Numidia was an ancient Berber kingdom of the Numidians, located in what is now Algeria and a smaller part of Tunisia and Libya in the Berber world, in North Africa. The polity was divided between Massylii in the east and Masaesyli in the west. During the Second Punic War, king of the Massylii, defeated Syphax of the Masaesyli to unify Numidia into one kingdom; the kingdom began as a sovereign state and alternated between being a Roman province and a Roman client state. It was bordered by Atlantic ocean to the west, Africa Proconsularis to the east, the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Sahara Desert to the south, it is considered to be one of the first major states in the history of the Berber world. The Greek historians referred to these peoples as "Νομάδες", which by Latin interpretation became "Numidae". Historian Gabriel Camps, disputes this claim, favoring instead an African origin for the term; the name appears first in Polybius to indicate the peoples and territory west of Carthage including the entire north of Algeria as far as the river Mulucha, about 160 kilometres west of Oran.
The Numidians were composed of two great tribal groups: the Massylii in eastern Numidia, the Masaesyli in the west. During the first part of the Second Punic War, the eastern Massylii, under their king Gala, were allied with Carthage, while the western Masaesyli, under king Syphax, were allied with Rome. However, in 206 BC, the new king of the eastern Massylii, allied himself with Rome, Syphax of the Masaesyli switched his allegiance to the Carthaginian side. At the end of the war, the victorious Romans gave all of Numidia to Masinissa of the Massylii. At the time of his death in 148 BC, Masinissa's territory extended from Mauretania to the boundary of the Carthaginian territory, southeast as far as Cyrenaica, so that Numidia surrounded Carthage except towards the sea. After the death of the long-lived Masinissa around 148 BC, he was succeeded by his son Micipsa; when Micipsa died in 118 BC, he was succeeded jointly by his two sons Hiempsal I and Adherbal and Masinissa's illegitimate grandson, Jugurtha, of Ancient Libyan origin, popular among the Numidians.
Hiempsal and Jugurtha quarrelled after the death of Micipsa. Jugurtha had Hiempsal killed. By 112 BC, Jugurtha resumed his war with Adherbal, he incurred the wrath of Rome in the process by killing some Roman businessmen who were aiding Adherbal. After a brief war with Rome, Jugurtha surrendered and received a favourable peace treaty, which raised suspicions of bribery once more; the local Roman commander was summoned to Rome to face corruption charges brought by his political rival Gaius Memmius. Jugurtha was forced to come to Rome to testify against the Roman commander, where he was discredited once his violent and ruthless past became known, after he had been suspected of murdering a Numidian rival. War broke out between Numidia and the Roman Republic and several legions were dispatched to North Africa under the command of the Consul Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus; the war dragged out into a long and endless campaign as the Romans tried to defeat Jugurtha decisively. Frustrated at the apparent lack of action, Metellus' lieutenant Gaius Marius returned to Rome to seek election as Consul.
Marius was elected, returned to Numidia to take control of the war. He sent his Quaestor Lucius Cornelius Sulla to neighbouring Mauretania in order to eliminate their support for Jugurtha. With the help of Bocchus I of Mauretania, Sulla captured Jugurtha and brought the war to a conclusive end. Jugurtha was placed in the Tullianum. Jugurtha was executed by the Romans in 104 BC, after being paraded through the streets in Gaius Marius' Triumph. After the death of Jugurtha, the far west of Numidia was added to the lands of Bocchus I, king of Mauretania. A rump kingdom continued to be governed by native princes, it appears that on the death of King Gauda in 88 BC, the kingdom was divided into a larger eastern kingdom and a smaller western kingdom. The kings of the east minted coins, while no known coins of the western kings survive; the western kings may have been vassals of the eastern. The civil war between Caesar and Pompey brought an end to independent Numidia in 46 BC; the western kingdom between the Sava and Ampsaga rivers passed to Bocchus II, while the eastern kingdom became a Roman province.
The remainder of the western kingdom plus the city of Cirta, which may have belonged to either kingdom, became an autonomous principality under Publius Sittius. Between 44 and 40 BC, the old western kingdom was once again under a Numidian king, who killed Sittius and took his place, he was himself killed. After the death of Arabio, Numidia became the Roman province of Africa Nova except for a brief period when Augustus restored Juba II as a client king. Eastern Numidia was annexed in 46 BC to create Africa Nova. Western Numidia was annexed after the death of its last king, Arabio, in 40 BC, the two provinces were united with Tripolitana by Emperor Augustus, to create Africa Proconsularis. In AD 40, the western portion of Africa Proconsularis, including its legionary garrison, was placed under an imperial legatus, in effect became a separate province of Numidia, though the
Luca Antonio Predieri
Luca Antonio Predieri was an Italian composer and violinist. A member of a prominent family of musicians, Predieri was born in Bologna and was active there from 1704. In 1737 he moved to Vienna becoming Kapellmeister to the imperial Habsburg court in 1741, a post he held for ten years. In 1765 he returned to his native city where he died two years at the age of 78. A prolific opera composer, he was known for his sacred music and oratorios. Although his operas were forgotten by the end of his own lifetime and most of their scores lost, individual arias as well some of his sacred music are still performed and recorded; the son of Vitale Predieri and Maria Menzani, Predieri was born in Bologna to a prominent family of musicians which included organist and composer Giacomo Maria Predieri, singer Antonio Predieri and composer Angelo Predieri, singer and composer Giacomo Cesare Predieri. He studied the violin with Abondio Bini and Tommaso Vitali, counterpoint with Giacomo Cesare Predieri, Angelo Predieri, Giacomo Antonio Perti.
He is recorded as having been a viola player in the orchestra of the Basilica of San Petronio in Bologna at the age of 16 and served as a violinist there from 1706 to 1711. By 1715 he had composed his first oratorio, Santi Cipriano e Giustina, five operas, the first of which, La Partenope, inaugurated the Marsigli-Rossi theatre on 28 October 1710. Predieri's compositions gained him an appointment to the Accademia Filarmonica di Bologna in 1716. In 1723 he was elected its Principe In addition to his duties at the Accademia, Predieri served as the maestro di capella at various churches in Bologna including San Paolo Maggiore, Madonna di Galliera, Santa Maria della Vita, lastly the Cathedral of San Pietro. By the time he left Bologna in 1737 he had composed 25 operas, five oratorios, many pieces of church music, several secular instrumental works. Predieri became known in Vienna through performances there of his operas, Amor Prigioniero in 1731, Il sogno di Scipione, first performed in 1735 as part of the birthday celebrations for Emperor Charles VI.
Following the death of Antonio Caldara in December 1736, Johann Fux, invited Predieri to Vienna to serve as his assistant. Predieri arrived there towards the end of 1737 and in 1739 was appointed Vice Kapellmeister, the post held by Caldara. On Fux's death in 1741, he assumed to the duties of Kapellmeister, although he did not use the official title until 1746. During his time in Vienna he composed several more operas performed to mark special occasions at the imperial court, two oratorios, a Stabat Mater, many other pieces of sacred music. Predieri retired as Kapellmeister in 1751, but kept his title and his salary for the remainder of his time in Vienna though Georg Reutter had taken over his duties. In 1765, he returned to his native Bologna where he died on 3 January 1767 at the age of 78. According to musicologist Anne Schnoebelen, Predieri's sacred music demonstrated his "mastery of vocal polyphony and polychoral writing" while the operas he composed in Vienna to texts by Metastasio and Giovanni Pasquini were marked by set recitatives and arias with impressive dynamic colouring.
The imperial court in Vienna made extensive use of trumpets for ceremonial occasions and employed 14 court trumpeters. In common with those of his predecessors at the court and Caldara, Predieri's Viennese operas and oratorios contained what Trevor Herbert has described as "spectacular high trumpet parts surpassing all others anywhere in terms of range and technical difficulty." An example of this can seen in the aria "Pace una volta" from his 1740 opera Zenobia. By the end of Predieri's lifetime, his operas were no longer performed, having been superseded by the reforms to the genre initiated by Jommelli and furthered by Gluck. Most of the scores for his operas and oratorios survive only in fragments. Today, his most well-known composition is the Stabat Mater he wrote in Vienna, but he composed many other pieces of church music, both for choir and solo voice, as well as a number of secular cantatas and instrumental pieces which have extant scores; some of his works have received modern editions, including his Violin Concerto in B minor, a Stabat Mater, the aria "Pace una volta".
The following is a list of Predieri's principal works. OperasLa Partenope, libretto by Silvio Stampiglia, premiered Bologna, Teatro Marsigli-Rossi, 28 October 1710 for the inauguration of the theatre La virtù in trionfo o sia La Griselda dramma per musica in three acts, libretto by Tomaso Stanzani after Apostolo Zeno, premiered Bologna, Teatro Marsigli-Rossi, 18 Oct 1711 La Giuditta, libretto by Francesco Silvani, premiered Ancona, Teatro La Fenice, 1713 Lucio Papirio, libretto by Antonio Salvi, premiered Pratolino, Villa Medici, 1714.
Gian Giorgio Trissino
Gian Giorgio Trissino called Giovan Giorgio Trissino, was an Italian Renaissance humanist, dramatist and grammarian. Trissino was born of a patrician family in Vicenza, he was exiled from Venice for political reasons, traveled to Germany and Lombardy. He came under the protection of Pope Leo X, Pope Clement VII, Pope Paul III, he had the advantages of a good humanistic training, studying Greek under Demetrius Chalcondylas at Milan and philosophy under Niccolò Leoniceno at Ferrara. His culture recommended him to the humanist Pope Leo X, who in 1515 sent him to Germany as his nuncio. In 1532, the Emperor Charles V made Trissino a count palatine. In spite of the banishment from Vicenza pronounced upon him in 1509 because his family had favoured the plans of Maximilian, he was held in high esteem throughout Italy. Wherever he made his home, it was a center for gatherings of scholars, littérateurs, the most cultured men of the time, his family life was far from happy through little fault of his own.
In the history of modern European literature Trissino occupies a prominent place because of his tragedy Sophonisba. Based on the life of the Carthaginian lady Sophonisba and inspired by ancient tragedies, it was the first tragedy in early modern times to show deference to the classic rules, it served as an example for European tragedies throughout the 16th century. It was translated into French by Mellin de Saint-Gelais, was performed with great acclaim in 1556 at the Château de Blois. A partisan of Aristotelean regularity, Trissino disapproved of the freedom of the chivalrous epic, as written by Ariosto. In his own composition, l'Italia liberata dai Goti, dealing with the campaigns of Belisarius in Italy, he sought to show that it was possible to write in the vernacular an epic in accordance with the classic precepts; the result is a colorless composition. Moreover, as Nicholas Birns points out, the choice of the Byzantine-Ostrogothic wars of the sixth century as a subject committed Trissino to dealing with barbarian subjects which, as an extreme classicist, he felt little affinity with.
In addition, Trissino played a prominent role in the early career of Andrea Palladio, which developed into a long and close friendship between the two men. Trissino first took Palladio under his wing after becoming acquainted with him while building his villa in Cricoli. Trissino died in Rome in December 1550. An edition of his collected works was published at Verona in 1729, his endeavors in the field of linguistics received lively reactions in the literary world of the time. Following the lead of Dante, he advocated the enrichment of the Italian language, espoused in his Castellano the theory that the language is a courtly one made up of contributions from the refined centers in Italy, his theory was supported by the publication in 1529, of his translation of Dante's De vulgari eloquentia, which Trissino had saved from oblivion. Heated discussions followed his 1524 essay titled Ɛpistola del Trissino de le lettere nuωvamente aggiunte ne la lingua Italiana, in which he proposed to reform Italian orthography by adding the following letters to distinguish sounds of the spoken language: The idea was taken up for "j" and "v", which brought to the modern distinction U vs. V and I vs. J, which caught up for other European languages before being abandoned in contemporary Italian, which spells the sound with an I.
Because he applied his system to his publications of the Ɛpistola, the Sofonisba and Il Castellano, his research serves as a valuable source for the differences between the Tuscan pronunciation and that of the courtly language, which he advocated as an enrichment of the Italian language. Trissino's ideas about a synthetic Italian standard were opposed by two major factions. On the one side were those, like Machiavelli, who supported the spoken version of the Tuscan dialect. On the other, Pietro Bembo argued that the Italian standard should be based on the language of the Florentine classics of the 14th century Petrarch and Boccaccio. By the end of the century, Bembo's position prevailed and Trissino's ideas were rejected. I Simillimi, a version of the Menæchmi of Plautus, I Ritratti, a composite portrait of feminine beauty, the Poetica, which contains his summing up of the Aristotelean principles of literary composition, comprise the rest of his important writings; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed..
"article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Works by Giovanni Giorgio Trissino at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Gian Giorgio Trissino at Internet Archive
Carthage was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia. The city developed from a Phoenician colony into the capital of a Punic empire dominating the Mediterranean during the first millennium BC; the legendary Queen Dido is regarded as the founder of the city, though her historicity has been questioned. According to accounts by Timaeus of Tauromenium, she purchased from a local tribe the amount of land that could be covered by an oxhide. Cutting the skin into strips, she laid out her claim and founded an empire that would become, through the Punic Wars, the only existential threat to Rome until the coming of the Vandals several centuries later; the ancient city was destroyed by the Roman Republic in the Third Punic War in 146 BC and re-developed as Roman Carthage, which became the major city of the Roman Empire in the province of Africa. The city was sacked and destroyed in the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb in 698.
The site remained uninhabited, the regional power shifting to the Medina of Tunis in the medieval period, until the early 20th century, when it began to develop into a coastal suburb of Tunis, incorporated as Carthage municipality in 1919. The archaeological site was first surveyed by Danish consul Christian Tuxen Falbe. Excavations were performed in the second half of the 19th century by Charles Ernest Beulé and by Alfred Louis Delattre; the Carthage National Museum was founded in 1875 by Cardinal Charles Lavigerie. Excavations performed by French archaeologists in the 1920s first attracted an extraordinary amount of attention because of the evidence they produced for child sacrifice. There has been considerable disagreement among scholars concerning whether or not child sacrifice was practiced by ancient Carthage; the open-air Carthage Paleo-Christian Museum has exhibits excavated under the auspices of UNESCO from 1975 to 1984. The name Carthage /ˈkarθɪdʒ/ is the Early Modern anglicisation of French Carthage /kaʁ.taʒ/, from Latin Carthāgō and Karthāgō from the Punic qrt-ḥdšt "new city", implying it was a "new Tyre".
The Latin adjective pūnicus, meaning "Phoenician", is reflected in English in some borrowings from Latin—notably the Punic Wars and the Punic language. The Modern Standard Arabic form قرطاج is an adoption of French Carthage, replacing an older local toponym reported as Cartagenna that directly continued the Latin name. Carthage was built on a promontory with sea inlets to the south; the city's location made it master of the Mediterranean's maritime trade. All ships crossing the sea had to pass between Sicily and the coast of Tunisia, where Carthage was built, affording it great power and influence. Two large, artificial harbors were built within the city, one for harboring the city's massive navy of 220 warships and the other for mercantile trade. A walled tower overlooked both harbors; the city had 37 km in length, longer than the walls of comparable cities. Most of the walls were located on the shore, thus could be less impressive, as Carthaginian control of the sea made attack from that direction difficult.
The 4.0 to 4.8 km of wall on the isthmus to the west were massive and were never penetrated. The city had a huge necropolis or burial ground, religious area, market places, council house, a theater, was divided into four sized residential areas with the same layout. In the middle of the city stood a high citadel called the Byrsa. Carthage was one of the largest cities of the Hellenistic period and was among the largest cities in preindustrial history. Whereas by AD 14, Rome had at least 750,000 inhabitants and in the following century may have reached 1 million, the cities of Alexandria and Antioch numbered only a few hundred thousand or less. According to the not always reliable history of Herodian, Carthage rivaled Alexandria for second place in the Roman empire. On top of Byrsa hill, the location of the Roman Forum, a residential area from the last century of existence of the Punic city was excavated by the French archaeologist Serge Lancel; the neighborhood, with its houses and private spaces, is significant for what it reveals about daily life there over 2100 years ago.
The remains have been preserved under embankments, the substructures of the Roman forum, whose foundation piles dot the district. The housing blocks are separated by a grid of straight streets about 6 m wide, with a roadway consisting of clay. Construction of this type presupposes organization and political will, has inspired the name of the neighborhood, "Hannibal district", referring to the legendary Punic general or sufet at the beginning of the second century BCE; the habitat is typical stereotypical. The street was used as a storefront/shopfront. In some places, the ground is covered with mosaics called punica pavement, sometimes using a characteristic red mortar; the merchant harbor at Carthage was developed, after settlement of the nearby Punic town of Utica. The surrounding countryside was brought into the orbit of the Punic urban centers, first commercially politically. Direct management over cultivation of neighbouring lands by Punic owners followed. A 28-volume work on agriculture written in Punic by Mago, a retired army general, was trans
The Medjerda River, the classical Bagrada, is a river in North Africa flowing from northeast Algeria through Tunisia before emptying into the Gulf of Tunis and Lake of Tunis. With a length of 450 km, it is the longest river of Tunisia, it is known as the Wadi Majardah or Mejerha. The Medjerda River originates in the Tell Atlas, part of the Atlas Mountains, in northeastern Algeria and flows eastwards to Tunisia entering the Gulf of Utica of the Mediterranean Sea, its course has a length of 460 kilometres. It is the most important and longest rivers in Tunisia and is dammed in several locations, being a major supplier of water to the country's wheat crops; the Gulf of Utica was formed during the postglacial transgression about 6,000 years ago. Over time, fluvial deposits from the Medjerda filled up the northern part of the gulf; the succession of events during historical times has been inferred from ancient documents and archaeological evidence. Besides morphological ground observations and satellite photographs have been used to analyze how the landscape has evolved over the past 3,000 years.
The gulf's southern part was filled up in late ancient times. The sea withdrew from the northern part during the Middle Ages and modern times; the Ghar el Melh lagoon is the last vestige of. Following the last big flood in 1973, the Medjerda shifted, once again, its course, it now flows through a canal dug to evacuate the overflow of flood waters. The Medjerda is Tunisia's crucial waterway providing water to the country supply facilities, it is vital to the people living near the river. Water from the Medjerda is pivotal to the region's agriculture. A strategic river in North Africa, it was fought over and settled many times in history by the Berbers, Punics, Vandals, Byzantines and the Ottomans. Several major cities, such as Utica and Tunis were founded on or in close proximity to it; the former ports of Utica and Ghar el-Melh were, however closed off from the sea due to the silting of their harbors. Sidi Salem Dam
Pierre Corneille was a French tragedian. He is considered one of the three great seventeenth-century French dramatists, along with Molière and Racine; as a young man, he earned the valuable patronage of Cardinal Richelieu, trying to promote classical tragedy along formal lines, but quarrelled with him over his best-known play, Le Cid, about a medieval Spanish warrior, denounced by the newly formed Académie française for breaching the unities. He continued to write well-received tragedies for nearly forty years. Corneille was born in Rouen, France, to Marthe Le Pesant and Pierre Corneille, a distinguished lawyer, his younger brother, Thomas Corneille became a noted playwright. He was given a rigorous Jesuit education at the Collège de Bourbon where acting on the stage was part of the training. At 18 he began to study law but his practical legal endeavors were unsuccessful. Corneille’s father secured two magisterial posts for him with the Rouen department of Forests and Rivers. During his time with the department, he wrote his first play.
It is unknown when he wrote it, but the play, the comedy Mélite, surfaced when Corneille brought it to a group of traveling actors in 1629. The actors made it part of their repertoire; the play was a success in Paris and Corneille began writing plays on a regular basis. He moved to Paris in the same year and soon became one of the leading playwrights of the French stage, his early comedies, starting with Mélite, depart from the French farce tradition by reflecting the elevated language and manners of fashionable Parisian society. Corneille describes his variety of comedy as "une peinture de la conversation des honnêtes gens", his first true tragedy is Médée, produced in 1635. The year 1634 brought more attention to Corneille, he was selected to write verses for the Cardinal Richelieu’s visit to Rouen. The Cardinal selected him to be among Les Cinq Auteurs; the others were Guillaume Colletet, Jean Rotrou, Claude de L'Estoile. The five were selected to realize Richelieu's vision of a new kind of drama.
Richelieu would present ideas. However, the Cardinal's demands were too restrictive for Corneille, who attempted to innovate outside the boundaries defined by Richelieu; this led to contention between employer. After his initial contract ended, Corneille returned to Rouen. In the years directly following this break with Richelieu, Corneille produced what is considered his finest play. Le Cid is based on the play Mocedades del Cid by Guillem de Castro. Both plays were based on the legend of a military figure in Medieval Spain; the original 1637 edition of the play was subtitled a tragicomedy, acknowledging that it intentionally defies the classical tragedy/comedy distinction. Though Le Cid was an enormous popular success, it was the subject of a heated argument over the norms of dramatic practice, known as the "Querelle du Cid" or "The Quarrel of Le Cid". Cardinal Richelieu's Académie française acknowledged the play's success, but determined that it was defective, in part because it did not respect the classical unities of time and action.
The newly formed Académie was a body. Although it dealt with efforts to standardize the French language, Richelieu himself ordered an analysis of Le Cid. Accusations of immorality were leveled at the play in the form of a famous pamphlet campaign; these attacks were founded on the classical theory. The Académie's recommendations concerning the play are articulated in Jean Chapelain's Sentiments de l'Académie française sur la tragi-comédie du Cid; the prominent writer Georges de Scudéry harshly criticized the play in his Observations sur le Cid. The intensity of this "war of pamphlets" was heightened by Corneille's boastful poem Excuse À Ariste, in which he rambled and boasted about his talents, while Corneille claimed no other author could be a rival; these poems and pamphlets were made public, one after the other, as once "esteemed" playwrights traded slanderous blows. At one point, Corneille took several shots at criticizing author Jean Mairet's lineage. Scudéry, a close friend of Mairet at the time, did not stoop to Corneille's level of "distastefulness", but instead continued to pillory Le Cid and its violations.
Scudéry stated of Le Cid that, "almost all of the beauty which the play contains is plagiarized." This "war of pamphlets" influenced Richelieu to call upon the Académie française to analyze the play. In their final conclusions, the Academy ruled that though Corneille had attempted to remain loyal to the unity of time, "Le Cid" broke too many of the unities to be a valued piece of work; the controversy, coupled with the Academy's ruling proved too much for Corneille, who decided to return to Rouen. When one of his plays was reviewed unfavorably, Corneille was known to withdraw from public life, he remained publicly silent for some time.
Giambattista Pittoni or Giovanni Battista Pittoni was a Venetian painter of the late Baroque or Rococo period. He was among the founders of the Academy of Fine Arts of Venice, of which in 1758 he became the second president, succeeding Tiepolo. Pittoni was born in Venice on 6 June 1687, he studied under his uncle Francesco Pittoni, a well-known but undistinguished painter of the Venetian Baroque. Pittoni travelled little. However, in 1720 he may have travelled to France with his uncle Francesco, together with Rosalba Carriera, Antonio Pellegrini and Anton Maria Zanetti, his change of style from a heavy Baroque to a lighter and more delicate Rococo manner dates from about this time. Pittoni joined the Fraglia dei Pittori Veneziani, the Venetian guild of painters, in 1716.:104 From the same year until his death he was a member of the Collegio dei Pittori,:104 of which he became prior in 1729. He was elected to the Accademia Clementina of Bologna in 1727.:28 In 1750 he was one of the forty-six founding members of the Veneta Pubblica Accademia di Pittura, Scultura e Architettura, which became the Accademia di Belle Arti di Venezia.
His tomb is in the church of San Giacomo dell'Orio, Venice.:384 The catalogue raisonné by Franca Zava Boccazzi of Pittoni's paintings lists 247 extant and 117 lost, missing or destroyed works. The catalogue raisonné by Alice Binion of his drawings includes 304 items.:91 Pittoni had a high reputation during his lifetime, both within the Italian peninsula and elsewhere in Europe. Among his foreign patrons were Augustus II of Poland, he was a skillful restorer of older paintings. He sold nine paintings to the soldier-turned-collector Johann Matthias von der Schulenburg, but advised him both on art and on art restoration. Pittoni was well liked and well respected, his reputation faded after his death, by the end of the eighteenth century he was forgotten. Interest in him was revived in the twentieth century by the publications of Laura Coggiola Pittoni, beginning with Dei Pittoni, Artisti Veneti in 1907. Pellegrino Antonio Orlandi. Abecedario pittorico. Alessandro Longhi. Compendio delle vite de' pittori veneziani istorici più rinomati del presente secolo con suoi ritratti tratti dal naturale.
Venezia: the author. Antonio Maria Zanetti. Della pittura veneziana e delle opere pubbliche de veneziani maestri libri V. Venezia: Stamperia di G. Albrizzi. Laura Coggiola Pittoni. G. B. Pittoni Firenze: Istituto di edizioni artistiche. ——— Pseudo influenza francese nell'arte di Giambattista Pittoni. Rivista di Venezia 11: 399–412. M. Goering. Die Tätigkeit der Venezianer Maler Piazzetta und Pittoni für den Kurfürsten Clemens August von Köln. Westfalen: Hefte für Geschichte, Kunst und Volkskunde 19: 364–72. Rodolfo Pallucchini. I disegni di Giambattista Pittoni.: Le Tre Venezie. Klàra Garas. Anton Kern. In: Kazimierz Michałowski, Jan Białostocki. Muzeum i twórca: Studia z historii sztuki i kultury ku czci Stanisława Lorentza. Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo naukowe. P. 65–89. Alice Binion. From Schulenburgs Gallery and Records."Burlington Magazine 112: 297–303. Franca Zava Boccazzi. Per il catalogo di Giambattista Pittoni: Proposte e inediti. Arte Veneta 28: 179–204. ———. Nota sulla grafica di Antonio Kern. Arte Veneta 29: 246–51.
———. Pitture mitologiche di Giambattista Pittoni in rapporto a Sebastiano Ricci. Atti del Congresso internazionale di studi su Sebastiano Ricci e il suo tempo 1: 46–51. Barbara Mazza. La vicenda dei Tombeaux des princes: Matrici, storia e fortuna della serie Swiny tra Bologna e Venezia. Saggi e memorie di storia dell'arte 10: 79, 81-102, 141-151. Franca Zava Boccazzi. Due nuove micropitture di Giambattista Pittoni. In:. Per Maria Cionini Visani: Scritti di amici. Torino: G. Canale. 118–21 Alice Binion. Anton Kern in Venice. Münchner Jahrbuch der bildenden Kunst 32: 182–206. ———. Three New Mythological Paintings by Giambattista Pittoni. Burlington