A soundtrack written sound track, can be recorded music accompanying and synchronized to the images of a motion picture, television program, or video game. In movie industry terminology usage, a sound track is an audio recording created or used in film production or post-production; the dialogue, sound effects, music in a film each has its own separate track, these are mixed together to make what is called the composite track, heard in the film. A dubbing track is later created when films are dubbed into another language; this is known as a M & E track containing all sound elements minus dialogue, supplied by the foreign distributor in the native language of its territory. The contraction soundtrack came into public consciousness with the advent of so-called "soundtrack albums" in the late 1940s. First conceived by movie companies as a promotional gimmick for new films, these commercially available recordings were labeled and advertised as "music from the original motion picture soundtrack", or "music from and inspired by the motion picture."
These phrases were soon shortened to just "original motion picture soundtrack." More such recordings are made from a film's music track, because they consist of the isolated music from a film, not the composite track with dialogue and sound effects. The abbreviation OST is used to describe the musical soundtrack on a recorded medium, such as CD, it stands for Original Soundtrack. Types of soundtrack recordings include: Musical film soundtracks are for the film versions of musical theatre; the soundtrack to the 1937 Walt Disney animated film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was the first commercially issued film soundtrack. It was released by RCA Victor Records on multiple 78 RPM discs in January 1938 as Songs from Walt Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and has since seen numerous expansions and reissues; the first live-action musical film to have a commercially issued soundtrack album was MGM’s 1946 film biography of Show Boat composer Jerome Kern, Till the Clouds Roll By. The album was issued as a set of four 10-inch 78-rpm records.
Only eight selections from the film were included in this first edition of the album. In order to fit the songs onto the record sides the musical material needed editing and manipulation; this was before tape existed, so the record producer needed to copy segments from the playback discs used on set copy and re-copy them from one disc to another adding transitions and cross-fades until the final master was created. Needless to say, it was several generations removed from the original and the sound quality suffered for it; the playback recordings were purposely recorded "dry". This made these albums boxy. MGM Records called these "original cast albums" in the style of Decca Broadway show cast albums because the material on the discs would not lock to picture, thereby creating the largest distinction between `Original Motion Picture Soundtrack' which, in its strictest sense would contain music that would lock to picture if the home user would play one alongside the other and `Original Cast Soundtrack' which in its strictest sense would refer to studio recordings of film music by the original film cast, but, edited or rearranged for time and content and would not lock to picture.
In reality, soundtrack producers remain ambiguous about this distinction, titles in which the music on the album does lock to picture may be labeled as OCS and music from an album that does not lock to picture may be referred to as OMPS. The phrase "recorded directly from the soundtrack" was used for a while in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s to differentiate material that would lock to picture from that which would not, but again, in part because many'film takes' consisted of several different attempts at the song and edited together to form the master, that term as well became nebulous and vague over time when, in cases where the master take used in the film could not be found in its isolated form, the aforementioned alternate masters and alternate vocal and solo performances which could be located were included in their place; as a result of all this nebulo
The DP70 is a model of motion picture projector, of which 1,500 were manufactured by the Electro-Acoustics Division of Philips between 1954 and about 1968. It is notable for having been the first mass-produced theater projector in which 4/35 and 5/70 prints could be projected by a single machine, thereby enabling wide film to become a mainstream exhibition technology, for its recognition in the 1963 Academy Awards, which led to it being described as "the only projector to win an Oscar", for its longevity: a significant number remain in revenue-earning service at the time of writing. Small-scale attempts had been made to use wide film for commercial theater exhibition around the time of the conversion to sound, of which Fox Grandeur was technologically the closest to the format the DP70 was designed to facilitate the launch of, two decades later. One of the reasons these early systems failed to establish wide film as an industry standard was that the projectors developed for them were incompatible with the existing 4/35 standard.
In order to be able to project both, theaters had to be equipped with two sets of projectors, which involved significant extra cost and in some cases architectural modifications to projection booths. The DP70 was invented and developed by a team headed by Jan-Jacob Kotte of Philips between 1952–54, as part of the Todd-AO system. A core objective of the project was to create a single machine that could project both the Todd-AO 5/70 format and the 4/35 format which was, was to remain, the dominant standard for theater exhibition; the first DP70s were exported from The Netherlands to the United States in the fall of 1954, were used for the roadshow release of the feature, made to launch Todd-AO, Oklahoma! DP70s were used as part of the Todd-AO system for the first few years, but were sold independently by Philips and its resellers to theaters worldwide; the DP70 was praised for its versatility and ease of use, recognized by the Academy in 1963. During the 1960s DP70 installations appeared throughout the world in prestige, downtown first run venues.
As a result of the machine's success, dual gauge projectors were developed and launched by Philips's main competitors, notably Cinemeccanica of Italy and Century of the United States. 60 years after the first DP70s shipped from the factory, a significant number remain in regular, commercial use worldwide. In 1972 the cinema division of Philips was bought out by Kinoton, a German company that had handled European sales and support for Philips cinema products since 1949. After-sales support for the DP70 passed to Kinoton at that point, which continued to manufacture and distribute replacement parts until the company was wound up in April 2014. Accessories and modifications are available that will enable the DP70 to project every 5/70 and 4/35 format, used on a significant scale, most notably for the 35mm digital optical sound systems launched in the 1990s, e.g. Dolby Digital, for 70mm DTS. Though the projection of film itself in mainstream, first run theaters has been superseded completely by digital projection at the time of writing, DP70s remain in service in cinematheque-type venues that specialize in showing repertory and archive titles.
Theaters in which DP70s are still running today include the Egyptian Theatre in Hollywood, the Gartenbaukino in Vienna, the Pictureville cinema at the UK's National Media Museum and Rigoletto in Stockholm. The fact that the DP70 was a Dutch machine developed for a customer in the United States resulted in it being known by several different names; the DP70 was Philips's original model name for the projector, this is what projectionists in Europe tend to call it. In the United States, the American Optical Company used the Philips factory model number, EL4000/01, as their catalog number for the machine, it was marketed independently of Todd-AO by Norelco. The DP70 was sold in the United States as the "Norelco Universal 70/35mm Motion Picture Projector". After its acknowledgment in the 1963 Oscars, Norelco rebranded it as the AA. An improved version of the projector was launched in 1963, branded as the AAII in the US. All the projector mechanisms were built at the Philips factory in Eindhoven, though much of the peripheral hardware for the machines that were exported to the United States, e.g. bases and reel magazines, was manufactured locally by the American Optical Company and by Ballantyne.
The DP70 consists of a monocoque, cast iron chassis containing the mechanism, oil-immersed on the non-operating side. Jan-Jacob Kotte believed that the use of heavier materials to absorb vibration reduced instability in the projected image, this is reflected in the design of the DP70: a complete outfit, including the bases and reel magazines, weighs 1,004 lbs - half a ton! The DP70 was significantly more expensive than any single gauge theater projector on the market: a US customer was quoted $6,225 for one in 1966, around the cost of a typical three-bedroom suburban home at the time; the price asked for a double set without lenses asked in West-Germany in 1956 was 42,510.00 Marks, which at the rate of exc
In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid. In human physiology and psychology, sound is the reception of such waves and their perception by the brain. Humans can only hear sound waves as distinct pitches when the frequency lies between about 20 Hz and 20 kHz. Sound waves above 20 kHz is not perceptible by humans. Sound waves below 20 Hz are known as infrasound. Different animal species have varying hearing ranges. Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of mechanical waves in gases and solids including vibration, sound and infrasound. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician, while someone working in the field of acoustical engineering may be called an acoustical engineer. An audio engineer, on the other hand, is concerned with the recording, manipulation and reproduction of sound. Applications of acoustics are found in all aspects of modern society, subdisciplines include aeroacoustics, audio signal processing, architectural acoustics, electro-acoustics, environmental noise, musical acoustics, noise control, speech, underwater acoustics, vibration.
Sound is defined as " Oscillation in pressure, particle displacement, particle velocity, etc. propagated in a medium with internal forces, or the superposition of such propagated oscillation. Auditory sensation evoked by the oscillation described in." Sound can be viewed as a wave motion in air or other elastic media. In this case, sound is a stimulus. Sound can be viewed as an excitation of the hearing mechanism that results in the perception of sound. In this case, sound is a sensation. Sound can propagate through a medium such as air and solids as longitudinal waves and as a transverse wave in solids; the sound waves are generated by a sound source, such as the vibrating diaphragm of a stereo speaker. The sound source creates vibrations in the surrounding medium; as the source continues to vibrate the medium, the vibrations propagate away from the source at the speed of sound, thus forming the sound wave. At a fixed distance from the source, the pressure and displacement of the medium vary in time.
At an instant in time, the pressure and displacement vary in space. Note that the particles of the medium do not travel with the sound wave; this is intuitively obvious for a solid, the same is true for liquids and gases. During propagation, waves can be refracted, or attenuated by the medium; the behavior of sound propagation is affected by three things: A complex relationship between the density and pressure of the medium. This relationship, affected by temperature, determines the speed of sound within the medium. Motion of the medium itself. If the medium is moving, this movement may increase or decrease the absolute speed of the sound wave depending on the direction of the movement. For example, sound moving through wind will have its speed of propagation increased by the speed of the wind if the sound and wind are moving in the same direction. If the sound and wind are moving in opposite directions, the speed of the sound wave will be decreased by the speed of the wind; the viscosity of the medium.
Medium viscosity determines the rate. For many media, such as air or water, attenuation due to viscosity is negligible; when sound is moving through a medium that does not have constant physical properties, it may be refracted. The mechanical vibrations that can be interpreted as sound can travel through all forms of matter: gases, liquids and plasmas; the matter that supports the sound is called the medium. Sound cannot travel through a vacuum. Sound is transmitted through gases and liquids as longitudinal waves called compression waves, it requires a medium to propagate. Through solids, however, it can be transmitted as transverse waves. Longitudinal sound waves are waves of alternating pressure deviations from the equilibrium pressure, causing local regions of compression and rarefaction, while transverse waves are waves of alternating shear stress at right angle to the direction of propagation. Sound waves may be "viewed" using parabolic objects that produce sound; the energy carried by an oscillating sound wave converts back and forth between the potential energy of the extra compression or lateral displacement strain of the matter, the kinetic energy of the displacement velocity of particles of the medium.
Although there are many complexities relating to the transmission of sounds, at the point of reception, sound is dividable into two simple elements: pressure and time. These fundamental elements form the basis of all sound waves, they can be used to describe, in every sound we hear. In order to understand the sound more a complex wave such as the one shown in a blue background on the right of this text, is separated into its component parts, which are a combination of various sound wave frequencies. Sound waves are simplified to a description in terms of sinusoidal plane waves, which are characterized by these generic properties: Frequency, or its inverse, wavelength Amplitude, sound pressure or Intensity Speed of sound DirectionSound, perceptible by humans has frequencies from abou
A charge-coupled device is a device for the movement of electrical charge from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value. This is achieved by "shifting" the signals between stages within the device one at a time. CCDs move charge between capacitive bins in the device, with the shift allowing for the transfer of charge between bins. In recent years CCD has become a major technology for digital imaging. In a CCD image sensor, pixels are represented by p-doped metal-oxide-semiconductors capacitors; these capacitors are biased above the threshold for inversion when image acquisition begins, allowing the conversion of incoming photons into electron charges at the semiconductor-oxide interface. Although CCDs are not the only technology to allow for light detection, CCD image sensors are used in professional and scientific applications where high-quality image data are required. In applications with less exacting quality demands, such as consumer and professional digital cameras, active pixel sensors known as complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors are used.
The charge-coupled device was invented in 1969 in the United States at AT&T Bell Labs by Willard Boyle and George E. Smith; the lab was working on semiconductor bubble memory when Boyle and Smith conceived of the design of what they termed, in their notebook, "Charge'Bubble' Devices". The device could be used as a shift register; the essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor from one storage capacitor to the next. The concept was similar in principle to the bucket-brigade device, developed at Philips Research Labs during the late 1960s; the first patent on the application of CCDs to imaging was assigned to Michael Tompsett. The initial paper describing the concept listed possible uses as a memory, a delay line, an imaging device; the first experimental device demonstrating the principle was a row of spaced metal squares on an oxidized silicon surface electrically accessed by wire bonds. The first working CCD made with integrated circuit technology was a simple 8-bit shift register.
This device had input and output circuits and was used to demonstrate its use as a shift register and as a crude eight pixel linear imaging device. Development of the device progressed at a rapid rate. By 1971, Bell researchers led by Michael Tompsett were able to capture images with simple linear devices. Several companies, including Fairchild Semiconductor, RCA and Texas Instruments, picked up on the invention and began development programs. Fairchild's effort, led by ex-Bell researcher Gil Amelio, was the first with commercial devices, by 1974 had a linear 500-element device and a 2-D 100 x 100 pixel device. Steven Sasson, an electrical engineer working for Kodak, invented the first digital still camera using a Fairchild 100 x 100 CCD in 1975; the first KH-11 KENNEN reconnaissance satellite equipped with charge-coupled device array technology for imaging was launched in December 1976. Under the leadership of Kazuo Iwama, Sony started a large development effort on CCDs involving a significant investment.
Sony managed to mass-produce CCDs for their camcorders. Before this happened, Iwama died in August 1982. In January 2006, Boyle and Smith were awarded the National Academy of Engineering Charles Stark Draper Prize, in 2009 they were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics, for their invention of the CCD concept. Michael Tompsett was awarded the 2010 National Medal of Technology and Innovation for pioneering work and electronic technologies including the design and development of the first charge coupled device imagers, he was awarded the 2012 IEEE Edison Medal "For pioneering contributions to imaging devices including CCD Imagers and thermal imagers". In a CCD for capturing images, there is a photoactive region, a transmission region made out of a shift register. An image is projected through a lens onto the capacitor array, causing each capacitor to accumulate an electric charge proportional to the light intensity at that location. A one-dimensional array, used in line-scan cameras, captures a single slice of the image, whereas a two-dimensional array, used in video and still cameras, captures a two-dimensional picture corresponding to the scene projected onto the focal plane of the sensor.
Once the array has been exposed to the image, a control circuit causes each capacitor to transfer its contents to its neighbor. The last capacitor in the array dumps its charge into a charge amplifier, which converts the charge into a voltage. By repeating this process, the controlling circuit converts the entire contents of the array in the semiconductor to a sequence of voltages. In a digital device, these voltages are sampled and stored in memory. Before the MOS capacitors are exposed to light, they are biased into the depletion region; the gate is biased at a positive potential, above the threshold for strong inversion, which will result in the creation
Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. is an American film studio, production company and film distributor, a member of the Sony Pictures Motion Picture Group, a division of Sony Entertainment's Sony Pictures subsidiary of the Japanese multinational conglomerate Sony Corporation. What would become Columbia Pictures, CBC Film Sales Corporation, was founded on June 19, 1918 by Harry Cohn, his brother Jack Cohn, Joe Brandt, it went public two years later. In its early years, it was a minor player in Hollywood, but began to grow in the late 1920s, spurred by a successful association with director Frank Capra. With Capra and others, Columbia became one of the primary homes of the screwball comedy. In the 1930s, Columbia's major contract stars were Cary Grant. In the 1940s, Rita Hayworth became the studio's premier star and propelled their fortunes into the late 1950s. Rosalind Russell, Glenn Ford, William Holden became major stars at the studio, it is one of the leading film studios in the world and is a member of the "Big Five" major American film studios.
It was one of the so-called "Little Three" among the eight major film studios of Hollywood's Golden Age. Today, it has become the world's fifth largest major film studio; the studio was founded on June 19, 1918 as Cohn-Brandt-Cohn Film Sales by brothers Jack and Harry Cohn and Jack's best friend Joe Brandt, released its first feature film in August 1922. Brandt was president of CBC Film Sales, handling sales and distribution from New York along with Jack Cohn, while Harry Cohn ran production in Hollywood; the studio's early productions were low-budget short subjects: "Screen Snapshots", the "Hall Room Boys", the Chaplin imitator Billy West. The start-up CBC leased space in a Poverty Row studio on Hollywood's famously low-rent Gower Street. Among Hollywood's elite, the studio's small-time reputation led some to joke that "CBC" stood for "Corned Beef and Cabbage". Brandt tired of dealing with the Cohn brothers, in 1932 sold his one-third stake to Harry Cohn, who took over as president. In an effort to improve its image, the Cohn brothers renamed the company Columbia Pictures Corporation on January 10, 1924.
Cohn remained head of production as well. He would run one of the longest tenures of any studio chief. In an industry rife with nepotism, Columbia was notorious for having a number of Harry and Jack's relatives in high positions. Humorist Robert Benchley called it the Pine Tree Studio, "because it has so many Cohns". Columbia's product line consisted of moderately budgeted features and short subjects including comedies, sports films, various serials, cartoons. Columbia moved into the production of higher-budget fare joining the second tier of Hollywood studios along with United Artists and Universal. Like United Artists and Universal, Columbia was a horizontally integrated company, it controlled distribution. Helping Columbia's climb was the arrival of Frank Capra. Between 1927 and 1939, Capra pushed Cohn for better material and bigger budgets. A string of hits he directed in the early and mid 1930s solidified Columbia's status as a major studio. In particular, It Happened; until Columbia's existence had depended on theater owners willing to take its films, since as mentioned above it didn't have a theater network of its own.
Other Capra-directed hits followed, including the original version of Lost Horizon, with Ronald Colman, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, which made James Stewart a major star. In 1933, Columbia hired Robert Kalloch to be women's costume designer, he was the first contract costume designer hired by the studio, he established the studio's wardrobe department. Kalloch's employment, in turn, convinced leading actresses that Columbia Pictures intended to invest in their careers. In 1938, the addition of B. B. Kahane as Vice President would produce Charles Vidor's Those High Gray Walls, The Lady in Question, the first joint film of Rita Hayworth and Glenn Ford. Kahane would become the President of Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in 1959, until his death a year later. Columbia could not afford to keep a huge roster of contract stars, so Cohn borrowed them from other studios. At Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, the industry's most prestigious studio, Columbia was nicknamed "Siberia", as Louis B. Mayer would use the loan out to Columbia as a way to punish his less-obedient signings.
In the 1930s, Columbia signed Jean Arthur to a long-term contract, after The Whole Town's Talking, Arthur became a major comedy star. Ann Sothern's career was launched when Columbia signed her to a contract in 1936. Cary Grant signed a contract in 1937 and soon after it was altered to a non-exclusive contract shared with RKO. Many theaters relied on westerns to attract big weekend audiences, Columbia always recognized this market, its first cowboy star was Buck Jones, who signed with Columbia in 1930 for a fraction of his former big-studio salary. Over the next two decades Columbia released scores of outdoor adventures with Jones, Tim McCoy, Ken Maynard, Jack Luden, Bob Allen, Russell Hayden, Tex Ritter, Ken Curtis, Gene Autry. Columbia's most popular cowboy was Charles Starrett, who signed with Columbia in 193
A movie theater, cinema, or cinema hall known as a picture house or the pictures, is a building that contains an auditorium for viewing films for entertainment. Most, but not all, theaters are commercial operations catering to the general public, who attend by purchasing a ticket; some movie theaters, are operated by non-profit organizations or societies that charge members a membership fee to view films. The film is projected with a movie projector onto a large projection screen at the front of the auditorium while the dialogue and music are played through a number of wall-mounted speakers. Since the 1970s, subwoofers have been used for low-pitched sounds. In the 2010s, most movie theaters are equipped for digital cinema projection, removing the need to create and transport a physical film print on a heavy reel. A great variety of films are shown at cinemas, ranging from animated films to blockbusters to documentaries; the smallest movie theaters have a single viewing room with a single screen.
In the 2010s, most movie theaters have multiple screens. The largest theater complexes, which are called multiplexes—a design developed in the US in the 1960s—have up to thirty screens; the audience members sit on padded seats, which in most theaters are set on a sloped floor, with the highest part at the rear of the theater. Movie theaters sell soft drinks and candy, some theaters sell hot fast food. In some jurisdictions, movie theaters can be licensed to sell alcoholic drinks. A movie theater may be referred to as a movie theatre, movie house, film house, film theater or picture house. In the US, theater has long been the preferred spelling, while in the UK, Australia and elsewhere it is theatre. However, some US theaters opt to use the British spelling in their own names, a practice supported by the National Association of Theatre Owners, while apart from North America most English-speaking countries use the term cinema, alternatively spelled and pronounced kinema; the latter terms, as well as their derivative adjectives "cinematic" and "kinematic" derive from Greek κινῆμα, κινήματος —"movement", "motion".
In the countries where those terms are used, the word "theatre" is reserved for live performance venues. Colloquial expressions applied to motion pictures and motion picture theaters collectively, include the silver screen and the big screen. Specific to North American term is the movies, while specific terms in the UK are the pictures, the flicks and for the facility itself the flea pit. A screening room is a small theater a private one, such as for the use of those involved in the production of motion pictures or in a large private residence; the etymology of the term "movie theater" involves the term "movie", a "shortened form of moving picture in the cinematographic sense", first used in 1896 and "theater", which originated in the "...late 14c. "open air place in ancient times for viewing spectacles and plays". The term "theater" comes from the Old French word "theatre", from the 12th century and "...directly from Latin theatrum'play-house, theater. The use of the word "theatre" to mean a "building where plays are shown" dates from the 1570s in the English language.
The earliest precursors to movies were magic lantern shows. Magic lanterns used a glass lens, a shutter and a powerful lamp to project images from glass slides onto a white wall or screen; these slides were hand-painted. The invention of the Argand lamp in the 1790s, limelight in the 1820s and the intensely bright electric arc lamp in the 1860s increased the brightness of the images; the magic lantern could project rudimentary moving images, achieved by the use of various types of mechanical slides. Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. Still photographs were used on after the widespread availability of photography technologies after the mid-19th century.
Magic lantern shows were given at fairs or as part of magic shows. A magic lantern show at the 1851 World's Fair caused a sensation among the audience; the next significant step towards movies was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828, when Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called "persistence of vision". Roget showed that when a series of still images are shown in front of a viewer's eye, the images merge into one registered image that appears to show movement, an optical illusion, since the image is not moving; this experience was further demonstrated through Roget's introduction of the thaumatrope, a device which spun a disk with an image on its surface at a high rate of speed. The French Lumière brothers' first film, Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture. From 1894 to the late 1920s, movie theaters showed silent films, which were films with no synchronized recorded sound or dialogue.
DTS (sound system)
DTS, Inc. is an American company that makes multichannel audio technologies for film and video. Based in Calabasas, the company introduced its DTS technology in 1993 as a higher-quality competitor to Dolby Laboratories, incorporating DTS in the film Jurassic Park; the DTS product is used in surround sound formats for both commercial/theatrical and consumer-grade applications. It was known as The Digital Experience until 1995. DTS licenses its technologies to consumer electronics manufacturers; the DTS brand was bought by Tessera in December 2016 Tessera changed its name to Xperi. DTS was founded by an audio engineer and Caltech graduate. Beard, speaking to a friend of a friend, was able to get in touch with Steven Spielberg to audition a remastering of Spielberg's film Close Encounters of the Third Kind mixed in DTS. Spielberg selected DTS sound for his next film, Jurassic Park and with the backing of Universal Pictures and its then-parent Matsushita Electric, over 1,000 theatres in the United States adopted the DTS system.
Work on the new audio format started in 1991, four years after Dolby Laboratories started work on its new codec, Dolby Digital. The basic and most common version of the format is a 5.1-channel system, similar to a Dolby Digital setup, which encodes the audio as five primary channels plus a special LFE channel for the subwoofer. Encoders and decoders support numerous channel combinations, stereo, four-channel, four-channel+LFE soundtracks have been released commercially on DVD, CD, Laserdisc. Other, newer DTS variants are currently available, including versions that support up to seven primary audio channels plus one LFE channel; these variants are based on DTS's core-and-extension philosophy, in which a core DTS data stream is augmented with an extension stream which includes the additional data necessary for the new variant in use. The core stream can be decoded by any DTS decoder if it does not understand the new variant. A decoder which does understand the new variant decodes the core stream, modifies it according to the instructions contained in the extension stream.
This method allows backward compatibility. DTS's main competitors in multichannel theatrical audio are Dolby Digital and SDDS, although only Dolby Digital and DTS are used on DVDs and implemented in home theater hardware. One of the DTS Inc.'s initial investors was film director Steven Spielberg, who felt that theatrical sound formats up until the company's founding were no longer state of the art, as a result were no longer optimal for use on projects where quality sound reproduction was of the utmost importance. Spielberg debuted the format with his 1993 production of Jurassic Park, which came less than a full year after the official theatrical debut of Dolby Digital. In addition, Jurassic Park became the first home video release to contain DTS sound when it was released on LaserDisc in January 1997, two years after the first Dolby Digital home video release, which debuted in January 1995. In 2008, the cinema division was divested to form DTS Digital Cinema. In 2009 DTS Digital Cinema was purchased by Beaufort International Group Plc. and became known as Datasat Digital Entertainment.
In 2012, DTS acquired the business of SRS Labs, a psychoacoustic 3D audio processing technology, including over 1,000 audio patents and trademarks. In 2014, DTS acquired Manzanita Systems, a provider of MPEG software solutions for digital television, VOD, digital ad insertion. Phorus, a subsidiary of DTS, Inc. is a Los Angeles based technology group dedicated to wireless audio solutions for connected devices. On September 2, 2015, iBiquity announced that it was being purchased by DTS for US$172 million, uniting iBiquity's HD Radio digital radio broadcast technology with DTS' digital audio surround sound systems. In theatrical use, a proprietary 24-bit time code is optically imaged onto the film. An LED reader scans the timecode data from the film and sends it to the DTS processor, using the time code to synchronize the projected image with the DTS soundtrack audio; the multi-channel DTS audio is recorded in compressed form on standard CD-ROM media at a bitrate of 882 kbit/s. The audio compression used in the theatrical DTS system is the APT-X100 system.
Unlike the home version of DTS or any version of Dolby Digital, the APT-X100 system is fixed at a 4:1 compression ratio. Data reduction is accomplished via sub-band coding with linear adaptive quantization; the theatrical DTS processor acts as a transport mechanism, as it reads the audio discs. When the DTS format was launched, it used one or two discs with units holding three discs, thus allowing a single DTS processor to handle two-disc film soundtracks along with a third disc for theatrical trailers; the DTS time code on the 35mm print identifies the film title, matched to the individual DTS CD-ROMs, guaranteeing that the film cannot be played with the wrong disc. Each DTS CD-ROM contains a DOS program that the processor uses to play back the soundtrack, allowing system improvements or bug fixes to be added easily. Unlike Dolby Digital and SDDS, or the home version of DTS, the theatrical DTS system only carries 5 discrete channels on the CD-ROMs. The.1 LFE subwoofer track is mixed into the discrete surround channels on the disc and recovered via low-pass filters in the theater.
On the consumer level, DTS is the oft-used shorthand for the DTS Coherent Acoustics codec, transportable through S/PDIF and part of the LaserDisc, DVD, Blu-ray specif