Sofia Villani Scicolone, known professionally as Sophia Loren, is an Italian film actress. She is one of the last surviving stars from the Golden Age of Hollywood. Encouraged to enroll in acting lessons after entering a beauty pageant, Loren began her film career at age 16 in 1950, she appeared in several bit parts and minor roles in the early part of the decade, until her five-picture contract with Paramount in 1956 launched her international career. Notable film appearances around this time include The Pride and the Passion, It Started in Naples, her talents as an actress were not recognized until her performance as Cesira in Vittorio De Sica's Two Women. She holds the record for having earned six David di Donatello Awards for Best Actress: Two Women. After starting a family in the early 1970s, Loren chose to make only occasional film appearances. Most she has appeared in American films such as Grumpier Old Men and Nine. Aside from the Academy Award, she has won a Grammy Award, five special Golden Globes, a BAFTA Award, a Laurel Award, the Volpi Cup for Best Actress at the Venice Film Festival, the Best Actress Award at the Cannes Film Festival and the Honorary Academy Award in 1991.
In 1995, she received the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award for lifetime achievements, one of many such awards. In 1999, Loren was named by the American Film Institute the 21st greatest female star of Classic Hollywood Cinema, she is the only living actress and the highest ranked living person on the list. Sofia Villani Scicolone was born on 20 September 1934 in the Clinica Regina Margherita in Rome, the daughter of Romilda Villani and Riccardo Scicolone, a construction engineer of noble descent. Loren's father Riccardo Scicolone refused to marry Villani, leaving the piano teacher and aspiring actress without financial support. Loren met with her father three times, at age five, age seventeen and in 1976 at his deathbed, citing that she forgave him but had never forgotten the abandonment of her mother. Loren's parents had another child together, her sister Maria, in 1938. Loren has two younger paternal half-brothers and Giuseppe. Romilda and Maria lived with Loren's grandmother in Pozzuoli, near Naples.
During the Second World War, the harbour and munitions plant in Pozzuoli was a frequent bombing target of the Allies. During one raid, as Loren ran to the shelter, she was wounded in the chin. After that, the family moved to Naples. After the war and her family returned to Pozzuoli. Loren's grandmother Luisa opened a pub in their living room. Romilda Villani played the piano, Maria sang, Loren waited on tables and washed dishes; the place was popular with the American GIs stationed nearby. At age 15, Loren as Sofia Lazzaro entered the Miss Italia 1950 beauty pageant and was assigned as Candidate #2, being one to the four sharing contestants representing the Lazio region, she was selected as one of the last three finalists and won the title of “Miss Elegance 1950”, while Liliana Cardinale won the title of “Miss Cinema” and Anna Maria Bugliari won the grand title of Miss Italia. She returned in 2001 as president of the jury for the 61st edition of the pageant. In 2010, Loren crowned the 71st Miss Italia pageant winner.
At age 17, as Sofia Lazzaro, she enrolled in the Centro Sperimentale di Cinematografia, the national film school of Italy and was selected as an uncredited extra in Mervyn LeRoy's 1951 film Quo Vadis, filmed when she was 17 years old. That same year, she appeared in Italian film Era lui... sì! sì!, where she played an odalisque, was credited as Sofia Lazzaro. She appeared in several bit parts and minor roles in the early part of the decade, including the La Favorita. Carlo Ponti changed her name and public image to appeal to a wider audience as Sophia Loren, being a twist on the name of the Swedish actress Märta Torén and suggested by Goffredo Lombardo, her first starring role was in Aida. After playing the lead role in Two Nights with Cleopatra, her breakthrough role was in The Gold of Naples, directed by Vittorio De Sica. Too Bad She's Bad released in 1954, La Bella Mugnaia became the first of many films in which Loren co-starred with Marcello Mastroianni. Over the next three years, she acted in many films, including Scandal in Sorrento, Lucky to Be a Woman, Boy on a Dolphin, Legend of the Lost and The Pride and the Passion.
Loren became an international film star following her five-picture contract with Paramount Pictures in 1958. Among her films at this time were Desire Under the Elms with Anthony Perkins, based upon the Eugene O'Neill play. In 1960, she starred in Vittorio De Sica's Two Women, a stark, gritty story of a mother, trying to protect her 12-year-old daughter in war-torn Italy; the two end up gang-raped inside a church as they travel back to their home city following cessation of bombings there. Cast as the daughter, Loren fought against t
Sei Mangkei Special Economic Zone or abbreviated as Sei Mangkei KEK, is a Special Economic Zone located in Bosar Maligas district, Simalungun Regency, North Sumatra, Indonesia. This SEZ has been established through Government Regulation No. 29 of 2012 on 27 February 2012. The development of SEZ Sei Mangkei is being focused on Palm Oil and Rubber Processing Industry. SEZ Sei Mangkei was inaugurated by President Joko Widodo on January 27, 2015. Sei Mangkei Special Economic Zone has an area of 2002.77 hectares, being built along with Kuala Tanjung Port as part of strategy to turn North Sumatra as an international hub. SEZ Sei Mangkei consists of three zones, namely industrial zone, logistics zone and export processing zone; this KEK is adjacent to the village of Keramat Kubah in the north. Until the end of 2017, SEZ Sei Mangkei absorbed Rp 10.5 trillion of investment, which includes an Oleo-chemical plant of Unilever Indonesia. Sei Mangkei special economic zone is connected with Port of Kuala Tanjung by a 30 kilometers long railway track
Musō Shinden-ryū is a style of sword-drawing art founded by Nakayama Hakudō in 1932. Nakayama Hakudō studied under Hosokawa Yoshimasa, a master of the Shimomura branch of Hasegawa Eishin-ryū, Morimoto Tokumi, a fellow student of Ōe Masamichi of the Tanimura branch; the name Musō Shinden-ryū most comes from the name given to the Shimomura branch by Hosokawa, Musō Shinden Eishin-ryū. The kata from Musō Shinden-ryū have a number of differences from the kata of its sister art, Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū. Among the most visible are the manner in which the furikaburi and the nōtō are done. Both arts differ from many other iaijutsu schools in that the kiai is performed silently, without hassei. After striking with one hand on nukitsuke, the sword is brought to a position about ten centimeters above the left shoulder, blade edge up, with the point facing backwards; the movement resembles a thrust to the rear. Unlike in Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū, the sword does not fall off behind the back but always stays over shoulder height.
The right hand raises the sword overhead while the left hand takes its place on the hilt, thus entering in the jōdan stance or kamae. The sword should now be right in the middle line of the body, with the tip raised forty-five degrees upward or level with the ground and your left hand hovering just above your forehead. In Musō Shinden-ryū, the sheathing is performed horizontally with the blade outwards. Only when the sword is about two-thirds of the way in the saya is the edge turned to face upwards; the blade and saya should cross your center line at a forty-five degree angle while sheathing. The word "Shoden", which can be translated as the "first transmission", consists of the kata of Ōmori-ryū iaijutsu plus one kata variation exclusive to Musō Shinden-ryū; the kata start from the seiza sitting posture. This series of kata became the first to be learned when the 17th headmaster of the Tanimura branch, Ōe Masamichi and rationalized the curriculum of Hasegawa Eishin-ryū at the start of the 20th century.
The kata Ryūtō, which involves the Ukenagashi technique, is considered as the most difficult kata of the Omori set. The seventh kata, Juntō was created neither for dueling nor for self-defense, but to serve as kaishakunin. According to his own memoirs, Nakayama Hakudō invented the twelfth kata, In'yō Shintai Kaewaza, as a variation on the fifth kata In'yō Shintai; the following is the order given by Yamatsuta. In some schools, the order of the last two kata are reversed. 01. Shohattō 02. Satō 03. Utō 04. Ataritō 05. In'yō Shintai 06. Ryūtō 07. Juntō 08. Gyakutō 09. Seichūtō 10. Korantō 11. In'yō Shintai Kaewaza 12. Battō The word "Chūden" can be translated as the "middle-transmission" and consists of ten techniques from Hasegawa Eishin-ryū; this series of kata is executed from the tachihiza sitting position. In contrast to the first series of kata, the enemy is considered to be sitting close and thus the primary goal of the chūden techniques is to create proper cutting distance by stepping back instead of forward.Ōe Masamichi is credited with developing the hayanuki exercise.
In this style of training, the practitioner executes all ten techniques in a row. Two versions of hayanuki exist. In one version, both the left and right hands are used to execute the movements, just as in the normal practice; the second version involves drawing the sword with only the right hand. This kind of practice is not done in formal presentations. 01. Yokogumo 02. Toraissoku 03. Inazuma 04. Ukigumo 05. Yamaoroshi 06. Iwanami 07. Urokogaeshi 08. Namigaeshi 09. Takiotoshi 10. Nukiuchi The word "Okuden" can be translated as the "inner transmission". Oku-iai, as it is called, is divided into two groups: suwari-waza and tachi-waza; as in Chūden, the sitting techniques are performed from tatehiza. Suwari-waza 01. Kasumi - Mist 02. Sunegakoi - Covering the shin 03. Shihogiri - Cutting four corners 04. Tozume - Across the screen doors 05. Towaki - Along the screen doors 06. Tanashita - Under the shelf 07. Ryozume - Obstacles on both sides 08. Torabashiiri - Running Tiger 09. *Itomagoi - Request Leave of Absence * Despite the fact to be a sitting-form, in an Enbu the Itomagoi form is performed after the execution of all standing forms so the kenshi is ready to begin the finishing reiho, like Battô in Omori-ryu and Nukiuchi in Hasegawa Eishin Ryu.
Tachi-waza 01. Yukitsure - Escort 02. Rentatsu - Escort 03. Somakuri - Cutting the multiple opponents 04. Sodome - One handed cuts 05. Shinobu - Stealth 06. Yukichigai - Passing by 07. Sodesurigaeshi - Flipping the sleeves 08. Moniri - Entering the gate 09. Kabezoi - Along the walls 10. Ukenagashi - Block and deflect 11. *Oikakegiri - Pursue & Cut Down 12. Youshihikitsure - Accompanied Journey* This is believed to be a kata that Oe Masamichi Sensei discarded when he re-organized the old tradition, it is not performed. The paired Kumitachi techniques are taught today. Tachi Uchi no Kurai and Tsumeai no Kurai are the series most taught. Yamatsuta, Shigeyoshi. Iaido Hongi. Tokyo: Airyudo. ISBN 4-7502-0272-X. Fujita, Tadashi. Muso Shinden Ryu Kuden. Tokyo: Tadashi Fujita - Tokyo Binding-Printing Co, Ltd. Karinja, Jeff