A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
Acer macrophyllum, the bigleaf maple or Oregon maple, is a large deciduous tree in the genus Acer. It can grow up to 157.80 feet tall, but more reaches 15–20 m tall. It is native to western North America near the Pacific coast, from southernmost Alaska to southern California; some stands are found inland in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains of central California, a tiny population occurs in central Idaho. It has the largest leaves of any maple 15–30 cm across, with five incised palmate lobes, with the largest running to 61 centimetres. In the fall, the leaves turn to gold and yellow to spectacular effect against the backdrop of evergreen conifers; the flowers are produced in spring in pendulous racemes 10–15 cm long, greenish-yellow with inconspicuous petals. The fruit is a paired winged samara, each seed 1–1.5 centimetres in diameter with a 4–5-centimetre wing. In the more humid parts of its range, as in the Olympic National Park, its bark is covered with epiphytic moss and fern species.
Bigleaf maple can form pure stands on moist soils in proximity to streams, but are found within riparian hardwood forests or dispersed open canopies of conifers, mixed evergreens, or oaks In cool and moist temperate mixed woods they are one of the dominant species. It is rare north of Vancouver Island though cultivated in Prince Rupert, near Ketchikan and in Juneau. Bigleaf maple has been used for creating syrup but it is not common; this is. Syrup production has become a localized industry in bigleaf maple groves where weather conditions are suitable, such as near sea-level in British Columbia and at higher elevations along the West Coast from Washington through Northern California. Bigleaf maple is the only commercially important maple of the Pacific Coast region; the wood is used for applications as diverse as furniture, piano frames and salad bowls. Figured wood is not uncommon and is used for veneer, stringed instruments, guitar bodies, gun stocks; the wood is used in veneer production for furniture, but is used in musical instrument production, interior paneling, other hardwood products.
Lakwungen First Nations people of Vancouver Island call it the paddle tree and used it to make paddles and spindle wheels. In California, land managers do not value bigleaf maple, it is intentionally knocked over and left un-harvested during harvest of Douglas fir and redwood stands. Maple syrup has been made from the sap of bigleaf maple trees. While the sugar concentration is about the same as in Acer saccharum, the flavor is somewhat different. Interest in commercially producing syrup from bigleaf maple sap has been limited. Although not traditionally used for syrup production, it takes about 40 volumes of sap to produce 1 volume of maple syrup, it is used as browse by black-tailed deer, mule deer, horses during the sapling stage. A western Oregon study found that 60 percent of bigleaf maple seedlings over 10 inches tall had been browsed by deer, most several times; the current national champion bigleaf maple is located in Oregon. It has a circumference of 38.6 feet —or an average diameter at breast height of about 12.3 feet —and is 119 feet tall with a crown spread of 91 feet.
The previous national champion is located in Marion and has a circumference of 25.4 feet —or an average diameter at breast height of about 8.1 feet —and is 88 feet tall with a crown spread of 104 feet. Media related to Acer macrophyllum at Wikimedia Commons Calflora photo of herbarium specimen at Missouri Botanical Garden, collected in Yolo County, California, in 1903
Trione-Annadel State Park
Trione-Annadel State Park is a state park of California in the United States. It is situated at the northern edge of Sonoma Valley and is adjacent to Spring Lake Regional Park in Santa Rosa, it offers many recreational activities within its 5,092-acre property. The rock formations of Trione-Annadel have played central role in its history: its volcanic origins, the Native American use of obsidian, the early 1900s mining of cobblestones, modern hikers' appreciation of its volcanic rock outcrops; these lands were occupied by the Wappo and Pomo people in prehistoric times, who would have inhabited the riparian zones and the marsh perimeter. Annadel includes what some biologists consider the best example of undisturbed northern oak woodlands in existence. Visitors can enjoy the park's diverse wildlife and scenery during any time of the year but are most rewarded from April through June when most wildflowers are in bloom. Plant communities include California oak woodland, riparian woodland, Douglas fir forest, chaparral and marsh.
The dominant plant community is the oak woodland, which has a canopy of coast live oak, Garry oak, black oak, Pacific madrone, bigleaf maple, California laurel. Canyon live oak occurs in creeks. In the oak woodlands, the dominant understory plants are native bunchgrasses, wild blackberry, coyote brush, western poison-oak; the latter covers nearly one quarter of the understory in the park. Douglas fir occurs on north-facing slopes. Common animals in Annadel include black-tailed deer, western gray squirrel, raccoon and opossum. Bobcat and mountain lion are observed. There are many bird species, including the California scrub jay, Steller's jay, acorn woodpecker, black phoebe, dark-eyed junco. In moist areas, amphibians such as the rough-skinned newt can be found; the southern reaches of Annadel are drained by Yulupa Creek and other tributaries of Sonoma Creek, while the northern flanks are part of the Santa Rosa Creek watershed. Eastern slopes are drained by Yulupa and Sonoma Creeks, while the western slopes are part of the Spring Creek watershed.
Many of Annadel's streams are dry in the summer, because rainfall is seasonal, with most of the 30 inches of annual precipitation occurring between October and April. Ledson Marsh, which drains into Yulupa Creek, retains some smaller pools of water throughout most of the year; the highest elevation in the park is the top of 1,887 feet. The entirety of Annadel was below the ocean floor as as twelve million years ago, around which time massive uplift and volcanic action formed the massif which comprises the park of today. Elevations in Annadel range from about 360 to 1,880 feet above sea level. Slopes within Annadel range from 15 to 30 percent, but it is not uncommon to encounter slopes up to 70 percent on steep slopes above drainages which are covered in douglas fir forest. One of the major soil associations within the park is Goulding cobbly clay loam, which contains 25 percent cobblestones with some basaltic exposures, evidence of the volcanic origins of the Sonoma Mountains. Typical soil depths are 35 to 50 centimetres.
Much of the soil type in the Yulupa Creek riparian zone consists of Laniger loam, with rhyolite outcrops, another relic of the igneous history. The Southern Pomo and Southern Wappo peoples inhabited these lands in prehistoric times. No full-scale villages have been discovered within the park boundaries; this site was valuable to the Native American tribes as a source of obsidian, which they used to make scrapers, knives and spearheads. Archaeological evidence suggests. Human use and settlement of this area changed markedly in the late 18th century when the Spanish came to this region. Cattle ranching and farming replaced the prehistoric tribal hunting and gathering. In 1837, Annadel was part of the Rancho Los Guilicos Mexican land grant. In 1848 the lands of Annadel were purchased by Scottish immigrant William Hood, for whom nearby Hood Mountain was named. In the late 19th century and cattle grazing was superseded by quarry uses. There was considerable demand for cobblestone material when many west coast cities were being developed, in the reconstruction of San Francisco after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.
Cobblestone quarry operations were a major source of revenue to the Wymores and the Hutchinsons who were the principal land owners in this area around the year 1900. The park derives its name from Annie Hutchinson, since this locale was once termed "Annie's Dell". In the early 1900s, author Jack London settled nearby in these same Sonoma Mountains, he based much of his writings on these mountains that he loved. Demand for cobblestone subsided around the year 1920, since owners of the newly invented automobile expected a smoother ride than that derived from cobblestone streets. Joe Coney began to accumulate land holdings in this area during the 1930s, he used the land for agricultural purposes until the late 1960s, though he mined perlite, an obsidian product used in the manufacture of certain insulation products. Annadel became part of the California State Park system in the year 1971; the site of what became Trione-Annadel was being eyed for residential development when Henry Trione and hunting buddy Joe Long of Long’s Drugs put together a $5 million package that led to the site’s protection as a park.
Trione built his home on the hillside adjacent to Annadel. In 2012, he pitched in another $100,000 to keep the park running under county administration at a time when Annadel and dozens of other parks statewide were thre
The source or headwaters of a river or stream is the furthest place in that river or stream from its estuary or confluence with another river, as measured along the course of the river. The United States Geological Survey states that a river's "length may be considered to be the distance from the mouth to the most distant headwater source, or from the mouth to the headwaters of the stream known as the source stream"; as an example of the second definition above, the USGS at times considers the Missouri River as a tributary of the Mississippi River. But it follows the first definition above in using the combined Missouri - lower Mississippi length figure in lists of lengths of rivers around the world. Most rivers have numerous tributaries and change names often; this most identified definition of a river source uses the most distant point in the drainage basin from which water runs year-around, or, alternatively, as the furthest point from which water could flow ephemerally. The latter definition includes sometimes-dry channels and removes any possible definitions that would have the river source "move around" from month to month depending on precipitation or ground water levels.
This definition, from geographer Andrew Johnston of the Smithsonian Institution, is used by the National Geographic Society when pinpointing the source of rivers such as the Amazon or Nile. A definition given by the state of Montana agrees, stating that a river source is never a confluence but is "in a location, the farthest, along water miles, from where that river ends." Under this definition neither a lake nor a confluence of tributaries can be a true river source, though both provide the starting point for the portion of a river carrying a single name. For example, National Geographic and every other geographic authority and atlas define the source of the Nile River not as Lake Victoria's outlet where the name "Nile" first appears, which would reduce the Nile's length by over 900 km, but instead use the source of the largest river flowing into the lake, the Kagera River; the source of the Amazon River has been determined this way though the river changes names numerous times along its course.
However, the source of Thames in England is traditionally reckoned according to the named river Thames rather than its longer tributary, the Churn — although not without contention. When not listing river lengths, alternative definitions may be used; the Missouri River's source is named by some USGS and other federal and state agency sources, following Lewis and Clark's naming convention, as the confluence of the Madison and Jefferson Rivers, rather than the source of its longest tributary. This is contradicted by a US Army Corps of Engineers official on a USGS site who states the most common definition: "Geographers follow the longest tributary to identify the source of rivers and streams. In the case of the Missouri River and Clark would have had to travel to the east...to reach the source"... He states that the Missouri River source is well upstream from Lewis and Clark's confluence, "following the Jefferson River to the Beaverhead River to Red Rock River Red Rock Creek to Hell Roaring Creek."
Sometimes the source of the most remote tributary may be in an area, more marsh-like, in which the "uppermost" or most remote section of the marsh would be the true source. For example, the source of the River Tees is marshland; the furthest stream is often called the headstream. Headwaters are small streams with cool waters because of shade and melted ice or snow, they may be glacial headwaters, waters formed by the melting of glacial ice. Headwater areas are the upstream areas of a watershed, as opposed to the outflow or discharge of a watershed; the river source is but not always on or quite near the edge of the watershed, or watershed divide. For example, the source of the Colorado River is at the Continental Divide separating the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean watersheds of North America. A river is considered a linear geographic feature, with one source. For an example, note how the Mississippi River and Missouri River sources are defined: "Largest Rivers in the United States". United States Geological Survey.
U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Mississippi River, Length: 2,340 miles, Source: 47°14′22″N 95°12′29″W U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Missouri River, Length: 2,540 miles, Source: 45°55′39″N 111°30′29″W The verb "rise" can be used to express the general region of a river's source, is qualified with an adverbial expression of place. For example: The River Thames rises in Gloucestershire; the White Nile rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa. The word "source", when applied to lakes rather than rivers or streams, refers to the lake's inflow. Source of the Amazon River Source of the Nile Spring Strahler number Water well
A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown for winemaking, but raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice. The science and study of vineyard production is known as viticulture. A vineyard is characterised by its terroir, a French term loosely translating as "a sense of place" that refers to the specific geographical and geological characteristics of grapevine plantations, which may be imparted in the wine; the earliest evidence of wine production dates from between 6000 and 5000 BC. Wine making technology improved with the ancient Greeks but it wasn't until the end of the Roman Empire that cultivation techniques as we know them were common throughout Europe. In medieval Europe the Church was a staunch supporter of wine, necessary for the celebration of the Mass. During the lengthy instability of the Middle Ages, the monasteries maintained and developed viticultural practices, having the resources, security and interest in improving the quality of their vines, they owned and tended the best vineyards in Europe and vinum theologium was considered superior to all others.
European vineyards were planted with a wide variety of the Vitis vinifera grape. However, in the late 19th century, the entire species was nearly destroyed by the plant louse phylloxera accidentally introduced to Europe from North America. Native American grapevines include varieties such as Vitis labrusca, resistant to the bug. Vitis vinifera varieties were saved by being grafted onto the rootstock of Native American varieties, although there is still no remedy for phylloxera, which remains a danger to any vineyard not planted with grafted rootstock; the quest for vineyard efficiency has produced a bewildering range of systems and techniques in recent years. Due to the much more fertile New World growing conditions, attention has focussed on managing the vine's more vigorous growth. Innovation in palissage and pruning and thinning methods have replaced more general, traditional concepts like "yield per unit area" in favor of "maximizing yield of desired quality". Many of these new techniques have since been adopted in place of traditional practice in the more progressive of the so-called "Old World" vineyards.
Other recent practices include spraying water on vines to protect them from sub-zero temperatures, new grafting techniques, soil slotting, mechanical harvesting. Such techniques have made possible the development of wine industries in New World countries such as Canada. Today there is increasing interest in developing organic, ecologically sensitive and sustainable vineyards. Biodynamics has become popular in viticulture; the use of drip irrigation in recent years has expanded vineyards into areas which were unplantable. For well over half a century, Cornell University, the University of California and California State University, among others, have been conducting scientific experiments to improve viticulture and educate practitioners; the research includes investigating pest control. The International Grape Genome Program is a multi-national effort to discover a genetic means to improving quality, increasing yield and providing a "natural" resistance to pests; the implementation of mechanical harvesting is stimulated by changes in labor laws, labor shortages, bureaucratic complications.
It can be expensive to hire labor for short periods of time, which does not square well with the need to reduce production costs and harvest often at night. However small vineyards, incompatible widths between rows of grape vines and steep terrain hinder the employment of machine harvesting more than the resistance of traditional views which reject such harvesting. Numbers of New World vineyard plantings have been increasing as fast as European vineyards are being uprooted. Between 1990 and 2003, the number of U. S. vineyards increased from 1,180 to 3,860 km2 or 292,000 to 954,000 acres, while Australian vineyard numbers more than doubled from 590 to 1,440 km2 and Chilean vineyards grew from 654 to 1,679 km2. The size of individual vineyards in the New World is significant. Europe's 1.6 million vineyards are an average of 0.2 km2 each, while the average Australian vineyard is 0.5 km2, providing considerable economies of scale. Exports to Europe from New World growers increased by 54% in the six years up to 2006.
There have been significant changes in the kinds of grapes that are grown. For example, in Chile, large areas of low-quality grapes have been replaced with such grapes as Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon. In Argentina, due to an economic down-turn, acreage of Malbec was reduced in the 1980s, but in the 1990s, during the quality revolution incited by Malbec Pioneer Nicolás Catena Zapata, growers started planting more Malbec, most notably in higher altitudes where cooler temperatures and more intense sunlight yields more concentrated yet smoother and more complex malbecs. Grape changes are in response to changing consumer demand but sometimes result from vine pull schemes designed to promote vineyard change. Alternatively, the development of "T" budding now permits the grafting of a different grape variety onto existing rootstock in the vineyard, making it possible to switch varieties within a two-year period. Local legislation dictates which varieties are selected, how they are grown, whether vineyards can be irrigated and when grapes can be harvested, all of which in serves to rein
San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary in the US state of California. It is surrounded by a contiguous region known as the San Francisco Bay Area, is dominated by the large cities of San Jose, San Francisco and Oakland. San Francisco Bay drains water from 40 percent of California. Water from the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, from the Sierra Nevada mountains, flow into Suisun Bay, which travels through the Carquinez Strait to meet with the Napa River at the entrance to San Pablo Bay, which connects at its south end to San Francisco Bay; the Guadalupe River enters the bay at its southernmost point in San Jose. The Guadalupe drains water from the Santa Cruz mountains and Hamilton Mountain ranges in southernmost San Jose, it enters the bay at the town of Alviso. It connects to the Pacific Ocean via the Golden Gate strait. However, this entire group of interconnected bays is called the San Francisco Bay; the bay was designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance on February 2, 2012. The bay covers somewhere between 400 and 1,600 square miles, depending on which sub-bays, wetlands, so on are included in the measurement.
The main part of the bay measures three to twelve miles wide east-to-west and somewhere between 48 miles 1 and 60 miles 2 north-to-south. It is the largest Pacific estuary in the Americas; the bay was navigable as far south as San Jose until the 1850s, when hydraulic mining released massive amounts of sediment from the rivers that settled in those parts of the bay that had little or no current. Wetlands and inlets were deliberately filled in, reducing the Bay's size since the mid-19th century by as much as one third. Large areas of wetlands have been restored, further confusing the issue of the Bay's size. Despite its value as a waterway and harbor, many thousands of acres of marshy wetlands at the edges of the bay were, for many years, considered wasted space; as a result, soil excavated for building projects or dredged from channels was dumped onto the wetlands and other parts of the bay as landfill. From the mid-19th century through the late 20th century, more than a third of the original bay was filled and built on.
The deep, damp soil in these areas is subject to soil liquefaction during earthquakes, most of the major damage close to the Bay in the Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 occurred to structures on these areas. The Marina District of San Francisco, hard hit by the 1989 earthquake, was built on fill, placed there for the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, although liquefaction did not occur on a large scale. In the 1990s, San Francisco International Airport proposed filling in hundreds more acres to extend its overcrowded international runways in exchange for purchasing other parts of the bay and converting them back to wetlands; the idea was, remains, controversial. There are five large islands in San Francisco Bay. Alameda, the largest island, was created when a shipping lane was cut to form the Port of Oakland in 1901, it is now a suburban community. Angel Island was known as "Ellis Island West" because it served as the entry point for immigrants from East Asia, it is now a state park accessible by ferry.
Mountainous Yerba Buena Island is pierced by a tunnel linking the east and west spans of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge. Attached to the north is the artificial and flat Treasure Island, site of the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition. From the Second World War until the 1990s, both islands served as military bases and are now being redeveloped. Isolated in the center of the Bay is Alcatraz, the site of the famous federal penitentiary; the federal prison on Alcatraz Island no longer functions, but the complex is a popular tourist site. Despite its name, Mare Island in the northern part of the bay is a peninsula rather than an island. San Francisco Bay is thought to represent a down-warping of the Earth's crust between the San Andreas Fault to the west and the Hayward Fault to the east, though the precise nature of this remains under study. About 560,000 years ago, a tectonic shift caused the large inland Lake Corcoran to spill out the central valley and through the Carquinez Strait, carving out sediment and forming canyons in what is now the northern part of the San Francisco Bay and Golden Gate strait.
Until the last ice age, the basin, now filled by the San Francisco Bay was a large linear valley with small hills, similar to most of the valleys of the Coast Ranges. As the great ice sheets began to melt, around 11,000 years ago, the sea level started to rise. By 5000 BC the sea level rose 300 feet; the valley become a bay, the small hills became islands. From 15,000 – 10,000 years ago, the Ohlone tribe inhabited the area, now the San Francisco Bay; the natives were displaced 5,000 years ago as the bay filled with water due to the rising sea level at the end of the ice age. The first European to see San Francisco Bay is N. de Morena, left at New Albion at Drakes Bay in Marin County, California by Sir Francis Drake in 1579 and walked to Mexico. The first recorded European discovery of San Francisco Bay was on November 4, 1769 when Spanish explorer Gaspar de Portolà, unable to find the port of Monterey, continued north close to what is now Pacifica and reached the summit of the 1,200-foot-high Sweeney Ridge, now marked as the place where he first sighted San Francisco Bay.
Portolá and his party did not realize what they had discovered, thinking they had arrived at a large arm of what is now called Drakes Bay. At the time, Drakes Bay went by the name Bahia de San
The Napa River 55 miles long, is a river in the U. S. state of California. It drains a famous wine-growing region, called the Napa Valley, in the mountains northeast of San Francisco. Milliken Creek and Mt. Veeder watersheds are a few of its many tributaries; the mouth is at Vallejo where the inter-tidal zone of fresh and salt waters flow into the Carquinez Straits on San Pablo Bay. The Napa River rises in northwestern Napa County just south of the summit of Mt. St. Helena in the Mayacamas Mountains of the California Coast Ranges; the source begins as seasonal Kimball Canyon Creek in Robert Louis Stevenson State Park at an elevation of 3,745 feet which descends the southern slope of Mt. St. Helena to Kimball Canyon Dam, it flows south for 4 miles. In the valley, it flows southeast past Calistoga, St Helena, Rutherford and through Napa, its head of navigation. Downstream from Napa, it forms a tidal estuary, entering Mare Island Strait, a narrow channel on the north end of San Pablo Bay, it discharges into San Pablo Bay through the Napa Sonoma Marsh.
The Napa River watershed encompasses 426 square miles. Larger tributaries, such as Dry and Soda creeks, show signs of recent incision and have graded to the incised current level of the mainstem Napa River. In some cases, smaller tributaries cutting across the valley floor have not adjusted to the lowered level of the mainstem and are elevated at their confluence with the mainstem, forming potential barriers to upstream fish migration. Several large dams were built between 1924 and 1959 on major eastside tributaries and the northern headwaters of the Napa River. In addition, many smaller dams can be found throughout the watershed; these numerous dams are impassable barriers to salmon and steelhead seeking their historic spawning grounds. The river supports a remarkable diversity of fishes and recovering salmonid populations chinook salmon and steelhead trout. In 2003 the Napa County Resource Conservation District began an ongoing salmon monitoring program, have recorded a run of 400 - 1000 fall-run Chinook salmon the past several years.
The Chinook run begins in late October through January. Conclusive evidence of historical chinook salmon populations in the Napa River basin have not been established, but the river provides appropriate habitat for salmon and its location near the entrance to the Sacramento/San Joaquin Rivers make it that salmon would have at least ventured into the Napa River. In 2013, a genetics study of Napa River chinook salmon revealed that two adults migrated from the Klamath River and spawned in the Napa River, since four juvenile chinook collected from the Napa River in 2010 were proved to be siblings from the close similarity of their DNA and that the latter was characteristic of Klamath River chinook; these findings have important implications for the protection of the federally endangered Coastal California Chinook Salmon ESU since the Napa River, nor any stream in the Bay Area, was included in this ESU. The Napa River basin is estimated to have supported a spawning run of 6,000–8,000 steelhead, as many as 2,000–4,000 coho salmon.
By the late 1960s, coho salmon were extirpated from the watershed and the steelhead population is now reduced to less than a few hundred adults. Flow reductions in key rearing streams have reduced food availability for juvenile steelhead, causing reduced growth and survival. A chum salmon was caught in the river. In addition, a fourth salmon species, sockeye salmon, was identified in the Napa River. Although diminished, the Napa River basin continues to support a fish community of greater diversity than the Sacramento and San Joaquin River systems, including a nearly intact community of sixteen native fish species, including Steelhead, fall-run Chinook salmon and river lamprey, hitch, tule perch, Sacramento splittail; because of this diversity the Napa River has been prioritized for special protection. White sturgeon and many other native and non-native fishes utilize the Napa River watershed; the California golden beaver was extant. Beaver have recolonized the Napa River and have been documented in Napa as well as near Rutherford and Oak Knoll.
As part of urban renewal in the 1970s, a concrete cover was removed from culverted sections of the Napa Creek, re-exposing the water to daylight. There is some debate as to whether this constituted one of the country's earliest "daylighting" projects, since the construction was undertaken with little thought to the river's ecology or restoration of riparian habitat. Napa Creek is a western tributary of the Napa River in downtown Napa; this construction is not believed to be responsible for flooding along the river. More vineyard owners with property that borders the Rutherford Reach, a 4.5-mile stretch of the Napa River between St. Helena and Oakville, are allowing prime land to return to a natural state in order to help preserve the ecology of the river; the project known as Rutherford Restoration Project involves 23 property owners have combined forces to provide 18 acres of land to this cause. After the restoration, native North American beaver returned to the area, establishing 3-4 beaver dams.
These keystone species have been shown to increase fish, bi