Geographic Names Information System
The Geographic Names Information System is a database that contains name and locative information about more than two million physical and cultural features located throughout the United States of America and its territories. It is a type of gazetteer. GNIS was developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the United States Board on Geographic Names to promote the standardization of feature names; the database is part of a system that includes bibliographic references. The names of books and historic maps that confirm the feature or place name are cited. Variant names, alternatives to official federal names for a feature, are recorded; each feature receives a permanent, unique feature record identifier, sometimes called the GNIS identifier. The database never removes an entry, "except in cases of obvious duplication." The GNIS accepts proposals for new or changed names for U. S. geographical features. The general public can make proposals at the GNIS web site and can review the justifications and supporters of the proposals.
The Bureau of the Census defines Census Designated Places as a subset of locations in the National Geographic Names Database. U. S. Postal Service Publication 28 gives standards for addressing mail. In this publication, the postal service defines two-letter state abbreviations, street identifiers such as boulevard and street, secondary identifiers such as suite. Canadian Geographical Names Data Base, a similar, but non-public-domain, database for locations within Canada only GEOnet Names Server, a similar database for locations outside the United States United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey, National Mapping Division, Digital Gazeteer: Users Manual. Least Heat Moon, Blue Highways: A Journey Into America. ISBN 0-316-35329-9 Jouris, All Over The Map, ISBN 0-89815-649-1 Report: "Countries, Areas of Special Sovereignty, Their Principal Administrative Divisions," Federal Information Processing Standards, FIPS 10-4.
Standard was withdrawn in September 2008, See Federal Register Notice: Vol. 73, No. 170, page 51276 Report: "Principles and Procedures: Domestic Geographic Names," U. S. Board on Geographic Names, 1997. U. S. Postal Service Publication 28. U. S. Board on Geographic Names website Geographic Names Information System Proposals from the general public Meeting minutes
Sonoma is a city in Sonoma County's Sonoma Valley, in California's Wine Country. Today, Sonoma is a center of California's wine industry in the Sonoma Valley AVA Appellation. Sonoma is known as the home of the Sonoma International Film Festival and for its historic town plaza, a remnant of the town's Mexican colonial past. Sonoma's population was 10,648 as of the 2010 census, while the Sonoma urban area had a population of 32,678; the area around what is now the City of Sonoma, California was not empty when the first Europeans arrived. It is near the northeast corner of the territory claimed by the Coast Miwok, with Southern Pomo to the northwest, Wappo to the northeast and Patwin peoples to the east. Mission San Francisco Solano was the predecessor of the Pueblo of Sonoma; the Mission, established in 1823 by Father José Altimira of the Franciscan Order was the 21st, last and northernmost mission built in Alta California. It was the only mission built in Alta California after Mexico gained independence from the Spanish Empire.
In 1833 the Mexican Congress decided to close all of the missions in Alta California. The Spanish missionaries were to be replaced by parish priests; the commander of the Company of the National Presidio at San Francisco, Lieutenant Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo was appointed administrator to oversee the closing of Mission San Francisco Solano. Governor José Figueroa's naming of Lieutenant Vallejo as the administrator to secularize the Mission was part of a larger plan. Governor Figueroa had received instructions from the National Government to establish a strong presence in the region north of the San Francisco Bay to protect the area from encroachments of foreigners. An immediate concern was the further eastward movement of the Russian America Company from their settlements at Fort Ross and Bodega Bay on the California coast. Figueroa's next step in implementing his instructions was to name Lieutenant Vallejo as Military Commander of the Northern Frontier, to order the soldiers and materiel at the Presidio of San Francisco moved to the site of the secularized Mission San Francisco Solano.
The Sonoma Barracks were built to house the soldiers. Until the building was habitable, the troops were housed in the buildings of the old Mission. In 1834, George C. Yount, the first Euro-American permanent settler in the Napa Valley, was employed as a carpenter by General Vallejo; the Governor granted Lieutenant Vallejo the initial lands of Rancho Petaluma west of Sonoma. Vallejo was named Director of Colonization which meant that he could initiate land grants for other colonists and the diputación. Vallejo had been instructed by Governor Figueroa to establish a pueblo at the site of the old Mission. In 1835, with the assistance of William A. Richardson, he laid out, in accordance with the Spanish Laws of the Indies, the streets, central plaza and broad main avenue of the new Pueblo de Sonoma. Although Sonoma had been founded as a pueblo in 1835, it remained under military control, lacking the political structures of municipal self-government of other Alta California pueblos. In 1843, Lieutenant Colonel Vallejo wrote to the Governor recommending that a civil government be organized for Sonoma.
A town council was established in 1844 and Jacob P. Leese was named first alcalde, Cayetano Juarez second alcalde. Before dawn on Sunday, June 14, 1846, thirty-three Americans in rebellion against the Alta California government, arrived in Sonoma; some of the group had traveled from the camp of U. S. Army Brevet Captain John C. Frémont who had entered California in late 1845 with his exploration and mapping expedition. Others had joined along the way; as the number of immigrants arriving in California had swelled, the Mexican government barred them from buying or renting land and threatened them with expulsion because they had entered without official permission. Mexican officials were concerned about the coming war with the United States coupled with the growing influx of American immigrants into California. A group of rebellious Americans had departed from Frémont's camp on June 10 and captured a herd of 170 Mexican government-owned horses being moved by Californio soldiers from San Rafael and Sonoma to Alta California's Commandante General José Castro in Santa Clara.
The insurgents next determined to seize the weapons and materiel stored in the Sonoma Barracks and to deny Sonoma to the Californios as a rallying point north of San Francisco Bay. Meeting no resistance, they pounded on his door. After a few minutes Vallejo opened the door dressed in his Mexican Army uniform. Vallejo invited the filibusters' leaders into his home to negotiate terms. However, when the agreement was presented to those outside they refused to endorse it. Rather than releasing the Mexican officers under parole they insisted they be held as hostages. William Ide gave an impassioned speech urging the rebels to start a new republic. Referring to the stolen horses Ide ended his oration with "Choose ye this day what you will be! We are robbers, or we must be conquerors!" At that time and his three associates were placed on horseback and taken to Frémont accompanied by eight or nine of the insurgents who did not favor forming a new republic under the circumstances. The Sonoma Barracks became the headquarters for the remaining twenty-four rebels, who within a few days created their Bear Flag.
After the flag was raised Californios called the insurgents Los Osos because of their flag and in derision of their scruffy appearance. The rebels embraced the expression, an
North American Numbering Plan
The North American Numbering Plan is a telephone numbering plan that encompasses twenty-five distinct regions in twenty countries in North America, including the Caribbean. Some North American countries, most notably Mexico, do not participate in the NANP; the NANP was devised in the 1940s by AT&T for the Bell System and independent telephone operators in North America to unify the diverse local numbering plans, established in the preceding decades. AT&T continued to administer the numbering plan until the breakup of the Bell System, when administration was delegated to the North American Numbering Plan Administration, a service, procured from the private sector by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States; each participating country forms a regulatory authority that has plenary control over local numbering resources. The FCC serves as the U. S. regulator. Canadian numbering decisions are made by the Canadian Numbering Administration Consortium; the NANP divides the territories of its members into numbering plan areas which are encoded numerically with a three-digit telephone number prefix called the area code.
Each telephone is assigned a seven-digit telephone number unique only within its respective plan area. The telephone number consists of a four-digit station number; the combination of an area code and the telephone number serves as a destination routing address in the public switched telephone network. For international call routing, the NANP has been assigned the international calling code 1 by the International Telecommunications Union; the North American Numbering Plan conforms with ITU Recommendation E.164, which establishes an international numbering framework. From its beginnings in 1876 and throughout the first part of the 20th century, the Bell System grew from local or regional telephone systems; these systems expanded by growing their subscriber bases, as well as increasing their service areas by implementing additional local exchanges that were interconnected with tie trunks. It was the responsibility of each local administration to design telephone numbering plans that accommodated the local requirements and growth.
As a result, the Bell System as a whole developed into an unorganized system of many differing local numbering systems. The diversity impeded the efficient operation and interconnection of exchanges into a nationwide system for long-distance telephone communication. By the 1940s, the Bell System set out to unify the various numbering plans in existence and developed the North American Numbering Plan as a unified, systematic approach to efficient long-distance service that did not require the involvement of switchboard operators; the new numbering plan was accepted in October 1947, dividing most of North America into eighty-six numbering plan areas. Each NPA was assigned a numbering plan area code abbreviated as area code; these codes were first used by long-distance operators to establish long-distance calls between toll offices. The first customer-dialed direct call using area codes was made on November 10, 1951, from Englewood, New Jersey, to Alameda, California. Direct distance dialing was subsequently introduced across the country.
By the early 1960s, most areas of the Bell System had been converted and DDD had become commonplace in cities and most larger towns. In the following decades, the system expanded to include all of the United States and its territories, Canada and seventeen nations of the Caribbean. By 1967, 129 area codes had been assigned. At the request of the British Colonial Office, the numbering plan was first expanded to Bermuda and the British West Indies because of their historic telecommunications administration through Canada as parts of the British Empire and their continued associations with Canada during the years of the telegraph and the All Red Line system. Not all North American countries participate in the NANP. Exceptions include Mexico, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the Central American countries and some Caribbean countries; the only Spanish-speaking state in the system is the Dominican Republic. Mexican participation was planned, but implementation stopped after three area codes had been assigned, Mexico opted for an international numbering format, using country code 52.
The area codes in use were subsequently withdrawn in 1991. Area code 905 for Mexico City, was reassigned to a split of area code 416 in the Greater Toronto Area. Dutch-speaking Sint Maarten joined the NANP in September 2011, receiving area code 721; the NANP is administered by the North American Numbering Plan Administration. Today, this function is overseen by the Federal Communications Commission, which assumed the responsibility upon the breakup of the Bell System; the FCC solicits private sector contracts for the role of the administrator. The service was provided by a division of Lockheed Martin. In 1997, the contract was awarded to Neustar Inc.. In 2012, the contract was renewed until 2017. In 2015, the contract beginning 2017 was granted to Ericsson; the vision and goal of the architects of the North American Numbering Plan was a system by which telephone subscribers in the United States and Canada could themselves dial and establish a telephone call to any other subscriber wi
California State Route 49
State Route 49 is a north–south state highway in the U. S. state of California that passes through many historic mining communities of the 1849 California gold rush. Highway 49 is numbered after the "49ers", the waves of immigrants who swept into the area looking for gold, a portion of it is known as the Gold Country Highway; this roadway begins at Oakhurst, Madera County, in the Sierra Nevada, where it diverges from State Route 41. It continues in a northwest direction, weaving through the communities of Goldside and Ahwahnee, before crossing into Mariposa County. State Route 49 continues northward through the counties of Tuolumne, Amador, El Dorado, Nevada, Yuba and Plumas, where it reaches its northern terminus at State Route 70, in Vinton. SR 49 starts at an intersection with SR 41 near Oakhurst; the road heads west before turning north before the town of Ahwahnee near the Wassama Roundhouse State Historic Park. SR 49 continues north, passing through Nipinnswassee before entering Mariposa County and the Sierra National Forest.
Continuing to the west, SR 49 passes through Mormon Bar before running concurrently with SR 140 through the town of Mariposa. Near the town of Mount Bullion, SR 49 passes by Mariposa-Yosemite Airport before turning northwest and going through Bear Valley and the intersection with CR J16; the highway passes by the southern edge of Lake McClure and intersects SR 132 in Coulterville before passing into Tuolumne County. SR 49 continues north through the town of Moccasin, where SR 120 runs concurrently for several miles to the town of Chinese Camp. SR 49 turns northeast and runs concurrently with SR 108, intersecting CR E5, into the city of Sonora. SR 49 splits from SR 108 and enters downtown Sonora as Stockton Street, turning north onto Washington Street before leaving the Sonora city limits. SR 49 intersects the north end of CR E5 before passing through Tuttletown and crossing into Calaveras County at the bridge over the Stanislaus River. SR 49 passes by Robinson's Ferry, a ferry across the Stanislaus River established in 1848.
Next is the Birthplace of Archie Stevenot, who helped found the California State Chamber of Commerce and was named "Mr. Mother Lode" by the California legislature. SR 49 enters Carson Hill, where the largest gold nugget in California was found. Passing by New Melones Lake, SR 49 runs concurrently with SR 4 in the city of Angels Camp, which lies in one of the richest quartz mining sections of the Mother Lode and is home of "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County". SR 49 continues through Altaville, an important foundry town. Fourth Crossing was an important stagecoach and freighting depot that served the southern mines until after the turn of the 20th century; the highway continues into San Andreas. This is where Charles Bolles known as "Black Bart", was tried and sentenced. Chili Gulch is the site of the Chilean War. SR 49 continues into Mokelumne Hill, where it intersects with SR 26. SR 49 passes through Big Bar, located on the county line between Amador County and Calaveras County; the Mokelumne River was mined at this point in 1848.
Established in 1849, the "Whale Boat Ferry" operated until the first bridge was built, about 1852. The Butte Store is the only structure remaining of prosperous mining town of the 1850s. Argonaut and Kennedy Mines were two of the highest-yielding gold mines in the state. SR 49 runs concurrently with SR 88 through the town of Martell before intersecting the eastern terminus of SR 104 and passing through first the city of Sutter Creek and Drytown. Drytown is the oldest town in Amador County and the first in the county in which gold was discovered. SR 49 intersects the eastern end of SR 16 before passing through the city of Plymouth; the highway continues through Enterprise before crossing into El Dorado County and passing through the towns of Nashville, El Dorado, Diamond Springs before entering Placerville. SR 49 traverses downtown on Pacific Street and Main Street before continuing onto Spring Street, where it intersects the US 50 expressway at-grade before continuing north as Georgetown Road.
As it leaves the Placerville city limits, SR 49 intersects the southern terminus of SR 193 before continuing northwest as Coloma Road into the town of Coloma, where gold was first discovered in 1848, sparking the gold rush. It is home of the Marshall Gold Discovery State Historic Park; the highway continues through Lotus before turning north at Pilot Hill and intersecting the northern terminus of SR 193 at Cool. SR 49 continues through the Auburn State Recreation Area before crossing into Placer County and entering the city of Auburn as High Street. SR 49 continues onto Lincoln Way before making a turn north and interchanging with I-80. SR 49 continues due north out of the Auburn city limits. SR 49 continues north, crossing into Nevada County and passing through Higgins Corner and Forest Springs. SR 49 becomes a freeway and enters the city of Grass Valley, where it runs concurrently with SR 20 and interchanges with the northern end of SR 174. Empire Mine in Grass Valley was the richest hard-rock mine in California in its mining history of 106 years.
SR 49 and SR 20 continue into Nevada City, where SR 49 exits from the freeway and heads due west out of the Nevada City city limits. SR 49 continues through the towns of Sweetland and North San Juan, where it crosses into Yuba County and enters Tahoe National Forest; the route goes through Log Camptonville. Camptonville is a gold rush town where the Pelton wheel was i
Tuolumne County, California
Tuolumne County the County of Tuolumne, is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 54,179; the county seat and only incorporated city is Sonora. Tuolumne County comprises CA Micropolitan Statistical Area; the county is in the Sierra Nevada region. The northern half of Yosemite National Park is located in the eastern part of the county; the name Tuolumne is of Native American origin and has been given different meanings, such as Many Stone Houses, The Land of Mountain Lions and, Straight Up Steep, the latter an interpretation of William Fuller, a native Chief. Mariano Vallejo, in his report to the first California State Legislature, said that the word is "a corruption of the Indian word talmalamne which signifies'cluster of stone wigwams.'" The name may mean "people," i.e. in caves. Tuolumne County is one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. Prior to statehood, it had been referred to as Oro County. Parts of the county were given to Stanislaus County in 1854 and to Alpine County in 1864.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,274 square miles, of which 2,221 square miles is land and 54 square miles is water. A California Department of Forestry document reports Tuolumne County's 1,030,812 acres include federal lands such as Yosemite National Park, Stanislaus National Forest, Bureau of Land Management lands, Indian reservations. Notable landforms in the county include Table Mountain. Special districts in Tuolumne County include: Belleview Elementary School District Big Oak Flat-Groveland Unified School District Chinese Camp Elementary School District Columbia Fire District Columbia Union Elementary School District Curtis Creek Elementary School District Groveland Community Services District Jamestown Elementary School District Jamestown Fire District Mi-Wuk Sugar Pine Fire Protection District Sonora Elementary School District Sonora Union High School District Soulsbyville Elementary School District Strawberry Fire District Summerville Elementary School District Summerville Union High School District Tuolumne County Air Pollution Control District Tuolumne County Water District No. 1 Tuolumne Fire District Tuolumne Regional Water District Tuolumne Utilities District Twain Harte Fire District Twain Harte-Long Barn Union Elementary School District Yosemite Community College District Alpine County, California - north Calaveras County, California - northwest Stanislaus County, California - southwest Mariposa County, California - south Madera County, California - southeast Mono County, California - east Merced County, California - southwest Stanislaus National Forest Yosemite National Park Red Hills California State Route 49 California State Route 108 California State Route 120 Tuolumne County Transit bus routes radiate from Sonora to serve most of the county.
In Columbia, a connection can be made to Calaveras County Transit. Yosemite Area Regional Transportation System makes a single daily round trip from Sonora into Yosemite Valley during summer months only. YARTS is set to begin a second daily round trip in June 2013. For details visit www.yarts.com or tuolumnecountytransit.com Columbia Airport and Pine Mountain Lake Airport are both general aviation airports located in the Southwest and Northeast corners of the county respectively. The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense; the 2010 United States Census reported that Tuolumne County had a population of 55,365. The racial makeup of Tuolumne County was 48,274 White, 1,143 African American, 1,039 Native American, 572 Asian, 76 Pacific Islander, 2,238 from other races, 2,023 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5,918 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 54,501 people, 21,004 households, 14,240 families residing in the county.
The population density was 9/km². There were 28,336 housing units at an average density of 5/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 89.5% White, 2.1% Black or African American, 1.8% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 2.9% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races. 8.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 94.7 % spoke 3.5 % Spanish as their first language. There were 21,004 households out of which 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.4% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.2% were non-families. 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.82. In the county, the population was spread out with 20.7% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 27.9% from 45 to 64, 18.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years.
For every 100 females there were 111.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 112.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,725, the median income for a family was $44,327. Males had a median income of $35,373 versus $25,805 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,015. About 8.1% of families and 11.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.2% of those under age 18 and 4.0% of those age 65 or over. The Government of Tuolumne County is established and defined by the California Constitution and is a five member elected Board Of Supervisors who serve four year elected terms; the government provides services such as elections and voter registrat
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol