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Sophie Germain

Marie-Sophie Germain was a French mathematician and philosopher. Despite initial opposition from her parents and difficulties presented by society, she gained education from books in her father's library, including ones by Leonhard Euler, from correspondence with famous mathematicians such as Lagrange and Gauss. One of the pioneers of elasticity theory, she won the grand prize from the Paris Academy of Sciences for her essay on the subject, her work on Fermat's Last Theorem provided a foundation for mathematicians exploring the subject for hundreds of years after. Because of prejudice against her sex, she was unable to make a career out of mathematics, but she worked independently throughout her life. Before her death, Gauss had recommended that she be awarded an honorary degree, but that never occurred. On June 27, 1831, she died from breast cancer. At the centenary of her life, a street and a girls’ school were named after her; the Academy of Sciences established the Sophie Germain Prize in her honor.

Marie-Sophie Germain was born on April 1776, in Paris, France, in a house on Rue Saint-Denis. According to most sources, her father, Ambroise-François, was a wealthy silk merchant, though some believe he was a goldsmith. In 1789, he was elected as a representative of the bourgeoisie to the États-Généraux, which he saw change into the Constitutional Assembly, it is therefore assumed that Sophie witnessed many discussions between her father and his friends on politics and philosophy. Gray proposes. Marie-Sophie had one younger sister, named Angélique-Ambroise, one older sister, named Marie-Madeline, her mother was named Marie-Madeline, this plethora of "Maries" may have been the reason she went by Sophie. Germain's nephew Armand-Jacques Lherbette, Marie-Madeline's son, published some of Germain's work after she died; when Germain was 13, the Bastille fell, the revolutionary atmosphere of the city forced her to stay inside. For entertainment she turned to her father's library. Here she found J. E. Montucla's L'Histoire des Mathématiques, his story of the death of Archimedes intrigued her.

Sophie Germain thought that if the geometry method, which at that time referred to all of pure mathematics, could hold such fascination for Archimedes, it was a subject worthy of study. So she pored over every book on mathematics in her father's library teaching herself Latin and Greek, so she could read works like those of Sir Isaac Newton and Leonhard Euler, she enjoyed Traité d'Arithmétique by Étienne Bézout and Le Calcul Différentiel by Jacques Antoine-Joseph Cousin. Cousin visited Germain at home, encouraging her in her studies. Germain's parents did not at all approve of her sudden fascination with mathematics, thought inappropriate for a woman; when night came, they would deny her warm clothes and a fire for her bedroom to try to keep her from studying, but after they left, she would take out candles, wrap herself in quilts and do mathematics. As Lynn Osen describes, when her parents found Sophie "asleep at her desk in the morning, the ink frozen in the ink horn and her slate covered with calculations", they realized that their daughter was serious and relented.

After some time, her mother secretly supported her. In 1794, when Germain was 18, the École Polytechnique opened; as a woman, Germain was barred from attending, but the new system of education made the "lecture notes available to all who asked". The new method required the students to "submit written observations". Germain obtained the lecture notes and began sending her work to Joseph Louis Lagrange, a faculty member, she used the name of a former student Monsieur Antoine-Auguste Le Blanc, "fearing", as she explained to Gauss, "the ridicule attached to a female scientist". When Lagrange saw the intelligence of M. Le Blanc, he requested a meeting, thus Sophie was forced to disclose her true identity. Lagrange did not mind that Germain was a woman, he became her mentor, he visited her in her home. Germain first became interested in number theory in 1798 when Adrien-Marie Legendre published Essai sur la théorie des nombres. After studying the work, she opened correspondence with him on number theory, elasticity.

Legendre showed some of Germain's work in the Supplément to his second edition of the Théorie des Nombres, where he calls it très ingénieuse. See Her work on Fermat's Last Theorem below. Germain's interest in number theory was renewed when she read Carl Friedrich Gauss' monumental work Disquisitiones Arithmeticae. After three years of working through the exercises and trying her own proofs for some of the theorems, she wrote, again under the pseudonym of M. Le Blanc, to the author himself, one year younger than her; the first letter, dated 21 November 1804, discussed Gauss' Disquisitiones and presented some of Germain's work on Fermat's Last Theorem. In the letter, Germain claimed to have proved the theorem for n = p − 1, where p is a prime number of the form p = 8k + 7. However, her proof contained a weak assumption, Gauss' reply did not comment on Germain's proof. Around 1807, during the Napoleonic wars, the French were occupying the German town of Braunschweig, where Gauss lived. Germain, concerned that he might suffer the fate of Archimedes, wrote to General Pernety, a family friend, requesting that he ensure Gauss' safety.

General Pernety sent a chief of a battalion to meet with Gauss to see that he was safe. As it turned out, Gauss was fine, but he was confused by


Nudaurelia is a genus of moths in the family Saturniidae first described by Rothschild in 1895. Nudaurelia aethiops Rothschild, 1907 Nudaurelia allardiana Rougeot, 1971 Nudaurelia alopia Nudaurelia amathusia Weymer, 1909 Nudaurelia anna Nudaurelia antelata Darge, 2003 Nudaurelia anthina Nudaurelia anthinoides Rougeot, 1978 Nudaurelia bamendana Nudaurelia belayneshae Rougeot, 1978 Nudaurelia benguelensis Nudaurelia bicolor Bouvier, 1930 Nudaurelia bouvieri Nudaurelia broschi Darge, 2002 Nudaurelia camerunensis Bouvier, 1930 Nudaurelia capdevillei Rougeot, 1979 Nudaurelia carnegiei Janse, 1918 Nudaurelia cleoris Nudaurelia cytherea Nudaurelia dargei Bouyer, 2008 Nudaurelia dione Nudaurelia dionysae Rougeot, 1948 Nudaurelia eblis Nudaurelia emini Nudaurelia fasciata Gaede, 1927 Nudaurelia flammeola Darge, 2002 Nudaurelia germaini Bouvier, 1926 Nudaurelia gschwandneri Rebel, 1917 Nudaurelia gueinzii Nudaurelia herbuloti Darge, 1992 Nudaurelia hurumai Darge, 2003 Nudaurelia jamesoni Nudaurelia kiliensis Darge, 2009 Nudaurelia kilumilorum Darge, 2002 Nudaurelia kohlli Darge, 2009 Nudaurelia krucki Hering, 1930 Nudaurelia latifasciata Sonthonnax, 1901 Nudaurelia lutea Bouvier, 1930 Nudaurelia macrops Rebel, 1917 Nudaurelia macrothyris Nudaurelia mariae Bouyer, 2007 Nudaurelia melanops Nudaurelia michaelae Darge, 1975 Nudaurelia mitfordi Nudaurelia murphyi Darge, 1992 Nudaurelia myrtea Rebel, 1917 Nudaurelia perscitus Darge, 1992 Nudaurelia reducta Nudaurelia renvazorum Darge, 2002 Nudaurelia rhodina Nudaurelia richelmanni Weymer, 1908 Nudaurelia rubra Bouvier, 1927 Nudaurelia rubricostalis Kirby, 1892 Nudaurelia staudingeri Nudaurelia ungemachti Bouvier, 1926 Nudaurelia wahlbergi Nudaurelia wahlbergina Rougeot, 1972 Nudaurelia xanthomma Rothschild, 1907

List of gay, lesbian or bisexual people: G

Parent article: List of gay, lesbian or bisexual peopleSiblings: This is a partial list of confirmed famous people who were or are gay, lesbian or bisexual. Famous people who are rumored to be gay, lesbian or bisexual, are not listed; the historical concept and definition of sexual orientation varies, has changed over time. A number of different classification schemes have been used to describe sexual orientation since the mid-19th century, scholars have defined the term "sexual orientation" in divergent ways. Indeed, several studies have found that much of the research about sexual orientation has failed to define the term at all, making it difficult to reconcile the results of different studies. However, most definitions include a psychological component and/or a behavioural component; some prefer to follow an individual's self-definition or identity. See homosexuality and bisexuality for criteria that have traditionally denoted lesbian and bisexual people; the high prevalence of people from the West on this list may be due to societal attitudes towards homosexuality.

The Pew Research Center's 2013 Global Attitudes Survey found that there is “greater acceptance in more secular and affluent countries,” with "publics in 39 countries broad acceptance of homosexuality in North America, the European Union, much of Latin America, but widespread rejection in predominantly Muslim nations and in Africa, as well as in parts of Asia and in Russia. Opinion about the acceptability of homosexuality is divided in Israel and Bolivia.” As of 2013, Americans are divided – a majority believes homosexuality should be accepted, while 33 percent disagree

Kakabeka Generating Station

Kakabeka Generating Station is a hydroelectric facility operated by Ontario Power Generation on the bank of the Kaministiquia River, 2 km downstream from Kakabeka Falls in the community of Kakabeka Falls, Ontario, 30 km west of Thunder Bay. The plant provides energy to the city of area; the station is one of ten hydroelectric stations in Ontario Power Generation's Northwest Plant Group, is remotely operated from Thunder Bay. Kakabeka Generating Station began operating with two hydroelectric generating units. A third unit was added in 1911, a fourth was added in 1914, its four units provide a peak output of enough energy to supply 14,000 homes. The station is among the oldest power stations in Ontario, much of the original equipment from 1906 is still in operation, it was owned and operated by the Kaministiquia Power Company until 1949, when it was purchased from its parent company, Abitibi Power and Paper Company, by the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, which became Ontario Hydro in 1974.

After the 1999 restructuring of Ontario Hydro, the plant came under control of Ontario Power Generation. The facility includes a dam located 2 km upstream from the powerhouse, used to divert and control the water flowing to the generating station, it consists of a main sluice operated from Thunder Bay and six stop log sluices operated manually on-site. The intake structure is located on the eastern end of the dam and water flow into the aqueduct is controlled by three gated intake openings; the 2 km aqueduct has an internal diameter of 5 m, terminates at a large surge chamber. Four penstocks lead from the surge chamber, one for each unit, following the natural slope of the escarpment; each is sized appropriately for requirements of the unit at. Penstocks carry water from the surge chamber to the generating station, which generates electricity flows back into the Kaministiquia River; the powerhouse contains its original Francis turbines, manufactured by J. M. Voith in Heidenheim and its generators were made by the Canadian General Electric Corporation.

It has three 7,000 HP units which produce 5.3 MW of electricity each, a 12,000 HP unit, generating 8.7 MW, for a total output of 24.6 MW. Plans for a hydro electric plant at Kakabeka began in 1896, when Chicago entrepreneur Edward Spencer Jenison wished to serve the electricity demands of the nearby towns of Fort William and Port Arthur. Hydroelectricity at this time was in its infancy, delivery of the electricity to its destination would prove a challenge as alternating current was a new development. Shortly after gaining rights to develop the project, Jenison sold them to three Canadian businessmen, who formed the Kaministiquia Power Company. Construction of the facility employed 600 men, it involved the construction of a railroad siding and temporary station on the CN line 0.8 km from the falls, the construction of a narrow gauge railway to bring equipment to the site. Three aqueducts measuring 3 m in diameter were constructed to bring water from Ecarte Rapids upstream from Kakabeka Falls to the surge chamber.

Water flowed through four penstocks to the station below, a total decline of 58 m. The plant consisted of two 7,000 HP Francis turbine units, manufactured by J. M. Voith in Heidenheim, which produce 5.3 MW of electricity each. An expansion in 1911 saw the addition of a third 5 MW unit, at which point the powerhouse was expanded to its present size. In 1914, a fourth unit, generating 8.7 MW, the third aqueduct, were added. In 1998, the three aqueducts were replaced with one large aqueduct with a 5 m internal diameter. List of generating stations in Canada List of generating stations in Ontario Official website Ontario Power Generation Kakabeka Falls Generating Station: 100 Years. Interactive panoramic image of the station

Patagonia (mammal)

Patagonia is an extinct genus of non-placental mammal from the Miocene of Argentina. Traditionally considered a metatherian incertae sedis, more recent analysis have shown it to be a gondwanathere, it is the youngest allothere species known. A single species is known, P. peregrina, hailing from the Colhuehuapian-dating deposits of the Sarmiento Formation, Chubut Province. The holotype, MACN-CH-869, is composed of a semi-complete mandible; the jaw is short and deep, bearing an unfused subvertical dentary symphysis and dorsally positioned masseteric fossa. The incisors are rootless and extend lingually along the ventral border of the dentary up to the level of molariform 3, the molariforms are hypsodont; the dental formula is: and the molariform elements are identical, so distinction between molars and premolars is impossible. The animal was thought to have canines, but several studies have found them to be a second pair of incisors. Patagonia was identified as some sort of marsupial mammal. However, due to its aberrant attributes, it tended to be singled out in its own order and family and Patagoniidae.

Some phylogenetic studies recovered it as part of Paucituberculata lined with the confounding groeberiids, albeit in a purely provisory manner with no listed synapomorphies, based only on its rodent-like aspects. Recent studies have instead found it to not be a marsupial or other form of metatherian at all, but a gondwanathere allothere; the supposed "aberrant" traits are normal in this clade, it has been recovered as nesting within the sudamericid assemblage. Patagonia was a fossorial herbivore, its jaw and dental anatomy is similar to that of burrowing rodents, to the point that the original description referred to it as a "marsupial tuco-tuco". Like several other multituberculates as well as modern Glires it had rootless incisors, meaning that they never stopped growing. Like other sudamericids it had hypsodont molariforms; this means it was well adapted to chew grass, was most a grazer, which coincides with the plains environment where it once lived. Like other allotheres its masseteric anatomy and molariform orientation suggest that it had a palinal jaw stroke, a chewing style not seen in modern mammals and one of several traits considered "aberrant".

The Colhuehuapian deposits of the Sarmiento Formation show a general steppe or savanna-like environment, with a high degree of grass phytoliths, as opposed to earlier forest environments in the region. This coincides with grazing habits. A large variety of mammal species are known, including caviomorph rodents such as Dudumus, as well as the rodent-like argyrolagoidean paucituberculates. Patagonia avoided competition in its specialised niche

Mark Chapman (Canadian football)

Mark Chapman is an American football wide receiver, a free agent. He was most a member of the Salt Lake Stallions of the Alliance of American Football. Chapman played college football at Central Michigan, he was selected by the Hamilton Tiger-Cats with the first overall pick in the 2018 CFL Draft. On May 3, 2018, Chapman was selected with the first overall pick in the 2018 CFL Draft by the Hamilton Tiger-Cats, after trading up with the Montreal Allouettes. Despite this, Chapman remained unsigned through May 20, 2018, despite the Tiger-Cats signing several other players that they drafted. Chapman attended one of the Tiger-Cats early regular season games, but left without having signed a contract. On May 14, 2018, Chapman received a tryout for the New York Giants of the NFL. Chapman signed a contract with the Denver Broncos on July 25, 2018, he was waived by the Broncos on September 1, 2018. In September 2018 Chapman decided to sign with the Salt Lake Stallions of the Alliance of American Football, who would begin play in February 2019.

However, Chapman never played for the Stallions. Central Michigan bio