Reduced instruction set computer
A reduced instruction set computer, or RISC, is one whose instruction set architecture allows it to have fewer cycles per instruction than a complex instruction set computer. Various suggestions have been made regarding a precise definition of RISC, but the general concept is that such a computer has a small set of simple and general instructions, rather than a large set of complex and specialized instructions. Another common RISC trait is their load/store architecture, in which memory is accessed through specific instructions rather than as a part of most instructions. Although a number of computers from the 1960s and'70s have been identified as forerunners of RISCs, the modern concept dates to the 1980s. In particular, two projects at Stanford University and the University of California, Berkeley are most associated with the popularization of this concept. Stanford's MIPS would go on to be commercialized as the successful MIPS architecture, while Berkeley's RISC gave its name to the entire concept and was commercialized as the SPARC.
Another success from this era was IBM's effort that led to the IBM POWER instruction set architecture, PowerPC, Power ISA. As these projects matured, a wide variety of similar designs flourished in the late 1980s and the early 1990s, representing a major force in the Unix workstation market as well as for embedded processors in laser printers and similar products; the many varieties of RISC designs include ARC, Alpha, Am29000, ARM, Atmel AVR, Blackfin, i860, i960, M88000, MIPS, PA-RISC, Power ISA, RISC-V, SuperH, SPARC. In the 21st century, the use of ARM architecture processors in smartphones and tablet computers such as the iPad and Android devices provided a wide user base for RISC-based systems. RISC processors are used in supercomputers such as Summit, which, as of November 2018, is the world's fastest supercomputer as ranked by the TOP500 project. Alan Turing's 1946 Automatic Computing Engine design had many of the characteristics of a RISC architecture. A number of systems, going back to the 1960s, have been credited as the first RISC architecture based on their use of load/store approach.
The term RISC was coined by David Patterson of the Berkeley RISC project, although somewhat similar concepts had appeared before. The CDC 6600 designed by Seymour Cray in 1964 used a load/store architecture with only two addressing modes and 74 operation codes, with the basic clock cycle being 10 times faster than the memory access time. Due to the optimized load/store architecture of the CDC 6600, Jack Dongarra says that it can be considered a forerunner of modern RISC systems, although a number of other technical barriers needed to be overcome for the development of a modern RISC system. Michael J. Flynn views the first RISC system as the IBM 801 design, which began in 1975 by John Cocke and was completed in 1980; the 801 was produced in a single-chip form as the IBM ROMP in 1981, which stood for'Research OPD Micro Processor'. As the name implies, this CPU was designed for "mini" tasks, was used in the IBM RT PC in 1986, which turned out to be a commercial failure, but the 801 inspired several research projects, including new ones at IBM that would lead to the IBM POWER instruction set architecture.
The most public RISC designs, were the results of university research programs run with funding from the DARPA VLSI Program. The VLSI Program unknown today, led to a huge number of advances in chip design and computer graphics; the Berkeley RISC project started in 1980 under the direction of David Patterson and Carlo H. Sequin. Berkeley RISC was based on gaining performance through the use of pipelining and an aggressive use of a technique known as register windowing. In a traditional CPU, one has a small number of registers, a program can use any register at any time. In a CPU with register windows, there are a huge number of registers, e.g. 128, but programs can only use a small number of them, e.g. eight, at any one time. A program that limits itself to eight registers per procedure can make fast procedure calls: The call moves the window "down" by eight, to the set of eight registers used by that procedure, the return moves the window back; the Berkeley RISC project delivered the RISC-I processor in 1982.
Consisting of only 44,420 transistors RISC-I had only 32 instructions, yet outperformed any other single-chip design. They followed this up with the 40,760 transistor, 39 instruction RISC-II in 1983, which ran over three times as fast as RISC-I; the MIPS project grew out of a graduate course by John L. Hennessy at Stanford University in 1981, resulted in a functioning system in 1983, could run simple programs by 1984; the MIPS approach emphasized an aggressive clock cycle and the use of the pipeline, making sure it could be run as "full" as possible. The MIPS system was followed by the MIPS-X and in 1984 Hennessy and his colleagues formed MIPS Computer Systems; the commercial venture resulted in a new architecture, called MIPS and the R2000 microprocessor in 1985. In the early 1980s, significant uncertainties surrounded the RISC concept, it was uncertain if it could have a commercial future, but by the mid-1980s the concepts had matured enough to be seen as commercially viable. In 1986 Hewlett Packard started using an early implementation of their PA-RISC in some of their computers.
In the meantime, the Berkeley RISC effort had become so well known that it became the name for the entire concept and in 1987 Sun Microsystems began shipping systems with the SPARC processor
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
Dynamic random-access memory
Dynamic random-access memory is a type of random access semiconductor memory that stores each bit of data in a separate tiny capacitor within an integrated circuit. The capacitor can either be discharged; the electric charge on the capacitors leaks off, so without intervention the data on the chip would soon be lost. To prevent this, DRAM requires an external memory refresh circuit which periodically rewrites the data in the capacitors, restoring them to their original charge; this refresh process is the defining characteristic of dynamic random-access memory, in contrast to static random-access memory which does not require data to be refreshed. Unlike flash memory, DRAM is volatile memory, since it loses its data when power is removed. However, DRAM does exhibit limited data remanence. DRAM is used in digital electronics where low-cost and high-capacity memory is required. One of the largest applications for DRAM is the main memory in modern graphics cards, it is used in many portable devices and video game consoles.
In contrast, SRAM, faster and more expensive than DRAM, is used where speed is of greater concern than cost and size, such as the cache memories in processors. Due to its need of a system to perform refreshing, DRAM has more complicated circuitry and timing requirements than SRAM, but it is much more used; the advantage of DRAM is the structural simplicity of its memory cells: only one transistor and a capacitor are required per bit, compared to four or six transistors in SRAM. This allows DRAM to reach high densities, making DRAM much cheaper per bit; the transistors and capacitors used are small. Due to the dynamic nature of its memory cells, DRAM consumes large amounts of power, with different ways for managing the power consumption. DRAM had a 47% increase in the price-per-bit in 2017, the largest jump in 30 years since the 45% percent jump in 1988, while in recent years the price has been going down; the cryptanalytic machine code-named "Aquarius" used at Bletchley Park during World War II incorporated a hard-wired dynamic memory.
Paper tape was read and the characters on it "were remembered in a dynamic store.... The store used a large bank of capacitors, which were either charged or not, a charged capacitor representing cross and an uncharged capacitor dot. Since the charge leaked away, a periodic pulse was applied to top up those still charged". In 1964, Arnold Farber and Eugene Schlig, working for IBM, created a hard-wired memory cell, using a transistor gate and tunnel diode latch, they replaced the latch with two transistors and two resistors, a configuration that became known as the Farber-Schlig cell. In 1965, Benjamin Agusta and his team at IBM created a 16-bit silicon memory chip based on the Farber-Schlig cell, with 80 transistors, 64 resistors, 4 diodes. In 1966, DRAM was invented by Dr. Robert Dennard at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, he was granted U. S. patent number 3,387,286 in 1968. Capacitors had been used for earlier memory schemes such as the drum of the Atanasoff–Berry Computer, the Williams tube and the Selectron tube.
The Toshiba "Toscal" BC-1411 electronic calculator, introduced in November 1966, used a form of DRAM built from discrete components. The first DRAM was introduced in 1969 by Advanced Memory system, Inc of Sunnyvale, CA; this 1000 bit chip was sold to Honeywell, Wang Computer, others. In 1969 Honeywell asked Intel to make a DRAM using a three-transistor cell; this became the Intel 1102 in early 1970. However, the 1102 had many problems, prompting Intel to begin work on their own improved design, in secrecy to avoid conflict with Honeywell; this became the first commercially available DRAM, the Intel 1103, in October 1970, despite initial problems with low yield until the fifth revision of the masks. The 1103 was laid out by Pat Earhart; the masks were cut by Judy Garcia. The first DRAM with multiplexed row and column address lines was the Mostek MK4096 4 Kbit DRAM designed by Robert Proebsting and introduced in 1973; this addressing scheme uses the same address pins to receive the low half and the high half of the address of the memory cell being referenced, switching between the two halves on alternating bus cycles.
This was a radical advance halving the number of address lines required, which enabled it to fit into packages with fewer pins, a cost advantage that grew with every jump in memory size. The MK4096 proved to be a robust design for customer applications. At the 16 Kbit density, the cost advantage increased. However, as density increased to 64 Kbit in the early 1980s, Mostek and other US manufacturers were overtaken by Japanese DRAM manufacturers dumping DRAMs on the US market. DRAM is arranged in a rectangular array of charge storage cells consisting of one capacitor and transistor per data bit; the figure to the right shows a simple example with a four-by-four cell matrix. Some DRAM matrices are many thousands of cells in width; the long horizontal lines connecting each row are known as word-lines. Each column of cells is composed of two bit-lines, each connected to every other storage cell in the column, they are known as the "+" and "−" bit lines. A sense amplifier is essent
A software bug is an error, failure or fault in a computer program or system that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave in unintended ways. The process of finding and fixing bugs is termed "debugging" and uses formal techniques or tools to pinpoint bugs, since the 1950s, some computer systems have been designed to deter, detect or auto-correct various computer bugs during operations. Most bugs arise from mistakes and errors made in either a program's source code or its design, or in components and operating systems used by such programs. A few are caused by compilers producing incorrect code. A program that contains a large number of bugs, and/or bugs that interfere with its functionality, is said to be buggy. Bugs can trigger errors. Bugs may cause the program to crash or freeze the computer. Other bugs qualify as security bugs and might, for example, enable a malicious user to bypass access controls in order to obtain unauthorized privileges; some software bugs have been linked to disasters.
Bugs in code that controlled the Therac-25 radiation therapy machine were directly responsible for patient deaths in the 1980s. In 1996, the European Space Agency's US$1 billion prototype Ariane 5 rocket had to be destroyed less than a minute after launch due to a bug in the on-board guidance computer program. In June 1994, a Royal Air Force Chinook helicopter crashed into the Mull of Kintyre, killing 29; this was dismissed as pilot error, but an investigation by Computer Weekly convinced a House of Lords inquiry that it may have been caused by a software bug in the aircraft's engine-control computer. In 2002, a study commissioned by the US Department of Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology concluded that "software bugs, or errors, are so prevalent and so detrimental that they cost the US economy an estimated $59 billion annually, or about 0.6 percent of the gross domestic product". The term "bug" to describe defects has been a part of engineering jargon since the 1870s and predates electronic computers and computer software.
For instance, Thomas Edison wrote the following words in a letter to an associate in 1878: It has been just so in all of my inventions. The first step is an intuition, comes with a burst difficulties arise—this thing gives out and that "Bugs"—as such little faults and difficulties are called—show themselves and months of intense watching and labor are requisite before commercial success or failure is reached; the Middle English word bugge is the basis for the terms "bugbear" and "bugaboo" as terms used for a monster. Baffle Ball, the first mechanical pinball game, was advertised as being "free of bugs" in 1931. Problems with military gear during World War II were referred to as bugs. In a book published in 1942, Louise Dickinson Rich, speaking of a powered ice cutting machine, said, "Ice sawing was suspended until the creator could be brought in to take the bugs out of his darling."Isaac Asimov used the term "bug" to relate to issues with a robot in his short story "Catch That Rabbit", published in 1944.
The term "bug" was used in an account by computer pioneer Grace Hopper, who publicized the cause of a malfunction in an early electromechanical computer. A typical version of the story is: In 1946, when Hopper was released from active duty, she joined the Harvard Faculty at the Computation Laboratory where she continued her work on the Mark II and Mark III. Operators traced an error in the Mark II to a moth trapped in a relay; this bug was removed and taped to the log book. Stemming from the first bug, today we call errors or glitches in a program a bug. Hopper did not find the bug, as she acknowledged; the date in the log book was September 9, 1947. The operators who found it, including William "Bill" Burke of the Naval Weapons Laboratory, Virginia, were familiar with the engineering term and amusedly kept the insect with the notation "First actual case of bug being found." Hopper loved to recount the story. This log book, complete with attached moth, is part of the collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of American History.
The related term "debug" appears to predate its usage in computing: the Oxford English Dictionary's etymology of the word contains an attestation from 1945, in the context of aircraft engines. The concept that software might contain errors dates back to Ada Lovelace's 1843 notes on the analytical engine, in which she speaks of the possibility of program "cards" for Charles Babbage's analytical engine being erroneous:... an analysing process must have been performed in order to furnish the Analytical Engine with the necessary operative data. Granted that the actual mechanism is unerring in its processes, the cards may give it wrong orders; the first documented use of the term "bug" for a technical malfunction was by Thomas Edison. The Open Technology Institute, run by the group, New America, released a report "Bugs in the System" in August 2016 stating that U. S. policymakers should make reforms to help researchers address software bugs. The report "highlights the need for reform in the field of software vulnerability discovery and disclosure."
One of the report’s authors said that Congress has not done enough to address cyber software vulnerability though Congress has passed a number of bills to combat the larger issue of cyber security. Government researchers and cyber security experts are the people who discover software flaws
BBC BASIC is a programming language, developed in 1981 as a native programming language for the MOS Technology 6502 based Acorn BBC Micro home/personal computer. It is a version of the BASIC programming language adapted for a UK computer literacy project of the BBC, it was written by Sophie Wilson. BBC BASIC, based on the older Atom BASIC, extended traditional BASIC with named DEF PROC/DEF FN procedures and functions, REPEAT UNTIL loops, IF THEN ELSE structures inspired by COMAL; the interpreter included powerful statements for controlling the BBC Micro's four-channel sound output and its low-/high-resolution eight-mode graphics display. Due to a number of optimizations, BBC BASIC ran programs much faster than Microsoft BASIC running on similar machines; these included using multiple linked lists for variable lookup rather than a single long list, pre-defining the location of integer variables, having separate integer math routines. Speed was further improved on the BBC machine via the use of fast RAM which allowed the MOS 6502 processor and Motorola 6845 display driver to share memory without pausing for access.
As a result of these design features, BBC BASIC ran David Ahl's benchmark in 21 seconds, besting the IBM PC, far outpacing other 8-bit platforms. One of the unique features of BBC BASIC was the presence of an inline assembler, allowing users to write 6502, later: Zilog Z80, NS32016 and ARM assembly language programs; the assembler was integrated into the BASIC interpreter and shared variables with it, which could be included between the characters, saved via *SAVE and *LOAD, called via the CALL or USR commands. This allowed developers to write not just assembly language code, but BASIC code to emit assembly language, making it possible to use code-generation techniques and write simple compilers in BASIC. In 1978 Hermann Hauser and Chris Curry founded Acorn Computers. Much of the code was developed at Cambridge University by her colleagues. Complete History available here:BASIC I, the original version, was shipped on early BBC Micros. BASIC II was used on the Acorn Electron and BBC Micros shipped after 1982, including the Model B.
It added the OSCLI keywords, along with offset assembly and bug fixes. BASIC III, was produced in both a UK version and a United States market version for Acorn's abortive attempt to enter the cross-Atlantic computer market. Apart from a few bug fixes, the only change from BASIC II was that the COLOUR command could be spelled COLOR: regardless of, input, the UK version always listed it as COLOUR, the US version as COLOR; the main place that BASIC III can be found is as the HI-BASIC version for the external second processor. BASIC IV known as CMOS BASIC, available on the BBC Master machines, was changed to use the new instructions available in the 65SC12 processor, reducing the size of the code and therefore allowing the inclusion of LIST IF, EXT# as a statement, EDIT, TIME$, ON PROC, | in VDU statements and faster floating point. Bug fixes were again included. BASIC IV was a further improvement to BASIC IV, was included on the Master Compact machine; the version of BASIC on the Compact included re-coded mathematical routines, said to provide a 30% speed increase over the version included in the rest of the Master series.
HI-BASIC: this was available in two versions, the first based on BASIC III, the second based on BASIC IV. Both were built to run from a higher address on the second processor, rather than the usual &8000 address on the BBC B; this allowed more program space to be available on either the external or internal 6502 Second Processors. A version was introduced to support a second Zilog Z80 processor. Another version of BBC BASIC, called BAS128, was supplied on tape and disc with the BBC Master and Master Compact; this provided support for much larger programs at the cost of being a lot slower than the normal ROM-based version. The interpreter can deal with both BASIC and 6502 assembly language, which can be included between the characters; this contributed to the system's popularity with industrial and research engineers. As the BBC MOS and RISC OS were supplied on ROM, it may be assumed that a specific release of the operating system contained a specific version of BASIC; as such, there is no simple way to determine which version of BASIC is running other than by enquiring the operating system identity and thus making an assumption.
See BeebWiki entry for INKEY. On the BBC family, it is possible to run both the standard BASIC and an enhanced HIBASIC on the 6502 Second Processor. One may determine if the program is running on the second processor by examining the initial value of PAGE, it will be &800 if using the second processor. To distinguish between BASIC and HIBASIC, one should examine the initial value of HIMEM; this will be &8000 for BASIC running on the second processor, &B800 for HIBASIC on the second processor. A similar situation exists on RISC OS where there may be the normal BASIC or BASIC64. Normal BASIC identifies itself as "BASIC V" and BASIC64 identifies itself as "BASIC VI", therefore the following will distinguish one from the other: There are better ways of doing this, see the BeebWiki. In all cases you shouldn't need to be testing for what BASIC or platform your program is running on, just make the call and read whatever returned data is returned and deal with it. With the move to the 32-bit ARM CPU and the removal of the 16 KB limit on the BASIC code size many new features were added.
BASIC V version 1.04 was 61 KB long. Current versions of RISC OS still contain a BBC BASIC V inte
Hermann Maria Hauser, KBE, FRS, FREng, FInstP, CPhys is an Austrian-born entrepreneur, associated with the Cambridge technology community in England. When he was 16 he came to the United Kingdom to learn English at a language school in Cambridge. After a master's degree in Physics from Vienna University, he returned to the University of Cambridge to do a PhD in Physics at the Cavendish Laboratory. Hauser is best known for his part in setting up Acorn Computers with Chris Curry in 1978; when Olivetti took control of Acorn in 1985 he became vice-president for research at Olivetti, in charge of laboratories in the US and Europe. In 1986, Hauser co-founded the Olivetti Research Laboratory in Cambridge with Andy Hopper, who became the laboratory's director. Hauser's role in Acorn was portrayed by Edward Baker-Duly in the BBC drama Micro Men. In 1988, Hauser left Olivetti to start the Active Book Company, investing £1 million of his own money. Not wanting to repeat the mistakes made by Acorn, which had kept its technology to itself, he demonstrated the Active Book to as many large companies as he could.
AT&T Corporation acquired Active Book and incorporated it into EO Personal Communicator in July 1991. Hauser became chief chairman of EO Europe. EO folded on 29 July 1994. In 1990, Hauser was involved in spinning out Advanced RISC Machines from Acorn. In 1993, Hauser set up Advanced Telecommunication Modules Ltd with Andy Hopper; the company was acquired by Conexant Systems on 1 March 2004. He founded NetChannel Ltd in June 1996 as a holding company to begin work on marketing the NetStation. NetChannel was sold to AOL in 1996, he claimed in the 1990s that the networking technology used for AppleTalk was based on the Cambridge Ring. In 1997 he co-founded Amadeus Capital Partners Ltd, a venture capital company, in 1998 he co-founded Cambridge Network with David Cleevely and Alec Broers. In 2000, Plastic Logic was founded, with Hauser as chairman. On 14 June 2001, the Hauser-Raspe Foundation was registered as a charity by Hauser and Pamela Raspe to advance education. In August 2004, Amadeus Capital Partners led the Series B venture capital financing of Solexa, Hauser joined its board of directors.
Solexa developed a next-generation DNA sequencing technology. In 2009, Hauser was announced as the first customer of the Illumina Personal Genome Sequencing service; as of 2009, Hauser is the head of the East Anglia Stem Cell research network. Hauser is a non-executive director of Cambridge Display Technology, a non-executive director of XMOS Ltd and a member of the board of Red-M Ltd, he holds honorary doctorates from the Universities of Bath and Loughborough and from Anglia Ruskin University. He is a member of the advisory board on the Higher Education Innovation Fund, of the UK's Council for Science and Technology. Hauser was commissioned by the Department for Business and Skills to write a report on technology and innovation in the UK. Publication of the report in 2010 led to the establishment of Catapult centres with £200 million of government funding. Since 2015, he is supporting Austrian start-ups and technology companies. In particular, he has invested in 2017 in the MEMS-speaker start-up USound and in eyeson a cloud based Unified Communications solution nominated by Gartner Inc. as Cool Vendor in Unified Communications, 2017.
Hauser was voted the UK's'Computer Personality of the Year' of 1984. In 2010, Eureka, in its "100 most important scientists", placed Hauser at 51, he became patron of The Centre for Computing History in December 2011, 30 years after the launch of the BBC Micro. On 8 July 2002, Hauser was elected a Fellow of the Institute of Physics and an International Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering. In May 2004 he presented the prestigious IEE Pinkerton Lecture. In 2005, Hauser received a Lifetime Achievement Award for his work as a venture capitalist and entrepreneur; the award was presented at the annual European Electronics Industry Awards in London. Hauser was awarded an Honorary CBE for "innovative service to the UK enterprise sector" in 2001. In 1998, Hauser was elected into an honorary fellowship of Hughes Hall, he was elected into an honorary fellowship of King's College, Cambridge with effect from 1 January 2000. In the same year he was awarded the Mountbatten Medal. Hauser was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2012.
His nomination reads: Hauser was elected a Distinguished Fellow of the British Computer Society in 2013 recognising his contribution to computing science in the UK. Micro Men
The British Broadcasting Corporation Microcomputer System, or BBC Micro, is a series of microcomputers and associated peripherals designed and built by the Acorn Computer company in the 1980s for the BBC Computer Literacy Project, operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation. Designed with an emphasis on education, it was notable for its ruggedness and the quality of its operating system. An accompanying 1982 television series, The Computer Programme, featuring Chris Serle learning to use the machine, was broadcast on BBC 2. After the Literacy Project's call for bids for a computer to accompany the TV programmes and literature, Acorn won the contract with the Proton, a successor of its Atom computer prototyped at short notice. Renamed the BBC Micro, the system was adopted by most schools in the United Kingdom, changing Acorn's fortunes, it was successful as a home computer in the UK, despite its high cost. Acorn employed the machine to simulate and develop the ARM architecture which, many years has become hugely successful for embedded systems, including tablets and cellphones.
In 2013 ARM was the most used 32-bit instruction set architecture. While nine models were produced with the BBC brand, the phrase "BBC Micro" is used colloquially to refer to the first six, excluding the Acorn Electron. During the early 1980s, the BBC started; the project was initiated in response to an ITV documentary series The Mighty Micro, in which Christopher Evans of the UK's National Physical Laboratory predicted the coming microcomputer revolution and its effect on the economy and lifestyle of the United Kingdom. The BBC wanted to base its project on a microcomputer capable of performing various tasks which they could demonstrate in the TV series The Computer Programme; the list of topics included programming, graphics and music, controlling external hardware, artificial intelligence. It developed an ambitious specification for a BBC computer, discussed the project with several companies including Acorn Computers, Sinclair Research, Newbury Laboratories, Tangerine Computer Systems, Dragon Data.
The Acorn team had been working on a successor to their existing Atom microcomputer. Known as the Proton, it included better graphics and a faster 2 MHz MOS Technology 6502 central processing unit; the machine was only at the design stage at the time, the Acorn team, including Steve Furber and Sophie Wilson, had one week to build a working prototype from the sketched designs. The team worked through the night to get a working Proton together to show the BBC. Not only was the Acorn Proton the only machine to match the BBC's specification, it exceeded it in nearly every parameter. Based on the Proton prototype the BBC signed a contract with Acorn as early as February 1981; the machine was released as the BBC Microcomputer on 1 December 1981, although production problems pushed delivery of the majority of the initial run into 1982. Nicknamed "the Beeb", it was popular in the UK in the educational market, it called the Tube interface "the most innovative feature" of the computer, concluded that "although some other British microcomputers offer more features for a given price, none of them surpass the BBC... in terms of versatility and expansion capability".
As with Sinclair's ZX Spectrum and Commodore's Commodore 64, both released in 1982, demand exceeded supply. For some months, there were long delays. Efforts were made to market the machine in the United States and West Germany. By October 1983, the US operation reported that American schools had placed orders with it totalling $21 million. In October 1984, while preparing a major expansion of its US dealer network, Acorn claimed sales of 85 per cent of the computers in British schools, delivery of 40,000 machines per month; that December, Acorn stated its intention to become the market leader in US educational computing. The New York Times considered the inclusion of local area networking to be of prime importance to teachers; the operation resulted in advertisements by at least one dealer in Interface Age magazine, but the attempt failed. The success of the machine in the UK was due to its acceptance as an "educational" computer – UK schools used BBC Micros to teach computer literacy, information technology skills and a generation of games programmers.
Acorn became more known for its model B computer than for its other products. Some Commonwealth countries, including India, started their own computer literacy programs around 1987 and used the BBC Micro, a clone of, produced by Semiconductor Complex Limited and named the SCL Unicorn; the Model A and the Model B were priced at £235 and £335 but increased immediately to £299 and £399 due to higher costs. The Model B price of nearly £400 was £1200 in 2011 prices. Acorn anticipated the total sales to be around 12,000 units, but more than 1.5 million BBC Micros were sold. The cost of the BBC Models was high compared to competitors such as the ZX Spectrum and the Commodore 64, from 1983 on Acorn attempted to counter this by producing a simplified but compatible version intended for game playing, the 32K Acorn Electron; the Model A had 16 KB of user RAM, while the Model B had 32 KB. A f