other inland towns, notably Santa Rosa and Healdsburg began to develop due to their locations along riparian areas in prime agricultural flatland. However, their development lagged behind Petaluma which, until the arrival of railroads in the 1860s, remained the primary commercial and break-of-bulk point for people and goods in the region. After the arrival of the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad in 1870, Santa Rosa began to boom, soon equalling and surpassing Petaluma as the region's population and commercial center.

The railroad bypassed Petaluma for southern connections to ferries of San Francisco Bay. Six nations have claimed Sonoma County f

Treaty of Tartu (Russian–Finnish)

The Treaty of Tartu between Finland and Soviet Russia was signed on 14 October 1920 after negotiations that lasted nearly five months. The treaty confirmed the border between Finland and Soviet Russia after the Finnish civil war and Finnish volunteer expeditions in Russian East Karelia; the treaty was signed in Tartu at the Estonian Students' Society building. Ratifications of the treaty were exchanged in Moscow on 31 December 1920; the treaty was registered in the League of Nations Treaty Series on 5 March 1921. This turbulent time in Finnish and Russian politics influenced the events that led to the Treaty of Tartu. Prior to the Treaty of Tartu, Finnish political parties shifted their sovereign policies several times. In early 1917, the conservative party was split into two factions: The Old Finns and the Young Finns; the Old Finns wanted to keep ties to St. Petersburg close and argued against an independent Finland hoping not to agitate the Russian monarchy and further limit Finnish autonomy.

The Young Finns differed in this regard. The third major Finnish party were the leftist social-democrats; these social democrats wanted to see a free and independent Finland. All of this changed in the matter of a short few months when the Bolsheviks took control of the country during the Russian Revolution; the Bolsheviks became an ally to the Finnish social democrats. This changed the stance of the social democrats leading them to become pro-Russian. Meanwhile, the Old Finns, in disagreement with the Bolshevik policies became pro-independence. During the November 1917 election the coalition representing the pro-independence parties won the cabinet election and moved to make Finland an independent nation; the move for independence soon after the Finish Civil War began. The Bolsheviks fought with the Finnish left against the independent Finnish forces; the independent Finnish forces won out with the help of Swedish volunteers. The border between Russia and Finland became obfuscated as a result of the war.

Following the civil war, the Finnish government sought to seek additional security by forming ties with the Germans. This alliance was short lived with the defeat of the central powers during World War I. With Germany’s demise the Finnish government felt it best to turn to another power as an ally; the traditional history between Russia and Finland made it seem as though this would be the best option for an alliance, despite the difference in socioeconomic policies. The Treaty of Tartu was a launching point to mend the relationship; the treaty confirmed that the Finnish-Soviet border would follow the old border between the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland and Imperial Russia. Finland additionally received Petsamo, with its ice-free harbour on the Arctic Ocean; as far back as 1864, Tsar Alexander II had promised to join Petsamo to Finland in exchange for a piece of the Karelian Isthmus. Finland agreed to leave the joined and occupied areas of Repola and Porajärvi in Russian East Karelia; the treaty included Finland handing over the contested region of North Ingria to Russia, thereby disbanding the short-lived Republic of North Ingria.

The treaty had some articles besides area and border issues, including Soviet guarantee of free navigation of merchant ships from the Finnish ports in Lake Ladoga to the Gulf of Finland via the River Neva. Finland guaranteed land transit from the Soviet Union to Norway via the Petsamo area. Finland agreed to disarm the coastal fortress in Ino, opposite the Soviet city Kronstadt located on the island of Kotlin; the Finnish outer islands in the Gulf of Finland were demilitarized. The treaty was subject to controversy first during the East Karelian Uprising 1921–1922 when the Finnish government allowed volunteers to take part in the conflict; the treaty was broken by the Soviet Union in 1939, when it started the Winter War against Finland. Juho Kusti Paasikivi, leader Juho Vennola Alexander Frey Rudolf Walden Väinö Tanner Väinö Voionmaa Väinö Kivilinna Jan Antonovich Berzin Platon Mikhailovich Kerzhentsev Nikolai Sergeyevich Tikhmenev Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Samoylo Yevgeny Andreyevich Berens List of Finnish treaties Treaty of Tartu Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty Latvian–Soviet Peace Treaty Text of the treaty

Salisbury Plain, South Georgia

Salisbury Plain is a broad coastal plain found with the Bay of Isles on the north coast of South Georgia. It lies between the mouths of Grace and Lucas glaciers on the southern coast of the bay, with Mount Ashley south of it. Best known as the breeding site for as many as 60,000 King penguins, its beaches are covered with many Southern elephant seals and Antarctic fur seals. American ornithologist Robert Cushman Murphy made the first detailed study of the birds in the area in 1912–13, he named nearby Grace Glacier after his wife. The name appears to have been first used on a 1931 British Admiralty chart; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Salisbury Plain, South Georgia"