The National Aviary, located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is the only independent indoor nonprofit aviary in the United States. It is the country's largest aviary, the only one accorded honorary "National" status by the United States Congress; the aviary is home to over 600 birds representing more than 200 species, is a member of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. The National Aviary is located at 700 Arch Street on Pittsburgh's Northside, within Allegheny Commons West Park in the Allegheny Center neighborhood; the National Aviary is open daily except Thanksgiving Day, Christmas Eve, Christmas. Although some of the birds must be fed in private all feedings are scheduled to be viewable by visitors. Since 1999, annual attendance has topped 100,000; the National Aviary has daily interactive experiences for visitors. Some of these include Penguin Point, a new exhibit featuring 11 African penguins and underwater viewing; these programs are joined by various trainer talks, bird presentations and encounters that help to create an immersive experience for visitors.
In the fall of 2010, the National Aviary completed an $18.5 million expansion and renovation project that included the opening of a new café, the Helen M. Schmidt FliteZone Theater; the theater is home to "Wings!," an indoor-avian adventure featuring flighted birds and special effects. The Helen M. Schmidt Theater is the first indoor theater in the nation built for bird shows; the aviary began outdoor shows from its new Sky Deck, featuring live flight demonstrations of eagles and kites out over West Park. The aviary is home to more than 500 birds of more than 150 species, many of which are threatened or endangered in the wild, it has one of the most diverse collections in North America. As a result, the aviary has many species that are found in other zoos or aviaries, for example, green-backed trogon, scarlet-headed blackbird, blue-winged mountain tanager. Among the most popular residents are Benito the hyacinth macaw and his roommate, Killer the green-winged macaw. Both are trained, perform at occasional educational exhibitions.
The aviary has had success in breeding. Franklin can be seen in one of the aviary's exhibits; the National Aviary takes part in breeding programs designed to increase the numbers of endangered birds in captivity including the Bali mynah, the Guam kingfisher, the African penguin. Its first two African penguin chicks hatched in February 2012. On March 13, 2013, the aviary celebrated another success of its breeding program, when a female Eurasian owlet hatched, within five days, doubled in size; the National Aviary began as part of the Pittsburgh Aviary-Conservatory, built by the city in 1952 on the site of the original Phipps Conservatory and consisting at first of a single structure of 3,640 square feet. In 1967 an expansion that included the "wetlands room" increased space to 25,000 square feet. Pittsburgh's dwindling urban tax base forced the city to cease funding the institution in 1991. In 1991, neighborhood leaders founded Save the Aviary, Inc. and began an intense public campaign to raise money and develop a plan to privatize the Aviary.
Jill Sims, an active volunteer at the Aviary, became the first chairperson of the organization. Mark P. Masterson, a Northside community leader, developed a business plan and secured funding from the Buhl Foundation to produce a capital improvement plan and recruited additional board members. Save the Aviary, Inc. took over the facility and began operations soon after the board of directors hired Dayton Baker as executive director. On October 27, 1993, by declaration of the U. S. Congress, the Pittsburgh Aviary was designated honorary national status and renamed the National Aviary in Pittsburgh; this was signed by President Bill Clinton on November 8, 1993. A successful capital campaign was undertaken in 1995 to raise funds for essential renovations, completed in 1997, that modernized the facility. In January 2005, the National Aviary created the Department of Conservation and Field Research, which so far has focused on restoring bird populations in foreign countries with histories of extreme environmental degradation.
In July 2006, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania granted the first $500,000 toward a $22.5 million project that would include a new education center and expanded exhibits, slated for opening in 2008. In October 2008, the Aviary announced a $23 million renovation and expansion of exhibition space, the vast majority of which would be paid for by private foundations. In early 2007, Dayton Baker announced his intention to step down once a replacement executive director was found. Linda Dickerson was named the new director and took over the facility in April 2007; the most recent expansion in 2008 increased space to 40,000 square feet. On January 22, 2009, in a letter to the board of directors, Dickerson announced her intention to resign from the National Aviary. Patrick Mangus, the National Aviary's former chief operating officer, took over as executive director in January 2009. In November 2012, Mangus was fired by the board of directors for "managerial differences." Cheryl Tracy, the chief financial officer, began serving as acting director.
As of July 1, 2013, Tracy became managing director and chief operating officer
John M. Snowden
John Maugridge Snowden, served as Mayor of Pittsburgh City from 1825 to 1828. Snowden was born in Pennsylvania to a revolutionary war family of patriots, his father, John Snowden, was a hero of the war, being imprisoned by the British forces and dying in their custody. His mother, Elizabeth Moor, was a major advisor to General Washington during his Pennsylvania campaigns. In 1811 Snowden began a book business in Pittsburgh, he bought and edited his own newspaper, the Pittsburgh Mercury. Like his predecessor as Mayor, John Darragh, he used his appointment as President of the Bank of Pittsburgh to launch his mayoral candidacy. Snowden served terms as Allegheny County Recorder and Treasurer before being elected mayor of Pittsburgh in 1825, he served until 1828. Pittsburgh 12 March 1829 His ExcellencyGen A. Jackson Prest. U. S. Dr Sir To the many requests to which your attention is at this time drawn, may I be permitted respectfully to add mine? I have this day written to the Hon. M Van Buren applying for the appointment to publish the laws of the United States, &c in the Pittsburgh Mercury of which I am the editor and proprietor.
Presuming on your knowledge of my character and standing here and on your friendly feelings may I be permitted respectfully to solicit your aid in this particular. I presume it is known to your excellency that the Mercury was, both in 1824 and 1828, devoted to those principles which have so signally triumphed in the late contest, it is the second oldest paper in this place and has a respectable patronage and circulation. Calculated with firmness, but at the same time maintaining that decorous course, calculated to merit and secure the public confidence, it is believed that it was not an unimportant auxiliary in that contest, but neither my scrupulous regard as an editor for private character - the correctness of my course - nor my acknowledged good reputation - has secured me from many sacrifices in the just support of my political principles and opinions. Wherever political opponents could assail me, they have done it. From their own avowals, the first effort displayed itself by a combination to oust me from the mayoralty of this city - not because I was considered to be incompetent to or unfaithful in the discharge of the duties of that office, but because the fact that an opponent of the existing administration had been removed from the head of the city authorities, would give éclat abroad and subserve their political interests.
This step has been followed up by attempts to break down my establishment or diminish its patronage - attempts which have to a considerate extent affected my pecuniary interests, subjected me to an inconvenience, sensibly felt at my advanced period of life, with a numerous family dependent on my labour and exertions for maintenance. I make these statements not by way of complaint, but to show that the Pittsburgh Mercury was not, is not regarded as an inefficient partisan in the struggle for principles. If other recommendations be wanting for the obtainment of that appointment, I shall with great pleasure afford to your excellency any testimonials which may be asked of the purity of my life and character. I write with the freedom of a friend, I hope that my candour will not be construed into a want of respect. Had I less confidence in your willingness to give my application a favorable reception, or in the benevolence of your disposition, I should scarcely have ventured to write this letter, or if I had written, would have written more reservedly.
At the time of your visit to this place, I had the honour of introducing to your notice my son Wm Snowden. He accompanied you to Washington, he has been bred to the law. He is a young man of steady habits. Several of his and my friends have advised him to apply for a clerkship in one of the public offices in that of the secretary of state, his course of education we think best qualifies him for such a clerkship. I have understood that Mr Stevenson, many of the Pennsylvania delegation, together with Col McKinley of Alabama, other of your distinguished personal friends in and out of our congress, with whom he is acquainted, will join in his recommendation. If from the partial acquaintance you have had of him, the recommendations he may obtain, your excellency could be induced to interest yourself in his behalf, it would not only afford great gratification to me, but might be the happy means of bringing a promising young man into the public usefulness. I have the honour to be your excellencys most obt sevrt.
John M. Snowden This is a transcript of a letter from the National Archives, Record Group 59. IN pursuance to/ public notice, the citizens of Pittsburgh, convened in town meeting, at the court house, on Saturday evening, the 22nd inst. John M. Snowden, Esq. Mayor of the City, was called to the chair, William Eichbaum, jr. and Robert Burke, were chosen secretaries. The object of the meeting having been stated by the chairman, Judge Wilkins rose, after some appropriate and eloquent remarks, submitted the following preamble and resolutions, which were adopted: When men and honored for their virtues and services are removed from the scene of life, full of years, bearing with them the benedictions of millions whom they have blessed- when he who brought to light the principles of our revolutionary struggle, he who stood foremost
PNC Park is a baseball park located on the North Shore of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It is the fifth home of the city's Major League Baseball franchise, it opened during the 2001 MLB season, after the controlled implosion of the Pirates' previous home, Three Rivers Stadium. The ballpark is sponsored by PNC Financial Services, which purchased the naming rights in 1998. PNC Park seats 38,747 people for baseball. Funded in conjunction with Heinz Field and the David L. Lawrence Convention Center, the $216 million park stands along the Allegheny River, on the North Shore of Pittsburgh with a view of Downtown Pittsburgh. Plans to build a new stadium for the Pirates originated in 1991, but did not come to fruition for 5 years. Built in the style of "classic" stadiums, such as Pittsburgh's Forbes Field, PNC Park introduced unique features, such as the use of limestone in the building's facade; the park features a riverside concourse, steel truss work, an extensive out-of-town scoreboard, many local eateries.
Constructed faster than most modern stadiums, PNC Park was built in a 24-month span. On September 5, 1991, Pittsburgh mayor Sophie Masloff proposed a new 44,000-seat stadium for the Pittsburgh Pirates on the city's North Side. Three Rivers Stadium, the Pirates' home at the time, had been designed for functionality rather than "architecture and aesthetics"; the location of Three Rivers Stadium came to be criticized for being in a hard-to-access portion of the city, where traffic congestion occurred before and after games. Discussions about a new ballpark took place, but were never considered until entrepreneur Kevin McClatchy purchased the team in February 1996; until McClatchy's purchase, plans about the team remaining in Pittsburgh were uncertain. In 1996, Masloff's successor, Tom Murphy, created the "Forbes Field II Task Force". Made up of 29 political and business leaders, the team studied the challenges of constructing a new ballpark, their final report, published on June 26, 1996, evaluated 13 possible locations.
The "North Side site" was recommended due to its affordable cost, potential to develop the surrounding area, opportunity to incorporate the city skyline into the stadium's design. The site selected for the ballpark is just upriver from the site of early Pirates home field Exposition Park. After a political debate, public money was used to fund PNC Park. A sales tax increase was proposed to fund three projects: PNC Park, Heinz Field, an expansion of the David L. Lawrence Convention Center. However, after the proposal was soundly rejected in a 1997 referendum known as the Regional Renaissance Initiative, the city developed Plan B. Controversial, the alternative proposal was labeled Scam B by opponents; some members of the Allegheny Regional Asset District felt that the Pirates' pledge of $40 million toward the new stadium was too little, while others criticized the amount of public money allocated for Plan B. One member of the Allegheny Regional Asset District board called the use of tax dollars "corporate welfare".
The plan, totaling $809 million, was approved by the Allegheny Regional Asset District board on July 9, 1998—with $228 million allotted for PNC Park. Shortly after Plan B was approved, the Pirates made a deal with Pittsburgh city officials to remain in the city until at least 2031. There was popular sentiment by fans for the Pirates to name the stadium after former outfielder Roberto Clemente. However, locally based PNC Financial Services purchased the stadium's naming rights in August 1998; as per the agreement, PNC Bank will pay the Pirates $2 million each year through 2020, has a full-service PNC branch at the stadium. The total cost of PNC Park was $216 million. Shortly after the naming rights deal was announced, the city of Pittsburgh renamed the 6th Street Bridge near the southeast corner of the site of the park the Roberto Clemente Bridge as a compromise to fans who had wanted the park named after Clemente. Kansas City-based Populous, which designed many other major league ballparks of the late 20th and early 21st century, designed the ballpark.
The design and construction management team consisted of the Dick Barton Malow. An effort was made in the design of PNC Park to salute other "classic style" ballparks, such as Fenway Park, Wrigley Field, Pittsburgh's Forbes Field. PNC Park was the first two-deck ballpark to be built in the United States since Milwaukee County Stadium opened in 1953; the park features a 24 by 42 foot Sony JumboTron, accompanied by the first-ever LED video boards in an outdoor MLB stadium. PNC Park is the first stadium to feature an out-of-town scoreboard with the score, number of outs, base runners for every other game being played around the league. Ground was broken for PNC Park on April 7, 1999, after a ceremony to rename the Sixth Street Bridge as the "Roberto Clemente Bridge" in honor of the late Pirate Roberto Clemente; as part of original plans to create an enjoyable experience for fans, the bridge is closed to vehicular traffic on game days to allow spectators to park in Pittsburgh's Golden Triangle and walk across the bridge to the stadium.
PNC Park was built with Kasota limestone shipped from a Minnesota river valley, to contrast the brick bases of other modern stadiums. The stadium was constructed over a 24-month span—at the time of construction, three months faster than any other modern major league ballpark—and the Pirates played their first game less than two years after groundbreaking; the quick construction was accomplished with the use of special computers, which relayed building plans to builders 24
United States Electoral College
The United States Electoral College is a body of electors established by the United States Constitution, constituted every four years for the sole purpose of electing the president and vice president of the United States. The Electoral College consists of 538 electors, an absolute majority of 270 electoral votes is required to win an election. Pursuant to Article II, Section 1, Clause 2, the legislature of each state determines the manner by which its electors are chosen; each state's number of electors is equal to the combined total of the state's membership in the Senate and House of Representatives. Additionally, the Twenty-third Amendment provides that the District of Columbia is entitled to a number of electors no greater than that of the least populous state. Following the national presidential election day in the first week of November, each state counts its popular votes pursuant to that state's laws to designate presidential electors. Most all states allot all their electoral votes to the winning candidate in that state, no matter how marginal the candidate's win.
State electors meet in their respective state. The results are certified by the states and D. C. to Congress, where they are tabulated nationally in the first week of January before a joint meeting of the Senate and House of Representatives. If a majority of votes are not cast for a candidate, the House resolves itself into a presidential election session with one presidential vote assigned to each of the fifty state delegations, excluding the District of Columbia; the elected president and vice president are inaugurated on January 20. While the electoral vote has given the same result as the popular vote in most elections, this has not been the case in a few elections, including the 2000 and 2016 elections; the Electoral College system is a matter of ongoing debate, with some defending it and others calling for its abolition. Supporters of the Electoral College argue that it is fundamental to American federalism, that it requires candidates to appeal to voters outside large cities, increases the political influence of small states, discourages the excessive growth of political parties and preserves the two-party system, makes the electoral outcome appear more legitimate than that of a nationwide popular vote.
Opponents of the Electoral College argue that it can result in a person becoming president though an opponent got more votes. Most polls since 1967 have shown that a majority of Americans favor the president and vice president being elected by the nationwide popular vote; the Constitutional Convention in 1787 used the Virginia Plan as the basis for discussions, as the Virginia proposal was the first. The Virginia Plan called for the Congress to elect the president. Delegates from a majority of states agreed to this mode of election. After being debated, delegates came to oppose nomination by congress for the reason that it could violate the separation of powers. James Wilson made motion for electors for the purpose of choosing the president. In the convention, a committee formed to work out various details including the mode of election of the president, including final recommendations for the electors, a group of people apportioned among the states in the same numbers as their representatives in Congress, but chosen by each state "in such manner as its Legislature may direct."
Committee member Gouverneur Morris explained the reasons for the change. However, once the Electoral College had been decided on, several delegates recognized its ability to protect the election process from cabal, corruption and faction; some delegates, including James Wilson and James Madison, preferred popular election of the executive. Madison acknowledged that while a popular vote would be ideal, it would be difficult to get consensus on the proposal given the prevalence of slavery in the South: There was one difficulty however of a serious nature attending an immediate choice by the people; the right of suffrage was much more diffusive in the Northern than the Southern States. The substitution of electors obviated this difficulty and seemed on the whole to be liable to the fewest objections; the Convention approved the Committee's Electoral College proposal, with minor modifications, on September 6, 1787. Delegates from states with smaller populations or limited land area such as Connecticut, New Jersey, Maryland favored the Electoral College with some consideration for states.
At the compromise providing for a runoff among the top five candidates, the small states supposed that the House of Representatives with each state delegation casting one vote would decide most elections. In The Federalist Papers, James Madison explained his views on the selection of the president and the Constitution. In Federalist No. 39, Madison argued the Constitution was designed to be a mixture of state-based an
Urban decay is the sociological process by which a functioning city, or part of a city, falls into disrepair and decrepitude. It may feature deindustrialization, depopulation or deurbanization, economic restructuring, abandoned buildings and infrastructure, high local unemployment, fragmented families, political disenfranchisement, a desolate cityscape, known as greyfield or urban prairie. Since the 1970s and 1980s, urban decay has been associated with Western cities in North America and parts of Europe. Since major structural changes in global economies and government policy created the economic and the social conditions resulting in urban decay; the effects counter the development of most of North America. In contrast, North American and British cities experience population flights to the suburbs and exurb commuter towns. Another characteristic of urban decay is blight—the visual and physical effects of living among empty lots and condemned houses. Urban decay has no single cause. During the Industrial Revolution, from the late eighteenth century to the early nineteenth century, rural people moved from the country to the cities for employment in manufacturing industry, thus causing the urban population boom.
However, subsequent economic change left many cities economically vulnerable. Studies such as the Urban Task Force, the Urban White Paper, a study of Scottish cities posit that areas suffering industrial decline—high unemployment, a decaying physical environment —prove "highly resistant to improvement". Changes in means of transport, from the public to the private—specifically, the private motor car—eliminated some of the cities' public transport service advantages, e.g. fixed-route buses and trains. In particular, at the end of World War II, many political decisions favored suburban development and encouraged suburbanization, by drawing city taxes from the cities to build new infrastructure for towns; the manufacturing sector has been a base for the prosperity of major cities. When the industries have relocated outside of cities, some have experienced population loss with associated urban decay, riots. Cut backs on police and fire services may result, while lobbying for government funded housing may increase.
Increased city taxes encourage residents to move out. Rent controls are enacted due to public pressure and complaints regarding the cost of living. Proponents of rent controls argue that rent controls combat inflation, stabilize the economic characteristics of a city's population, prevent rent gouging, improve the quality of housing. Capitalist economists have documented that rent control affects the supply and demand relationship in housing markets which can contribute to urban blight and does not provide the benefits its proponents advocate. Rent control contributes to urban blight by reducing new construction and investment in housing and deincentivizing maintenance. If a landlord's costs to perform maintenance consume too large a proportion of profit, revenue minus costs, from rent, the landlord will feel pressure to drastically reduce or eliminate maintenance entirely; this effect has been observed in New York City, a 2009 study by a lobbying firm found 29% of rent-controlled buildings were categorized as either deteriorated or dilapidated in contrast with 8% of non-rent-controlled housing.
The largest example of urban decay is Traverse City Michigan's Boardman Neighborhood. In the United States, the white middle class left the cities for suburban areas because of higher crime rates and perceived danger caused by African-American migration north toward cities after World War I —the so-called "white flight" phenomenon; some historians differentiate between the first Great Migration, numbering about 1.6 million Black migrants who left Southern rural areas to migrate to northern and midwestern industrial cities, after a lull during the Great Depression, a Second Great Migration, in which 5 million or more African-Americans moved, including many to California and various western cities. Between 1910 and 1970, Blacks moved from 14 states of the South Alabama, Louisiana and Texas to the other three cultural regions of the United States. More townspeople with urban skills moved during the second migration. By the end of the Second Great Migration, African Americans had become an urbanized population.
More than 80 percent lived in cities. A majority of 53 percent remained in the South, while 40 percent lived in the North and 7 percent in the West. From the 1930s until 1977, African-Americans seeking borrowed capital for housing and businesses were discriminated against via the federal-government–legislated discriminatory lending practices for the Federal Housing Administration via redlining. In 1977, the US Congress passed the Community Reinvestment Act, designed to encourage commercial banks and
History of Pittsburgh
The history of Pittsburgh began with centuries of Native American civilization in the modern Pittsburgh region, known as "Dionde:gâ'" in the Seneca language.' French and British explorers encountered the strategic confluence where the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers meet to form the Ohio, which leads to the Mississippi River. The area became a battleground when Britain fought for control in the 1750s; when the British were victorious, the French ceded control of territories east of the Mississippi. Following American independence in 1783, the village around Fort Pitt continued to grow; the region saw the short-lived Whiskey Rebellion, when farmers rebelled against federal taxes on whiskey. The War of 1812 cut off the supply of British goods. By 1815, Pittsburgh was producing large quantities of iron, brass and glass products. By the 1840s, Pittsburgh had grown to one of the largest cities west of the Allegheny Mountains. Production of steel began in 1875. During the 1877 railway riots it was the site of the most violence and damage in any city affected by the nationwide strikes of that summer.
Workers protested against cuts in wages, burning down buildings at the railyards, including 100 train engines and more than 1,000 cars. Forty men were killed, most of them strikers. By 1911, Pittsburgh was producing half the nation's steel. Pittsburgh was a Republican party stronghold until 1932; the soaring unemployment of the Great Depression, the New Deal relief programs and the rise of powerful labor unions in the 1930s turned the city into a liberal stronghold of the New Deal Coalition under powerful Democratic mayors. In World War II, it was the center of the "Arsenal of Democracy", producing munitions for the Allied war effort as prosperity returned. Following World War II, Pittsburgh launched a clean air and civic revitalization project known as the "Renaissance." The industrial base continued to expand through the 1960s, but after 1970 foreign competition led to the collapse of the steel industry, with massive layoffs and mill closures. Top corporate headquarters moved out in the 1980s.
In 2007 the city lost its status as a major transportation hub. The population of the Pittsburgh metropolitan area is holding steady at 2.4 million. For thousands of years, Native Americans inhabited the region where the Allegheny and the Monongahela join to form the Ohio. Paleo-Indians conducted a hunter-gatherer lifestyle in the region as early as 19,000 years ago. Meadowcroft Rockshelter, an archaeological site west of Pittsburgh, provides evidence that these first Americans lived in the region from that date. During the Adena culture that followed, Mound Builders erected a large Indian Mound at the future site of McKees Rocks, about three miles from the head of the Ohio; the Indian Mound, a burial site, was augmented in years by members of the Hopewell culture. By 1700 the Iroquois Confederacy, the Five Nations-based south of the Great Lakes in present-day New York, held dominion over the upper Ohio valley, reserving it for hunting grounds. Other tribes included the Lenape, displaced from eastern Pennsylvania by European settlement, the Shawnee, who had migrated up from the south.
With the arrival of European explorers, these tribes and others had been devastated by European infectious diseases, such as smallpox, measles and malaria, to which they had no immunity. In 1748, when Conrad Weiser visited Logstown, 18 miles downriver from Pittsburgh, he counted 789 warriors gathered: the Iroquois included 163 Seneca, 74 Mohawk, 35 Onondaga, 20 Cayuga, 15 Oneida. Other tribes were 165 Lenape, 162 Shawnee, 100 Wyandot, 40 Tisagechroami, 15 Mohican. Shannopin's Town, a Seneca tribe village on the east bank of the Allegheny, was the home village of Queen Aliquippa, it was deserted after 1749. Sawcunk, on the mouth of the Beaver River, was a Lenape settlement and the principal residence of Shingas, a chief of theirs. Chartier's Town was a Shawnee town established in 1734 by Peter Chartier. Kittanning was a Shawnee village on the Allegheny, with an estimated 300 -- 400 residents; the first Europeans arrived in the 1710s as traders. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a manuscript in 1717, that year European traders established posts and settlements in the area.
Europeans first began to settle in the region in 1748, when the first Ohio Company, an English land speculation company, won a grant of 200,000 acres in the upper Ohio Valley. From a post at present-day Cumberland, the company began to construct an 80-mile wagon road to the Monongahela River employing a Delaware Indian chief named Nemacolin and a party of settlers headed by Capt. Michael Cresap to begin widening the track into a road, it followed the same route as an ancient Amerindian trail, now known as Nemacolin's Trail. The river crossing and flats at Redstone creek, was the earliest point and shortest distance for the descent of a wagon road. In the war, the site fortified as Fort Burd was one of several possible destinations. Another alternative was the divergent route that became Braddock's Road a few years through present-day New Stanton. In the event, the colonists did not succeed in improving the Amerindian path to a wagon road much beyond the Cumberland Narrows pass before they were confronted by hostile Native Americans.
The colonists mounted a series of expeditions in order to accomplish piecemeal improvements to the track. The French had built nearby Logstown as a trade and council center for the Native Americans to increase their influence in the Ohio Valley. Between June
Bruegger's Enterprises, Inc. is a restaurant operator and subsidiary of the Luxembourg-based company JAB Holding Company. It and its wholly owned subsidiary Threecaf Brands Canada, Inc. are franchisers and operators of Bruegger's bakery-cafés, Michel's Baguette. They produce 70 million bagels each year, they hold the Guinness World Record for producing the world's largest bagel; the company purveys foods such as breads, sandwiches and specialty drinks. Bruegger's operates 300 restaurants in 26 U. S. states, the District of Columbia, Canada. Bruegger's was founded in 1983 by Nordahl Brue and Mike Dressell, with the first store opening in Troy, New York; the business was bought by Quality Dining in June 1996 for $142 million in stock, with the founders joining the Quality Dining board. The merge was not a comfortable one. S. Securities and Exchange Commission filing alleging a lack of strategic direction. Holding a combined 26% stake and Dressell called for reorganization of Quality Dining, resulting in Bruegger's being resold to Brue and Dressel in October 1997 for $45 million.
Brue has since referred to the original sale as part of his "biggest mistake". In May 2003, James J. Greco and Sun Capital Partners acquired the company from the founders. Today 260 Bruegger's locations operate in 26 U. S. states, the District of Columbia, Canada. The company is headquartered in Minnesota. Bruegger's announced $200 million in revenue in 2008. On November 13, 2009, Bruegger's purchased the retail operations of Timothy's World Coffee and Michel's Baguette through a wholly owned subsidiary called ThreeCaf Brands Canada, Inc. Bruegger's intends to continue operations of all three brands; the three brands combined operated 140 locations. On March 17, 2011, Groupe Le Duff of France announced the buyout of Bruegger's. Le Duff has a U. S. presence with its La Madeleine brand, which has 60 units domestically. Le Duff plans to "Francify" some Bruegger's locations and will combine other units with Brioche Dorée outlets; the first European Bruegger's opened in Rennes in 2013. In December 2011, James J. Greco announced he would be stepping down as CEO at the end of the year to pursue other opportunities.
On August 24, 2017 it was announced that Bruegger's owner Le Duff America announced that Caribou and its held owner JAB Holdings had agreed to buy the bagel chain. The terms of the deal, which closed at the end of September, weren't disclosed. In December of 2017 Bruegger's closed 30 locations in Eastern markets. In April 2018, Threecaf Brands sold Timothy's World Coffee and mmmuffins to Canadian company MTY Food Group of Richmond Hill, Ontario for $1.7 million, of which $1.2 million was in cash, $0.2 million in assumed liabilities, $0.3 million as a holdback. Michel's Bakery Café named Michel's Baugettes, is a Canadian bakery-café founded in 1980, operating restaurants throughout Canada; the company is one of the largest bakery-café chains in Canada and operates both corporate and franchise locations. The company was purchased by Timothy's Coffees of the World Inc. in 2001. Timothy's continued to operate the Michel's Bakery Café stores under their original trade name, Michel's Baguette. On November 13, 2009, Michel's Baguette was sold to Bruegger's Enterprises, Inc. along with Timothy's Coffee and mmmuffins through a wholly owned subsidiary called ThreeCaf Brands Canada Inc.
Bruegger's has continued to operate these chains. The company has since revitalized its operations, revamped its aesthetics and changed its name to Michel's Bakery Café. On August 27, 2004, Bruegger's created the world's largest bagel, which holds the Guinness World Record; the bagel weighed 868 pounds and required 1,100 pounds of dough, 900 US gallons of water, 10 hours of baking. It was cooked at the New York State Fair and was sliced and served to onlookers, who were encouraged to make donations to benefit local food banks. Fast casual restaurant List of bakery cafés Official website