click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Sophia of Hanover

Sophia of Hanover was the heir presumptive to the thrones of England and Ireland under the Act of Settlement 1701. She died less than two months, it was her son George I who succeeded her first cousin once removed, Anne. Born to Frederick V of the Palatinate, a member of the House of Wittelsbach, Elizabeth Stuart, in 1630, Sophia grew up in the Dutch Republic, where her family had sought refuge after the sequestration of their Electorate during the Thirty Years' War. Sophia's brother Charles Louis was restored to the Lower Palatinate as part of the Peace of Westphalia. Sophia married Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1658. Despite his jealous temper and frequent absences, Sophia loved him, bore him seven children who survived to adulthood. A landless cadet, Ernest Augustus succeeded in having the House of Hanover raised to electoral dignity in 1692. Therefore, Sophia became Electress of the title by which she is best remembered. A patron of the arts, Sophia commissioned the palace and gardens of Herrenhausen and sponsored philosophers, such as Gottfried Leibniz and John Toland.

A daughter of Frederick V of the Palatinate by Elizabeth Stuart known as the "Winter King and Queen of Bohemia" for their short rule in that country, Sophia was born in The Wassenaer Hof, The Hague, Dutch Republic, where her parents had fled into exile after the Battle of White Mountain. Through her mother, she was the granddaughter of James VI and I, king of Scotland and England. At birth, Sophia was granted an annuity of 40 thalers by the Estates of Friesland. Sophia was courted by her first cousin, Charles II of England, but she rebuffed his advances as she thought he was using her in order to get money from her mother's supporter, Lord William Craven. Before her marriage, Sophia, as the daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine of the Rhine, was referred to as Sophie, Princess Palatine of the Rhine, or as Sophia of the Palatinate; the Electors of the Palatinate were the Calvinist senior branch of House of Wittelsbach, whose Catholic branch ruled the Electorate of Bavaria. On 30 September 1658, she married Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, at Heidelberg, who in 1692 became the first Elector of Hanover.

Ernest August was a second cousin of Sophia's mother Elizabeth Stuart, as they were both great-grandchildren of Christian III of Denmark. Sophia became a friend and admirer of Gottfried Leibniz while he was librarian at the Court of Hanover, their friendship lasted from 1676 until her death in 1714. This friendship resulted in a substantial correspondence, first published in the nineteenth century, that reveals Sophia to have been a woman of exceptional intellectual ability and curiosity, she was well-read in the works of Baruch Spinoza. Together with Ernest Augustus, she improved the Summer Palace of Herrenhausen and she was the guiding spirit in the creation of the gardens surrounding the palace, where she died. Sophia had seven children, they were: George I of Great Britain Frederick Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Imperial General Maximilian William of Brunswick-Lüneburg, field marshal in the Imperial Army Sophia Charlotte, Queen in Prussia Charles Philip of Brunswick-Lüneburg, colonel in the Imperial Army Christian Henry of Brunswick-Lüneburg Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Duke of York and Albany, became prince-bishop of OsnabrückSophia was absent for a year, 1664–65, during a long holiday with Ernest Augustus in Italy but she corresponded with her sons' governess and took a great interest in her sons' upbringing more so on her return.

After Sophia's tour, she bore Ernest Augustus a daughter. In her letters, Sophia describes her eldest son as a responsible, conscientious child who set an example to his younger brothers and sisters. Sophia was, at first, against the marriage of her son and Sophia Dorothea of Celle, looking down on Sophia Dorothea's mother and concerned by Sophia Dorothea's legitimated status, but was won over by the advantages inherent in the marriage. In September 1700, Sophia met her cousin King William III of England at Loo; this happened just two months after the death of his nephew Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, son of the future Queen Anne. By this time, given the ailing William III's reluctance to remarry, the inclusion of Sophia in the line of succession was becoming more because she was a Protestant, as was her son, her candidature was aided by the fact that she had grown up in the Netherlands close to William III and was able to converse fluently with him in Dutch, his native tongue. A year after their meeting, the Parliament of England passed the Act of Settlement 1701 declaring that, in the event of no legitimate issue from Anne or William III, the crowns of England and Scotland were to settle upon "the most excellent princess Sophia and duchess-dowager of Hanover" and "the heirs of her body, being Protestant".

The key excerpt from the Act, naming Sophia as heir presumptive, reads: Therefore for a further Provision of the Succession of the Crown in the Protestant Line We Your Majesties most dutifull and Loyall Subjects the Lords Spirituall and Temporall and Commons in this present Parliament assembled do beseech Your Majesty that it may be enacted and declared and be it enacted and declared by the Kings most Excellent Majesty by and with the Advice and Consent of the Lords Spirituall and Temporall and Commons in this present Parliament assembled and by the

Elizabeth Islands

The Elizabeth Islands are a chain of small islands extending southwest from the southern coast of Cape Cod, Massachusetts in the United States. They are located at the outer edge of Buzzards Bay, north of Martha's Vineyard, from which they are separated by Vineyard Sound, constitute the town of Gosnold in Dukes County, Massachusetts. In 1602 the islands were first discovered by Europeans when the English explorer and colonialist Bartholomew Gosnold sighted them on his way to Virginia; however it was not until 1641, subsequent to the successful establishment of the first English North American colonies, that colonialists formally laid claim and settled the islands in the name of the English Crown as part of the country's nascent imperial expansion. At this time they renamed the islands after Elizabeth I, Queen of England when the islands had first been discovered. In 1641, Thomas Mayhew the Elder, of Watertown, bought the islands—along with Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard—from William Alexander, the Earl of Stirling.

Before the creation of the Province of Massachusetts Bay in 1691, the islands were part of the extinct Dukes County, New York. The first known European inhabitant was Francis Usselton, banished at the time for making secret trades with the local Indians without consent from the governor; the total land area of the islands is 34.55 km². Stretching south-west from land's end at Falmouth, the islands are: Nonamesset Island, the closest to the mainland Veckatimest, a small island. Gull Island, a small uninhabited island. Uncatena Island, uninhabited as of the 2000 Census Naushon Island, 5.5 miles long and the largest. Composed of the main island along with the smaller Nonamesset, Bull and Bachelor islands. Owned by the Forbes' Naushon Island Trust, while it is not open to the public, the Forbes family has set aside Tarpaulin Cove to the south and Kettle Cove to the north as well as Bull Island and Hadley Harbor to the northeast for public enjoyment including picknicking; the Weepecket Islands, three small, publicly accessible islands north of central Naushon owned by the Forbes family.

These islands offer few places to land, are nearly obscured by water, are home to numerous shore birds and other animals. Pasque Island, 1.5 miles long, owned by a subset of the Forbes family, covered in poison ivy. A shallow tidal creek cuts part way through the island. Nashawena Island, 3 miles long, owned by another subset of the Forbes family, it has grazing livestock. Baret Island, located off the north shore of Nashawena Island. Rock Island, located off the north shore of Nashawena Island. Penikese Island, located about 0.5 miles north of Nashawena and Cuttyhunk. Penikese has a colorful history, it was the site of a groundbreaking 19th-century research facility, the precursor to the famed Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, was the site of the state's only leper colony in the early 20th century, is a bird sanctuary and site of the Penikese Island School, a 35-year-old school for troubled teens. Cuttyhunk Island, farthest west in the chain, home to most of Gosnold's municipal population.

Like Penikese, Cuttyhunk is not owned by the Forbes family, therefore much of the island is publicly accessible. Gosnold Island, located in Westend Pond on Cuttyhunk Island. Channels with strong tidal currents, known locally as holes, separate the islands from each other and the mainland. Currents of up to 6 knots are driven by the different sizes and filling rates of Vineyard Sound to the southeast and Buzzards Bay to the northwest. At high tide, water flows from Buzzards Bay to the Vineyard Sound. Near mid-tide the water reverses, filling the Bay at low tide. Listed from northeast to southwest, the named channels are: Woods Hole separating the mainland from Nonamesset Island Robinson's Hole between Naushon Island and Pasque Island Quick's Hole between Pasque Island and Nashawena Island Canapitsit Channel between Nashawena Island and Cuttyhunk Island. Cuttyhunk Harbor is sheltered on its east by Nashawena Island on its west by Cuttyhunk Island and on its north by Penikese Island. Tarpaulin Cove on the south shore of Naushon Island.

All of the Elizabeth Islands, except Cuttyhunk and Penikese, are owned by the Forbes family. Cuttyhunk Historical Society, the Museum of the Elizabeth Islands Bathymetry of the Waters Surrounding the Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts United States Geological Survey "Elizabeth Islands"; the American Cyclopædia. 1879

Scott Baker (marine biologist)

C. Scott Baker is an American molecular biologist and cetacean specialist, he is Associate Director of the Marine Mammal Institute at Oregon State University. He is Adjunct Professor of Molecular Ecology and Evolution at the University of Auckland, Editor of the Journal of Heredity. Baker was an undergraduate at New College of Florida doing his PhD research on humpback whales at the University of Hawaii, Manoa, he worked on molecular genetics at the Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute. Starting in 1994, he became a regular delegate to the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission for New Zealand or the USA, a member of the Cetacean Specialist Group of the IUCN. In 1993-94, Baker conducted molecular genetic surveys of whale products sold in Japan and South Korea for Earthtrust; the methods for molecular identification of whales and porpoises used in these surveys have been implemented in the web-based program DNA-Surveillance. In 2001, Baker was awarded the Bronze Medal in Science and Technology from the Royal Society of New Zealand for his work in applied conservation genetics.

In 2007, he became Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Heredity, the journal of the American Genetic Association. Baker advised and took part in the feature documentary The Cove, the National Geographic Channel documentary Kingdom of the Blue Whale, he is working at Oregon State University, based in the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife and the Marine Mammal Institute at the Hatfield Marine Science Center. Oregon State homepage Media related to Scott Baker at Wikimedia Commons

Greig Nori

Greig Andrew Nori, is a producer and musician from Sault Ste. Marie, is well known as the frontman, co-lead vocalist and guitarist of the pop punk band Treble Charger. In the late 1990s, he began working as a producer with Sum 41 and was their in-house producer and manager until 2004. In 2007, Greig went back to the studio to produce for the pop punk bands Cauterize and Hedley, for their albums Disguises and Famous Last Words, respectively. Nori is one of the heads of a Canadian artist management company, he manages bands including Surplus Sons and The New Cities. He is signed as producer by Nettwerk. Since 2008, Nori is featured as the Musical guru on the show DisBAND. Arrangements, songwriting and guitar throughout all albums: nc17 self=title Maybe It's Me Wide Awake Bored Detox 2012 "Collide and Conquer" Hunter Valentine Megaforce Records Producer Bunk Rock Music website

Wenedyk

Wenedyk is a naturalistic constructed language, created by the Dutch translator Jan van Steenbergen. It is used in the alternate timeline of Ill Bethisad. Wenedyk is a descendant of Vulgar Latin with a strong Slavic admixture, based on the premise that the Roman Empire incorporated the ancestors of the Poles in their territory. Less it tries to show what Polish would have looked like if it had been a Romance instead of a Slavic language. On the Internet, it is well-recognized as an example of the altlang genre, much like Brithenig and Breathanach; the idea for the language was inspired by such languages as Brithenig and Breathanach, languages that bear a similar relationship to the Celtic languages as Wenedyk does to Polish. The language itself is based on Latin and Polish: all phonological and syntactic changes that made Polish develop from Common Slavic are applied to Vulgar Latin; as a result and morphology are predominantly Romance in nature, whereas phonology and syntax are the same as in Polish.

Wenedyk uses the modern standard Polish orthography, including ⟨w⟩ for /v/ and ⟨ł⟩ for /w/. Wenedyk plays a role in the alternate history of Ill Bethisad, where it is one of the official languages of the Republic of the Two Crowns. In 2005 Wenedyk underwent a major revision due to a better understanding of Latin and Slavic sound and grammar changes. In the process, the author was assisted by the Polish linguist Grzegorz Jagodziński; the dictionary on the WWW page linked below contains over 4000 entries. The language has acquired some media attention in Poland, including a few online news articles and an article in the monthly Wiedza i Życie. Wenedyk uses the Polish alphabet, which consists of the following 32 letters: A Ą B C Ć D E Ę F G H I J K L Ł M N Ń O Ó P R S Ś T U W Y Z Ź ŻAlso, there are seven digraphs, representing five phonemes: Ch Cz Dz Dź Dż Rz SzPronunciation is as in Polish. Stress always falls on the penultimate syllable. A preposition and a pronoun are treated as one word, therefore, when the pronoun has only one syllable, the preposition is stressed.

Wenedyk does not have articles. This is a feature; the reason for this is that Vulgar Latin showed only a rudimentary tendency toward the formation of articles, whereas they are absent in Polish and most other Slavic languages. Nouns and adjectives can have three genders, two numbers, three cases: the direct case: used for both the subject and the direct object of a sentence. In the sentence: Miej poterz leże libier "My father reads a book", Miej poterz "my father" and libier "a book" are both in the direct case; the genitive case: used to indicate possession, for example: siedź potrze "my father's chair", rzejna Anglie "the queen of England". The dative case: used to indicate the indirect object of a sentence, for example: Da mi ił libier "Give me that book", Da mi łu "Give it to me". Wenedyk has a vocative case. In most cases it has the same form as the direct case, but there are exceptions: O potrze! "Oh father!" Nouns can be subdivided into four declensions. They are similar to the declension system in Latin: the first declension are all words on -a, the vast majority of which are feminine.

It is a mixture of the fourth declension in Latin. Adjectives always agree in gender and case with the noun they modify, they can be placed both after it. Unlike nouns and other pronouns, personal pronouns do not use the direct case, but preserve the distinction between the nominative and accusative instead, they are displayed in the following chart: Verbs are inflected for person, number and tense. The forms in the present tense are: 1 sg. – jemu "I love" 2 sg. – jemasz "you love" 3 sg. – jema "he/she loves" 1 pl. – jemamy "we love" 2 pl. – jemacie "you love" 3 pl. – jemą "they love"Because Latin and Proto-Slavonic had identical person/number inflections and Polish do also. Wenedyk verbs have the following moods and tenses: infinitive – jemar "to love" present tense – jemu "I love, I am loving" imperfect – jemawa "I loved" perfect – jemie " I have loved" future tense – joru jemar "I will love, I will be loving" future tense – jemaru "I will have loved" conditional mood – jemarsi "I would love, I would have loved" imperative mood – jem "love!"

Present active participle – jemęć "loving" perfect passive participle – jematy "beloved" Wenedyk vocabulary as published on the internet consists of over 4000 words. Because of how it was developed from Vulgar Latin, Wenedyk words are closest to Italian, but with phonologic differences from Italian which may be compared to those distinguishing Portuguese from Spanish; the following charts of 30 shows what Wenedyk looks like in comparison to a number of other Romance languages.

Kodak High-Speed Infrared

Kodak High-Speed Infrared film known as Kodak HIE, was a popular black-and-white infrared photographic film from Kodak. The film was sensitive to the visible light spectrum, infrared radiation up to 900nm in wavelength, some ultraviolet radiation as well; the prominent blooming or "glow" seen in the highlights of infrared photographs is an artifact of HIE and not of infrared light itself. This is because although conventional photographic films have an anti-halation layer that absorbs scattered light, HIE lacks this backing; as a result, Kodak HIE had to be unloaded in total darkness. Light can enter film through the tail protruding from a 35mm canister and without a fogged base it will be piped into the film and expose it. Nonetheless, HIE was produced without a fogged base and anti-halation layers so that sensitivity would be increased by allowing light to reflect back and forth, becayse it was difficult to find any way of treating the film that would be effective at infrared wavelengths. HIE featured a polyester film base, stable but susceptible to scratches, therefore required extra care during development and scanning.

As of November 2, 2007, "Kodak is preannouncing the discontinuance" of HIE Infrared 35 mm film stating the reasons that, "Demand for these products has been declining in recent years, it is no longer practical to continue to manufacture given the low volume, the age of the product formulations and the complexity of the processes involved." At the time of this notice, HIE Infrared 135-36 was available at a street price of around $12 a roll at US mail order outlets. Despite the discontinuance of HIE, other newer infrared sensitive emulsions from Efke and Ilford are still available, but have differing sensitivity and specifications from the long-established HIE. With the discontinuance of HIE, Efke's IR820 film has become the only IR film on the market with good sensitivity beyond 750 nm