click links in text for more info

Sophia (wisdom)

Sophia is a central idea in Hellenistic philosophy and religion, Platonism and Christian theology. Carrying a meaning of "cleverness, skill", the meaning of the term, close to the meaning of Phronesis, was shaped by the term philosophy as used by Plato. In the Eastern Orthodox and the Catholic churches, Holy Wisdom is an expression for God the Son in the Trinity and for the Holy Spirit. References to Sophia in Koine Greek translations of the Hebrew Bible translate to the Hebrew term Chokhmah; the Ancient Greek word Sophia is the abstract noun of σοφός, which variously translates to "clever, intelligent, wise". These words share the same Proto-Indo-European root as whence sapientia; the noun σοφία as "skill in handicraft and art" is Homeric and in Pindar is used to describe both Hephaestos and Athena. Before Plato, the term for "sound judgement, practical wisdom" and so on, such qualities as are ascribed to the Seven Sages of Greece, was phronesis, from phren, while sophia referred to technical skill.

The term philosophia was used after the time of Plato, following his teacher Socrates, though it has been said that Pythagoras was the first to call himself a philosopher. This understanding of philosophia permeates Plato's dialogues the Republic. In that work, the leaders of the proposed utopia are to be philosopher kings: rulers who are lovers of wisdom. According to Plato in Apology, Socrates himself was dubbed "the wisest man of Greece" by the Pythian Oracle. Socrates defends this verdict in Apology to the effect that he, at least, knows that he knows nothing. Socratic skepticism is contrasted with the approach of the sophists, who are attacked in Gorgias for relying on eloquence. Cicero in De Oratore criticized Plato for his separation of wisdom from eloquence. Sophia is named as one of the four cardinal virtues in Plato's Protagoras. Philo, a Hellenized Jew writing in Alexandria, attempted to harmonize Platonic philosophy and Jewish scripture. Influenced by Stoic philosophical concepts, he used the Koine term logos for the role and function of Wisdom, a concept adapted by the author of the Gospel of John in the opening verses and applied to Jesus as the Word of God the Father.

In Gnosticism, Sophia is a feminine figure, analogous to the soul, but simultaneously one of the emanations of the Monad. Gnostics was the Holy Spirit of the Trinity, she is referred to by the Hebrew equivalent of Achamṓth and as Proúnikos. Christian theology received the Old Testament personification of Divine Wisdom; the connection of Divine Wisdom to the concept of the Logos resulted in the interpretation of "Holy Wisdom" as an aspect of Christ the Logos. The expression Ἁγία Σοφία itself is not found in the New Testament though passages in the Pauline epistles equate Christ with the "wisdom of God"; the clearest form of the identification of Divine Wisdom with Christ comes in 1 Corinthians 1:17–2:13. In 1 Cor. 2:7, Paul speaks of the Wisdom of God as a mystery, "ordained before the world unto our glory". Following 1 Corinthians, the Church Fathers named Christ as "Wisdom of God". Therefore, when rebutting claims about Christ's ignorance, Gregory of Nazianzus insisted that, inasmuch as he was divine, Christ knew everything: "How can he be ignorant of anything that is, when he is Wisdom, the maker of the worlds, who brings all things to fulfillment and recreates all things, the end of all that has come into being?".

Irenaeus represents another, minor patristic tradition which identified the Spirit of God, not Christ himself, as "Wisdom". He could appeal to Paul's teaching about wisdom being one of the gifts of the Holy Spirit. However, the majority applied to Christ the title/name of "Wisdom". Constantine the Great set a pattern for Eastern Christians by dedicating a church to Christ as the personification of Divine Wisdom. In Constantinople, under Justinian I, the Hagia Sophia was rebuilt, consecrated in 538, became a model for many other Byzantine churches. In the Latin Church, however, "the Word" or Logos came through more than "the Wisdom" of God as a central, high title of Christ. In the theology of the Eastern Orthodox Church, Holy Wisdom is understood as the Divine Logos who became incarnate as Jesus. In the Divine Liturgy of the Orthodox Church, the exclamation Sophia! or in English Wisdom! will be proclaimed by the deacon or priest at certain moments before the reading of scripture, to draw the congregation's attention to sacred teaching.

There is a hagiographical tradition, dating to the late sixth century, of a Saint Sophia and her three daughters, Saints Faith and Charity. This has been taken as the veneration of allegorical figures from an early time, the group of saints has become popular in Russian Orthodox iconography as such; the veneration of the three saints named for the three theological virtues arose in the 6th century. The Christological ide


LibX is a free, open-source scholars' extension for the Internet Explorer browser that lets people use services offered by their library. Users can search their library catalog and databases through a context menu; the context menu is configurable. LibX supports the catalogs of all major vendors. In addition, any resource that can be searched using an http GET request can be included, similar to Firefox's smart keywords. Resources can be accessed using auto-generated links for DOIs, ISBNs, ISSNs, PMIDs. Links are placed in specific pages, such as book vendor sites or book review sites. To support off-campus access to resources, users may reload a current page, or follow a link through a proxy server. LibX activates COinS with the library's OpenURL resolver. LibX supports a "magic search" functionality, which creatively integrates use of the Google Scholar service. LibX searches Scholar, performs a heuristic similarity analysis to determine if a match was found redirects the user to the user's OpenURL resolver to obtain an accessible copy.

Librarians, as well as ordinary library users, can create a LibX edition through an AJAX-based web interface, called the LibX Edition Builder. This interface allows anybody to create, edit and distribute an edition; as a starting point, users can modify it, or start from scratch. The LibX edition builder makes heavy use of auto-detection of resources through global registries such as OCLC WorldCat or OpenSearch, it includes a revision control system for editions and facilities for multiple maintainers to share ownership of an edition. The LibX edition builder was built using the ZK AJAX toolkit, by Godmar Back. LibX is produced by Virginia Tech, which hosts customized versions of the extension for over 256 different libraries. Annette Bailey and Godmar Back, the creators of LibX, won the 2007 LITA/Brett Butler Entrepreneurship Award for their work on LibX. Zotero Official website LibX Edition Builder

Georges Sada

General Georges Hormiz Sada is an Iraqi of ethnic Assyrian descent, an author, former Iraqi National Security Advisor and retired general officer of the Iraqi Air Force. He lives in Oklahoma. Georges Sada was born in 1939 in Iraq into a Christian family of Assyrian ethnicity; as a boy, Sada attended the Assyrian Church of the East with his family becoming a'born-again' Christian and attending a more evangelical church. Throughout his childhood, Sada had a keen interest in military aircraft and the Air Force, playing as a boy at the RAF Base where his father was stationed, imagining himself flying the fighters he saw taking off. In this time he did'odd jobs' at the base, befriending both the pilots and the technicians who repaired their aircraft, resolving that one day he himself would have a career in the Air Force as a pilot. In 1958 at the age of nineteen, Sada applied to the air academy in Iraq and was accepted as a cadet, graduating from the Iraqi Air Academy in 1959. Over the following years he served as an Air Force Officer, including periods studying overseas in Britain, the USSR and the United States.

Between 1964–1965 he was a student at Lackland Air Force Base in Texas. Sada's career in the air force spanned 28 years, from 1958 to 1986, he retired in 1986 as a two-star officer, but was called back to active service as an Air Vice Marshal for the 1990 invasion of Kuwait. During the conflict Sada defied the orders of Saddam Hussein by refusing to execute POWs, attributing this disobedience to his strong Christian convictions. In interviews, Sada has described his attempts to persuade Saddam not to harm the prisoners: Saddam relented and spared the POWs, although Sada himself was subsequently imprisoned for a time. In his book Saddam's Secrets, Sada states that Saddam did not want him harmed after his release, but wanted no further contact with him thereafter. After he retired Sada was living a quiet life in Iraq, but when after 2003 Invasion of Iraq by the United States armed forces, Sada sided with the US government in their invasion of Iraq and aided in the fight against Saddam Hussein.

During the invasion of Iraq, Sada served as spokesman for the interim leader Iyad Allawi, he was appointed as National Security Advisor. In August 2004 Sada announced that he would be signing a bill to introduce the death penalty in Iraq; the bill introduces the death penalty for anyone, "threatening national security". On January 24, 2006, he announced the publication of a book he had written entitled Saddam's Secrets: How an Iraqi General Defied And Survived Saddam Hussein, with the tagline "An insider exposes plans to destroy Israel, hide WMD's and control the Arab world." Sada, the former Air Vice-Marshal under Hussein, appeared the following day on Fox News' Hannity & Colmes, where he discussed his book and reported that other pilots told him that Hussein had ordered them to fly portions of the WMD stockpiles to Damascus in Syria just prior to the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. After the release of his book, Sada was interviewed by Fox News, he stated: "Well, I want to make it clear clear to everybody in the world that we had the weapon of mass destruction in Iraq, the regime used them against our Iraqi people...

I know it because I have got the captains of the Iraqi airway that were my friends, they told me these weapons of mass destruction had been moved to Syria. Iraq had some projects for nuclear weapons but it was destroyed in 1981"; when asked during his interview with Fox News if there was any chance that there were nuclear weapons or on their way to nuclear weapons when USA invaded, he said "Not in Iraq". Sada made a guest appearance on The Daily Show on March 2006 to promote Saddam's Secrets, his claims, tend to contradict the findings of the Duelfer Report, which "judged that it was unlikely that an official transfer of WMD material from Iraq to Syria took place," though analysts were unable to rule out the possibility. Sada was born in Northern Iraq. Sada attended the Assyrian Church of the East when he was a child, before he became a born-again Christian. Sada has a high faith, he serves as the Senior Warden of the St. Georges Anglican Church and as the President of the National Presbyterian Church, both in Baghdad.

The former President of the Evangelical Churches of Iraq, Sada is chairman of the Assembly of Iraqi Evangelical Presbyterian Churches. He has been and still is presently active in advocating that Iraq was Assyrian and Christian in nature, not Arab and Muslim. American Policy Roundtable - General Georges Sada Parliament of New South Wales - General Georges Sada, National Security Adviser to the Iraqi Government Former Saddam advisor says Iraq had WMDs Al Qa'qaa high explosives controversy WMD theories in the aftermath of the 2003 Iraq War


Sūrat aṣ-Ṣaff is the 61st chapter of the Quran with 14 verses. This sura is an Al-Musabbihat sura; the first and foremost exegesis/tafsir of the Qur'an is found in hadith of Muhammad. Although scholars including ibn Taymiyyah claim that Muhammad has commented on the whole of the Qur'an, others including Ghazali cite the limited amount of narratives, thus indicating that he has commented only on a portion of the Qur'an. Ḥadīth is "speech" or "report", a recorded saying or tradition of Muhammad validated by isnad. According to Aishah, the life of Muhammad was practical implementation of Qur'an. Therefore, mention in hadith elevates the importance of the pertinent surah from a certain perspective. Abdullah ibn Salam narrated: “A group of us Companions of the Messenger of Allah sat talking, we said: ‘If we knew which deed was most beloved to Alllah we would do it.’ So Allah, Most High, revealed: Whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is on the earth glorifies Allah. And He is the All-Wise. O you who believe!

Why do you say that which you do not do? As-Saff


Curanilahue is a Chilean commune and city in Arauco Province, Biobío Region. According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, Curanilahue spans an area of 994.3 km2 and has 31,943 inhabitants. Of these, 30,126 lived in 1,817 in rural areas. Between the 1992 and 2002 censuses, the population fell by 5%; as a commune, Curanilahue is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde, directly elected every four years. The 2013-2016 alcalde is Luis Gengnagel. Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Curanilahue is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Manuel Monsalve and Iván Norambuena as part of the 46th electoral district; the commune is represented in the Senate by Victor Pérez Varela and Mariano Ruiz -Esquide Jara as part of the 13th senatorial constituency. Municipality of Curanilahue

Jamaat Bayt al-Maqdis al-Islamiya

Jamaat Bayt al-Maqdis al-Islamiya was an active armed group in the Syrian Civil War, active since at least early 2015. The group was praised by many Pro-ISIL circles on social media in early 2015 claiming it was ISIL expanding into the Daraa Governorate as the group used a similar banner to ISIL however the group held no links to ISIL, in an official statement the group described itself as “an Islamic group… to support the religion of God and make His word highest”, however the group has not shown any hostilities towards ISIL like many of its allies such as the Southern Front and Hayat Tahrir al-Sham; the group did not take part in fighting between other opposition groups that it is allied with against ISIL affiliates in Southern Syria but a portion of its members did defect to the ISIL affiliated groups at odds with the group's opposition allies. In early and mid 2017 the group joined the Bunyan al-Marsous operation room and took part in several offensives in Daraa against Pro-Government forces, the decision to join the same operations room with other main-stream opposition groups caused further defections from the group with many fighters either joining the ISIL affiliated Khalid ibn al-Walid Army or going home