Johan Theodor Holmskjold
Johan Theodor Holmskiold was a Danish botanist and administrator. Johan Theodor was born 14 June 1731 in Nyborg on the Danish island of Funen as the oldest of eight children to Nicolai Holm and he first trained with his father who was a surgeon before studying medicine at the University of Copenhagen, graduating in 1760. During the last three years of his studies, from 1757 to 1769, he toured Europe with professor Friis Rottbøll who paid for his travels and they visited a number of universities in Germany, the Netherlands and France and formed many close bonds with prominent colleagues. In Leiden and Paris Holm collected specimens for a herbarium which was presented to the King as a gift. In 1762 he became a professor in medicine and natural history at Sorø Academy, there he founded a botanical garden before leaving the academy with a pension in 1765. At that point he abandoned his medical career for good, instead turning to various administrative pursuits. In 1767, Holm was appointed general of the Danish Postal Services in Copenhagen.
From 1772, he served as cabinet secretary for Dowager Queen Juliana Maria. She held him in high esteem and this led to the foundation of the Royal Danish Porcelain Factory in 1775, with the King as a co-owner, Juliana Maria as a protector and Holmskiold as its first director-in-chief. In 1779, he took control of the company and remained head of the factory for the rest of his life. In 1778, he was appointed as one of two directors for a new garden at Charlottenborg. It was created as a joint venture between the University and the King, each of whom was to appoint a director, the first university appointment was Christen Friis Rottbøll, Holmskiolds old teacher and travel companion from his student years, while the King chose Holmskiold. Holmskiold advanced rapidly through the ranks and was ennobled under the name of Holmskiold in 1781, on the same occasion, he was made a Knight of the Order of the Danneborg and in 1884 was given the title of Gehejmeråd. As a botanist, Holmskiold is remembered for Beata ruris otia fungis Danicis Impensa, in Aarhus, Holmskiold had observed and documented the fungi he found and he commissioned artist Johan Neander to make detailed full-scale drawings of the specimens he collected and described.
Holmskjolds initial engagement with the services was most likely a fairly easy task which left him with sufficient time to work on his study of fungi. A first draft, at least of the first volume, was completed as early as 1770, among its 74 described specimens, Beata contains 57 newly named fungi, five new combinations and 52 totally new taxa. The work received particular appreciation for its renderings, prompting the Swedish botanist Anders Jahan Retzius to call it the most brilliant work which had appeared up to that time and he went on to name a genus of flowering shrubs Holmskioldia in Holmskjolds honour. The Harvard University Herbaria describes the illustrations as stunningly rendered, impeccably accurate, in 1768, shortly after his appointment as general director of the Postal Services, Holmskiold built a country house on the shore of Lake Bagsværd in Frederiksdal north of Copenhagen
Heinrich Gustav Ferdinand Holm
Heinrich Gustav Ferdinand Holm, often referred to as H. G. F. Holm, was a Danish artist and engraver who is remembered for his finely detailed topographical paintings and drawings of Copenhagen, Holm initially followed in the footsteps of his father as an engraver and illustrator. He had almost certainly been a pupil of C. J. Thomsen who insisted on accuracy and detail, as a result, Holm quickly became a master of his genre, not only as an illustrator but in the difficult technique of watercolour painting. He began to specialize in illustrating prospectuses, often sketching areas and buildings of interest before making multiple copies at home and he sometimes produced skeleton drawings which he coloured with watercolour. In addition, he produced a series of works covering the surrounding countryside, many of his plates appeared in magazines such as Magazin for Ungdommen, its successor Cosmorama, and Nyt Magazin for Natur og Menneskekundskab. He illustrated prospectuses for the Royal Procelain Factory, especially in regard to designs for tea, despite Holms high rate of productivity, he constantly suffered from lack of money, which frequently drove him to drink.
The resulting vicious circle encouraged him to sell his works at low prices which explains how he was given the nickname, Holms many small works continue to be of considerable value. In addition, thanks to their technical quality and his sense of colour
Jens Immanuel Baggesen was a major Danish poet, librettist and comic writer. Baggesen was born at Korsør on the Danish island of Zealand on February 15,1764 and his parents were very poor, and before he was sent to copy documents at the office of the clerk of Hornsherred District before he was twelve. He was a melancholy, feeble child, and he attempted more than once. By dint of perseverance, he managed to gain an education, in 1782. His first work—a verse Comical Tales broadly similar to the Broad Grins of Colman the Younger—took the capital by storm and he tried more serious lyric poetry and his tact, elegant manners, and versatility gained him a place in the best society. In March 1789, his success collapsed when his opera Holger Danske was received with mockery of its many faults and he left Denmark in a rage and spent the next years in Germany and Switzerland. In 1790, he married at Bern and began to write in German and he published his next poem Alpenlied in that language, but brought the Danish Labyrinten as a peace offering upon his return to Denmark in the winter.
It was received with unbounded homage, over the next twenty years, he published volumes alternately in Danish and German and wandered across northern Europe before settling principally in Paris. His most important German work during this period was the 1803 idyllic hexameter epic called Parthenais, upon his 1806 visit to Copenhagen, he found the young Oehlenschläger hailed as the great poet of the day and his own popularity on the wane. He finally left for Paris in 1820, where he lost his second wife, suffering a period of imprisonment for his debts, he fell at last into a hopeless melancholy madness. Having slightly recovered, he determined to see Denmark once more, Baggesens many-sided talents achieved success in all forms of writing, but his political and critical works fell out of favor by the mid-19th century. His satire is marred by his egotism and passions, but his poems are deathless. His finished and elegant style was influential on Danish literature. His greatest success, has proven to be the simple song Da Jeg Var Lille which was known by heart among Danes a century after his death and it has outlived all of his epics.
There is a statue of Baggesen on Havnepladsen in Korsør, unveiled on 6 May 1906 by Professor Vilhelm Andersen, the local Best Western hotel is named after him. Jens Emmanuel Baggesen, Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. Vol. III, New York, Charles Scribners Sons,1878, Jens Immanuel Baggesen, Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. Vol. III, Cambridge University Press,1911, p.200. Works by or about Jens Baggesen at Internet Archive Works by Jens Baggesen at LibriVox
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century. In its purest form, it is a style derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian principles. In form, Neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro, Neoclassical architecture is still designed today, but may be labelled New Classical Architecture for contemporary buildings. In Central and Eastern Europe, the style is referred to as Classicism. Many early 19th-century neoclassical architects were influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée, the many graphite drawings of Boullée and his students depict spare geometrical architecture that emulates the eternality of the universe. There are links between Boullées ideas and Edmund Burkes conception of the sublime, the baroque style had never truly been to the English taste. The most popular was the four-volume Vitruvius Britannicus by Colen Campbell, the book contained architectural prints of famous British buildings that had been inspired by the great architects from Vitruvius to Palladio.
At first the book featured the work of Inigo Jones. Palladian architecture became well established in 18th-century Britain, at the forefront of the new school of design was the aristocratic architect earl, Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, in 1729, he and William Kent, designed Chiswick House. This House was a reinterpretation of Palladios Villa Capra, but purified of 16th century elements and this severe lack of ornamentation was to be a feature of the Palladianism. In 1734 William Kent and Lord Burlington designed one of Englands finest examples of Palladian architecture with Holkham Hall in Norfolk, the main block of this house followed Palladios dictates quite closely, but Palladios low, often detached, wings of farm buildings were elevated in significance. This classicising vein was detectable, to a degree, in the Late Baroque architecture in Paris. This shift was even visible in Rome at the redesigned façade for S, by the mid 18th century, the movement broadened to incorporate a greater range of Classical influences, including those from Ancient Greece.
The shift to neoclassical architecture is conventionally dated to the 1750s, in France, the movement was propelled by a generation of French art students trained in Rome, and was influenced by the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann. The style was adopted by progressive circles in other countries such as Sweden. A second neoclassic wave, more severe, more studied and more consciously archaeological, is associated with the height of the Napoleonic Empire, in France, the first phase of neoclassicism was expressed in the Louis XVI style, and the second in the styles called Directoire or Empire. The Scottish architect Charles Cameron created palatial Italianate interiors for the German-born Catherine II the Great in St. Petersburg, neoclassicism made a discovery of the genuine classic interior, inspired by the rediscoveries at Pompeii and Herculaneum. These had begun in the late 1740s, but only achieved an audience in the 1760s
Frydenlund is a historic house near Vedbæk north of Copenhagen, Denmark. The first structure at the site was a lodge built just north of the royal deer park Jægersborg Dyrehave which was established in 1670. It was acquired by Conrad von Reventlow in the 1680s, originally from Holstein, he now lived at Clausholm Castle and gave the pavilion the name Freudenlund. After his death, the property was passed on to his daughter, Anne Sophie, from 1722 to 1726, after their second marriage in 1721, which gave Anne Sophie status of queen, court architect Johan Cornelius Krieger carried out an expansion of Frydenlund. In the first half of the 1740s, the house was put at the disposal of General Charles Christian Erdmann, King Frederick V refurbished the house and gave it to Crown Prince Christian in 1760. In connection with their marriage in 1764, he gave Frydendal to Queen Caroline Mathilde. It was the hideaway for her. A new wooden mansion designed by Caspar Frederik Harsdorff was built in Lille Dyrehave in 1770, harsdorffs mansion was destroyed by fire in 1793.
He refurbished and expanded Kriegers old house with the assistance of Jørgen Henrich Rawert, american-Danish entertainer Victor Borge purchased the property in 1957. In 1960, he sold it to Haldor Topsøe who established a centre in the buildings. The current house is a three-winged Neoclassical building, the architect is unknown but may have been. Jriegers original house from the 1720s was a tall, octagonal building with timber framing and it is still clearly visible as a rounded projection on the main wing. The complex was listed in 1918, the architectural firm Berten && Schewing was commissioned to make a masterplan for restoration and development of the buildings in 2010
English country house
An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside. Such houses were owned by individuals who owned a town house. This allowed them to time in the country and in the city—hence, for these people. However, the term encompasses houses that were, and often still are, the formal business of the counties was transacted in these country houses. With large numbers of indoor and outdoor staff, country houses were important as places of employment for rural communities. In turn, until the agricultural depressions of the 1870s, the estates, of country houses were the hub. However, the late 19th and early 20th centuries were the swansong of the traditional English country house lifestyle, increased taxation and the effects of World War I led to the demolition of hundreds of houses, those that remained had to adapt to survive. While a château or a schloss can be a fortified or unfortified building, if fortified, it is called a castle, but not all buildings with the name castle are fortified.
The term stately home is subject to debate, and avoided by historians, as a description of a country house, the term was first used in a poem by Felicia Hemans, The Homes of England, originally published in Blackwoods Magazine in 1827. In the 20th century, the term was popularised in a song by Noël Coward. The books collection of homes includes George IVs Brighton town palace. The country houses of England have evolved over the last five hundred years, before this time, larger houses were usually fortified, reflecting the position of their owners as feudal lords, de facto overlords of their manors. The Tudor period of stability in the saw the building of the first of the unfortified great houses. Henry VIIIs Dissolution of the Monasteries saw many former ecclesiastical properties granted to the Kings favourites, woburn Abbey, Forde Abbey and many other mansions with abbey or priory in their name became private houses during this period. Other terms used in the names of houses to describe their origin or importance include palace, court, mansion, house and place.
Burghley House, Longleat House, and Hatfield House are among the best known examples of the prodigy house. Some of the best known of Englands country houses were built by one architect at one time, Montacute House, Chatsworth House. They finally ran out of funds in the early 20th century, an example of this is Brympton dEvercy in Somerset, a house of many periods that is unified architecturally by the continuing use of the same mellow, local Ham Hill stone
Brede House is a late 18th-century country house in Kongens Lyngby north of Copenhagen, Denmark. Originally built for the owner of the adjacent Brede Works, it is now owned by the National Museum of Denmark, Brede House was built for Peter van Hemert, the owner of Brede Works. It is believed that the architect was Andreas Kirkerup while Interior Designer to the Danish Court, joseph Christian Lillie was entrusted with interior designs and probably furnishing the house. Peter van Hemert went bankrupt in 1805 and both his house and industrial plant were sold by auction, the National Museum acquired the house in 1959 and put it through a comprehensive restoration which was not completed until 1974. The Neoclassical house now serves as a house museum which showcases a typical upper-class home of the 1790s. The house is now furnished with period furniture based on the detailed inventory lists which were prepared for each room in connection with the 1805 auction. The park at Brede House is situated to the rear of the building, with Brede Works to the right and a terraced slope with fruit trees to the left as seen from the main building.
It was laid out in the English romantic style in connection with the construction of the house, the pavilion in Chinese style which is today seen in the garden is not native to the site but gifted to the National Museum in 1971. It may originally have stood in Frédéric de Conincks romantic garden at Dronninggård and it is likely that it was designed by Kirkerup since he is the architect behind several other pavilions in Chinese style from the time, including the one in Frederiksberg Gardens. A vegetable garden and nursery used to supply the household with fresh produce, a vegetable garden with original crops is still maintained at the far end of the park. It is situated next to the house and a small cluster of outbuildings and glasshouses, including the Grape House, the Tomato House, the Apple Celler, the Orangery
Naples is the capital of the Italian region Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy, after Rome and Milan. In 2015, around 975,260 people lived within the administrative limits. The Metropolitan City of Naples had a population of 3,115,320, Naples is the 9th-most populous urban area in the European Union with a population of between 3 million and 3.7 million. About 4.4 million people live in the Naples metropolitan area, Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. Bronze Age Greek settlements were established in the Naples area in the second millennium BC, a larger colony – initially known as Parthenope, Παρθενόπη – developed on the Island of Megaride around the ninth century BC, at the end of the Greek Dark Ages. Naples remained influential after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, thereafter, in union with Sicily, it became the capital of the Two Sicilies until the unification of Italy in 1861. Naples was the most-bombed Italian city during World War II, much of the citys 20th-century periphery was constructed under Benito Mussolinis fascist government, and during reconstruction efforts after World War II.
The city has experienced significant economic growth in recent decades, and unemployment levels in the city, Naples still suffers from political and economic corruption, and unemployment levels remain high. Naples has the fourth-largest urban economy in Italy, after Milan, Rome and it is the worlds 103rd-richest city by purchasing power, with an estimated 2011 GDP of US$83.6 billion. The port of Naples is one of the most important in Europe, numerous major Italian companies, such as MSC Cruises Italy S. p. A, are headquartered in Naples. The city hosts NATOs Allied Joint Force Command Naples, the SRM Institution for Economic Research, Naples is a full member of the Eurocities network of European cities. The city was selected to become the headquarters of the European institution ACP/UE and was named a City of Literature by UNESCOs Creative Cities Network, the Villa Rosebery, one of the three official residences of the President of Italy, is located in the citys Posillipo district. Naples historic city centre is the largest in Europe, covering 1,700 hectares and enclosing 27 centuries of history, Naples has long been a major cultural centre with a global sphere of influence, particularly during the Renaissance and Enlightenment eras.
In the immediate vicinity of Naples are numerous culturally and historically significant sites, including the Palace of Caserta, Naples is synonymous with pizza, which originated in the city. Neapolitan music has furthermore been highly influential, credited with the invention of the romantic guitar, according to CNN, the metro stop Toledo is the most beautiful in Europe and it won the LEAF Award 2013 as Public building of the year. Naples is the Italian city with the highest number of accredited stars from the Michelin Guide, Naples sports scene is dominated by football and Serie A club S. S. C. Napoli, two-time Italian champions and winner of European trophies, who play at the San Paolo Stadium in the south-west of the city, the Phlegraean Fields around Naples has been inhabited since the Neolithic period. The earliest Greek settlements were established in the Naples area in the second millennium BC, sailors from the Greek island of Rhodes established a small commercial port called Parthenope on the island of Megaride in the ninth century BC
Bernstorff Palace in Gentofte, Denmark, was built in the middle of the 18th century for Foreign Minister Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff. It remained in the possession of the Bernstorff family until 1812, in 1842, it was bought by Christian VIII. For many years, it was used as a residence by Christian IX until his death in 1906. Since and until recently, it was used by the Danish Emergency Management Agency as an academy for non-commissioned officers, but it has now opened as a hotel and conference centre. The palace was designed by the French architect Nicolas-Henri Jardin, who had brought to Denmark to complete Fredericks Church in Copenhagen after the death of Nicolai Eigtved in 1754. It is one of the earliest examples of Neoclassical architecture in Denmark, the elaborately decorated two-storeyed building was completed in May 1765 at considerable cost. At the time, it had four small decorative garrets, attics with decorative vases, on the garden side, there is a dome-covered projection rising the full height of the building.
The palaces many rooms were modest in size and intended primarily for use rather than for display. Most are panelled with parquet floors, large mirrors and decorated ceilings, the four rooms on the south side have overdoors decorated by Johan Edvard Mandelberg. Bernstorff left Denmark in 1770, after being dismissed by the regent, the estate remained in his family’s hands until 1812 but was sold on several occasions. It was about to be demolished in 1842 when Christian VIII bought it, a mezzanine was added and the layout of the first-floor rooms was changed. Fitting Jardins decorative style, Norwegian marble fireplaces are to be found in three of the larger rooms, a sign above the entrance reads, Honesto inter Labores otio sacrum or Reserved for honest rest during periods of work. In 1854, Bernstorff Palace was placed at the disposal of Crown Prince Christian who adopted it as his summer residence. Indeed, it was to become a popular retreat for the royal couple, visitors included Tsar Alexander III of Russia and Edward VII of the United Kingdom.
In 1888, after the Nordic Exhibition, Queen Louise bought the timbered Swedish pavilion and had it fitted out as guest quarters. On Christian IXs death in 1906, Prince Valdemar of Denmark inherited the palace and until very recently, it was used by the Danish Emergency Management Agency as an academy for non-commissioned officers. On 1 May 2009, after an agreement with Gitte Jensen and Kirsten Nielsen, Bernstorff Palace opened as a hotel, the palaces extensive gardens were laid out are in the Romantic landscape style which had just been introduced to Denmark in the 1760s. In addition to the lawns and woods, they include a garden, an orchard
Bertel Thorvaldsen was a Danish/Icelandic sculptor of international fame, who spent most of his life in Italy. Thorvaldsen was born in Copenhagen into a Danish/Icelandic family of humble means, working part-time with his father, who was a wood carver, Thorvaldsen won many honors and medals at the academy. He was awarded a stipend to travel to Rome and continue his education, in Rome, Thorvaldsen quickly made a name for himself as a sculptor. Maintaining a large workshop in the city, he worked in a heroic neo-classicist style and his patrons resided all over Europe. Upon his return to Denmark in 1838, Thorvaldsen was received as a national hero, the Thorvaldsen Museum was erected to house his works next to Christiansborg Palace. Thorvaldsen is buried within the courtyard of the museum, in his time, he was seen as the successor of master sculptor Antonio Canova. His strict adherence to classical norms has tended to estrange modern audiences, Thorvaldsen was born in Copenhagen in 1770, the son of Gottskálk Þorvaldsson, an Icelander who had settled in Denmark.
Thorvaldsens mother was Karen Dagnes, a Jutlandic peasant girl and his birth certificate and baptismal records have never been found, and the only record is of his confirmation in 1787. Thorvaldsen had claimed descent from Snorri Thorfinnsson, the first European born in America, Thorvaldsens childhood in Copenhagen was humble. His father had a habit that slowed his career. Nothing is known of Thorvaldsens early schooling, and he may have been schooled entirely at home and he never became good at writing, and he never acquired much of the knowledge of fine culture that was expected from an artist. In 1781, by the help of friends, eleven-year-old Thorvaldsen was admitted to Copenhagens Royal Danish Academy of Art first as a draftsman. At night he would help his father in the wood carving, among his professors were Nicolai Abildgaard and Johannes Wiedewelt, who are both likely influences for his neo-classicist style. At the Academy he was praised for his works and won all the prizes from the small Silver Medal to the large Gold Medal for a relief of St.
Peter healing the crippled beggar in 1793. As a consequence, he was granted a Royal stipend, enabling him to complete his studies in Rome. Leaving Copenhagen on August 30 on the frigate Thetis, he landed in Palermo in January 1797 traveled to Naples where he studied for a month before making his entry to Rome on 8 March 1797. Since the date of his birth had never recorded, he celebrated this day as his Roman birthday for the rest of his life. In Rome he lived at Via Sistina in front of the Spanish Steps and had his workshop in the stables of the Palazzo Barberini and he was taken under the wing of Georg Zoëga a Danish archeologist and numismatist living in Rome
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen