The rotary engine was an early type of internal combustion engine designed with an odd number of cylinders per row in a radial configuration, in which the crankshaft remained stationary in operation, with the entire crankcase and its attached cylinders rotating around it as a unit. Its main application was in aviation, although it saw use before its primary aviation role, in a few early motorcycles and automobiles; this type of engine was used as an alternative to conventional inline engines during World War I and the years preceding that conflict. It has been described as "a efficient solution to the problems of power output and reliability". By the early 1920s, the inherent limitations of this type of engine had rendered it obsolete. A rotary engine is a standard Otto cycle engine, with cylinders arranged radially around a central crankshaft just like a conventional radial engine, but instead of having a fixed cylinder block with rotating crankshaft as with a radial engine, the crankshaft remains stationary and the entire cylinder block rotates around it.
In the most common form, the crankshaft was fixed solidly to the airframe, the propeller was bolted to the front of the crankcase. This difference has much impact on design and functioning; the Musee de l'Air in Paris has on display a special, "sectioned" working model of an engine with seven "radially disposed" cylinders. It alternates between "rotary" and "radial" modes to demonstrate the difference between the internal motions of the two types of engine. Like "fixed" radial engines, rotaries were built with an odd number of cylinders, so that a consistent every-other-piston firing order could be maintained, to provide smooth running. Rotary engines with an number of cylinders were of the "two row" type. Most rotary engines were arranged with the cylinders pointing outwards from a single crankshaft, in the same general form as a radial, but there were rotary boxer engines and one-cylinder rotaries. Three key factors contributed to the rotary engine's success at the time: Smooth running: Rotaries delivered power smoothly because there are no reciprocating parts, the large rotating mass of the crankcase/cylinders acted as a flywheel.
Improved cooling: when the engine was running, the rotating crankcase/cylinder assembly created its own fast-moving cooling airflow with the aircraft at rest. Weight advantage: many conventional engines had to have heavy flywheels added to smooth out power impulses and reduce vibration. Rotary engines gained a substantial power-to-weight ratio advantage by having no need for an added flywheel, they shared with other radial configuration engines the advantage of a small, flat crankcase, because of their efficient air-cooling system, cylinders could be made with thinner walls and shallower cooling fins, which further reduced their weight. Engine designers had always been aware of the many limitations of the rotary engine so when the static style engines became more reliable and gave better specific weights and fuel consumption, the days of the rotary engine were numbered. Rotary engines had a fundamentally inefficient total-loss oiling system. In order to reach the whole engine, the lubricating medium needed to enter the crankcase through the hollow crankshaft.
The only practical solution was for the lubricant to be aspirated with the fuel/air mixture, as in a two-stroke engine. Power increase came with mass and size increases, multiplying gyroscopic precession from the rotating mass of the engine; this produced stability and control problems in aircraft in which these engines were installed for inexperienced pilots. Power output went into overcoming the air-resistance of the spinning engine. Engine controls were tricky, resulted in fuel waste; the late WWI Bentley BR2, as the largest and most powerful rotary engine, had reached a point beyond which this type of engine could not be further developed, it was the last of its kind to be adopted into RAF service. It is asserted that rotary engines had no throttle and hence power could only be reduced by intermittently cutting the ignition using a "blip" switch; this was literally true of the "Monosoupape" type, which took most of the air into the cylinder through the exhaust valve, which remained open for a portion of the downstroke of the piston.
Thus the richness of the mixture in the cylinder could not be controlled via the crankcase intake. The "throttle" of a monosoupape provided only a limited degree of speed regulation, as opening it made the mixture too rich, while closing it made it too lean. Early models featured a pioneering form of variable valve timing in an attempt to give greater control, but this caused the valves to burn and therefore it was abandoned; the only way of running a Monosoupape engine smoothly at reduced revs was with a switch that changed the normal firing sequence so that each cylinder fired only once per two or three engine revolutions, but the engine remained more or less in balance. As with excessive use of the "blip" switch: running the engine on such a setting for too long resulted in large quantities of unburned fuel and oil in the exhaust, gathering in the lower cowling, where it was a notorious fire hazard. Most rotaries had normal inlet valves, so that the fuel was taken into the cylinders mixed with air - as in a normal four-stroke engine.
No. 208 Squadron RAF
No 208 Squadron was a reserve unit of the Royal Air Force, most based at RAF Valley, Wales. It operated the BAe Hawk aircraft, as a part of No. 4 Flying Training School. Due to obsolescence of its Hawk T.1 aircraft compared to the new-build Hawk T.2 aircraft of its sister unit, 4 Sqn, the squadron was disbanded in April 2016, in its 100th year of operations. The squadron was established as part of the Royal Naval Air Service on 25 October 1916 at Dunkirk as No. 8 Squadron. In its early days, the unit flew 1 1/2 Strutters and Nieuport Scouts. In World War I it re-equipped with Sopwith Camels and was assigned to artillery spotting; the squadron returned to the UK before being sent back to France to face the German offensive. While in France a significant number of Camels belonging to the squadron were destroyed by the RAF to prevent the Germans capturing them during their advance; when the Royal Air Force was formed on 1 April 1918, the unit was renumbered to No. 208 Squadron RAF. After the war ended, 208 Squadron remained with the occupying forces until August 1919, when it again returned to the UK for disbandment on 7 November 1919 at Netheravon.
During the war, the squadron claimed 298 victories. Twenty-five aces had served in the squadron. Notable among them were Anthony Arnold, Charles Dawson Booker, Robert J. O. Compston, Harold Day, Stanley Goble, Edward Grahame Johnstone, William Lancelot Jordan, Robert A. Little, William E. G. Mann, Richard Munday, Guy William Price, George Simpson, Reginald Soar, Ronald Thornley, James White; the squadron re-formed at RAF Ismailia in Egypt on 1 February 1920 by the renumbering of No. 113 Squadron RAF. It was at first equipped from November 1920 till May 1930 with Bristol Fighters. In September 1922 the squadron was sent to Turkey for a year during the Chanak crisis, being stationed at San Stefano, a part of the Bakırköy district of Istanbul. After the conflict, 208 Squadron went back to Egypt and in 1930 got Armstrong Whitworth Atlas aircraft to replace the old Bristol fighters; the Atlases in their turn were replaced five years by Audaxes and for one flight by Demons. Just before the outbreak of World War II, in January 1939, these gave way for the Westland Lysander.
No. 208 Squadron was still stationed in Egypt at the outbreak of World War II. It joined the war effort in mid-1940, flying Westland Lysander reconnaissance aircraft and Hawker Hurricane fighters on army co-operation duties in the North African Campaign and the Greek Campaign of 1941. During the war it included a significant number of Royal Australian Air Force and South African Air Force personnel, along with other nationalities. Amongst the members of the squadron at this time was Robert Leith-Macgregor, shot down on more than one occasion, once ending up taxiing through a minefield, but managing not to trigger any mines; the unit was stationed in Palestine, before returning to North Africa. It converted to Curtiss Tomahawks, but received Supermarine Spitfires in late 1943 and flew them for the remainder of the war. From 1944, it took part in the Italian Campaign. Shortly after the war, 208 Squadron moved back to Palestine where it was involved in operations against the Egyptian Air Force. In 1948, the squadron moved to the Egyptian Canal Zone.
It saw action in the Israeli War of Independence, losing four Spitfires in combat with Israeli Air Force aircraft. The last recorded "Air to Air fighter pilot kill" occurred on 22 May 1948. At 09:30 two Egyptian Spitfire LF.9s staged a third attack on Ramat David. This time Fg Off Fg Off Hully of 208 Squadron had taken over the standing patrol. Fg Off McElhaw, flying Spitfire FR.18 TZ228, shot down both LF.9 s. In 1951, the squadron relocated to RAF Fayid where its Spitfires were replaced with Gloster Meteor jets. From there it moved to RAF Abu Sueir, relocating to RAF Takali, Malta, in August 1956, with interim spells earlier in the year at RAF Hal Far, RAF Akrotiri, Cyprus, it disbanded at Takhali in January 1958, but re-formed the same month in the UK at RAF Tangmere from a nucleus of No. 34 Squadron RAF. In March 1958, re-equipped with Hunter FMk 6's, it returned to the Middle East, based at RAF Nicosia, with detachments to RAF Akrotiri and Aman, Jordan; the squadron disbanded at RAF Nicosia on 31 March 1959.
The next day, 1 April 1959, it re-formed at RAF Eastleigh, Kenya, by the re-numbering of No. 142 Squadron RAF under Squadron Leader R. Ramirez, it operated from Eastleigh from April 1959 to March 1960, being redeployed home to RAF Stradishall from March to June 1960, but returning to Eastleigh in June, sending detachments to Kuwait and Bahrain during the period. It was moved to RAF Khormaksar in Aden in November 1961, under Air Forces Arabian Peninsula, which became Air Forces Middle East the same year. In June 1964 it moved to Muharraq in Bahrain; the squadron remained in the Middle East until September 1971 when it was disbanded as a consequence of British drawdown of armed forces from East of Suez. 208 Squadron re-formed at RAF Honington in 1974 with Blackburn Buccaneer S2s, assigned to SACEUR in a low-level strike role. The squadron's twelve Buccaneers were declared operational to SACEUR from 1975 armed with 24 WE.177 nuclear weapons. The squadron was tasked with supporting land forces resisting an advance by the Warsaw Pact into western Europe, by striking at enemy forces and infrastructure beyond the forward edge of the battlefield with conventional munitions, with nuclear weapons in the event of escalation.
The allocation of the British-owned WE.177 weapon freed the squadron from the time-consuming burden, at a critical time, of using US-owned nuclear weapons held in
Armistice of 11 November 1918
The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land and air in World War I between the Allies and their opponent, Germany. Previous armistices had been agreed with Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Known as the Armistice of Compiègne from the place where it was signed at 5:45 a.m. by the French Marshal Foch, it came into force at 11:00 a.m. Paris time on 11 November 1918 and marked a victory for the Allies and a defeat for Germany, although not formally a surrender; the actual terms written by the Allied Supreme Commander, Marshal Ferdinand Foch, included the cessation of hostilities, the withdrawal of German forces to behind the Rhine, Allied occupation of the Rhineland and bridgeheads further east, the preservation of infrastructure, the surrender of aircraft and military materiel, the release of Allied prisoners of war and interned civilians, eventual reparations, no release of German prisoners and no relaxation of the naval blockade of Germany.
Although the armistice ended the fighting on the Western Front, it had to be prolonged three times until the Treaty of Versailles, signed on 28 June 1919, took effect on 10 January 1920. On 29 September 1918 the German Supreme Army Command informed Kaiser Wilhelm II and the Imperial Chancellor, Count Georg von Hertling at Imperial Army Headquarters in Spa of occupied Belgium, that the military situation facing Germany was hopeless. Quartermaster General Erich Ludendorff fearing a breakthrough, claimed that he could not guarantee that the front would hold for another two hours and demanded a request be given to the Entente for an immediate ceasefire. In addition, he recommended the acceptance of the main demands of US president Woodrow Wilson including putting the Imperial Government on a democratic footing, hoping for more favorable peace terms; this enabled him to save the face of the Imperial German Army and put the responsibility for the capitulation and its consequences squarely into the hands of the democratic parties and the parliament.
He expressed his view to officers of his staff on 1 October: "They now must lie on the bed that they've made for us."On 3 October, the liberal Prince Maximilian of Baden was appointed Chancellor of Germany, replacing Georg von Hertling in order to negotiate an armistice. After long conversations with the Kaiser and evaluations of the political and military situations in the Reich, by 5 October 1918, the German government sent a message to President Wilson to negotiate terms on the basis of a recent speech of his and the earlier declared "Fourteen Points". In the subsequent two exchanges, Wilson's allusions "failed to convey the idea that the Kaiser's abdication was an essential condition for peace; the leading statesmen of the Reich were not yet ready to contemplate such a monstrous possibility." As a precondition for negotiations, Wilson demanded the retreat of Germany from all occupied territories, the cessation of submarine activities and the Kaiser's abdication, writing on 23 October: "If the Government of the United States must deal with the military masters and the monarchical autocrats of Germany now, or if it is to have to deal with them in regard to the international obligations of the German Empire, it must demand not peace negotiations but surrender."In late October, Ludendorff, in a sudden change of mind, declared the conditions of the Allies unacceptable.
He now demanded to resume the war. However the German soldiers were pressing to get home, it was scarcely possible to arouse their readiness for battle anew, desertions were on the increase. The Imperial Government stayed on course and Ludendorff was replaced by Wilhelm Groener. On 5 November, the Allies agreed to take up negotiations for a truce, now demanding reparation payments; the latest note from Wilson was received in Berlin on 6 November. That same day, the delegation led by Matthias Erzberger departed for France. A much bigger obstacle, which contributed to the five-week delay in the signing of the Armistice and to the resulting social deterioration in Europe, was the fact that the French and Italian governments had no desire to accept the "Fourteen Points" and President Wilson's subsequent promises. For example, they assumed that the de-militarization suggested by Wilson would be limited to the Central Powers. There were contradictions with their post-War plans that did not include a consistent implementation of the ideal of national self-determination.
As Czernin points out: The Allied statesmen were faced with a problem: so far they had considered the "fourteen commandments" as a piece of clever and effective American propaganda, designed to undermine the fighting spirit of the Central Powers, to bolster the morale of the lesser Allies. Now the whole peace structure was supposed to be built up on that set of "vague principles", most of which seemed to them unrealistic, some of which, if they were to be applied, were unacceptable; the sailors' revolt which took place during the night of 29 to 30 October 1918 in the naval port of Wilhelmshaven spread across the whole country within days and led to the proclamation of a republic on 9 November 1918 and to the announcement of the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II. However, in various areas soldiers challenged the authority of their officers and on occasion established Soldiers' Councils, thus for example the Brussels Soldiers' Council was set up by revolutionary soldiers on 9 November 1918. On 9 November, Max von Baden handed over the office of Chancellor to Friedrich Ebert, a Social Democrat.
Ebert's SPD and Erzberger's Catholic Centre Party had enjoyed an uneasy relationship with the Imperia
The Fokker D. VII was a German World War I fighter aircraft designed by Reinhold Platz of the Fokker-Flugzeugwerke. Germany produced around 3,300 D. VII aircraft in the second half of 1918. In service with the Luftstreitkräfte, the D. VII proved itself to be a formidable aircraft; the Armistice ending the war required Germany to surrender all D. VIIs to the Allies. Surviving aircraft saw much service with many countries in the years after World War I. Fokker's chief designer, Reinhold Platz, had been working on a series of experimental V-series aircraft, starting in 1916; the aircraft were notable for the use of cantilever wings. Junkers had originated the idea in 1915 with the first all-metal aircraft, the Junkers J 1, nicknamed Blechesel; the wings were thick, with a rounded leading edge. The shape of the wings' airfoil gave greater lift and more docile stalling behavior than the thin wings in use. Late in 1917, Fokker built the experimental V 11 biplane, fitted with the standard Mercedes D. IIIa engine.
In January 1918, Idflieg held a fighter competition at Adlershof. For the first time, front line pilots participated in the selection of new fighters. Fokker submitted the V 11 along with several other prototypes. Manfred von Richthofen flew the V 11 and found it tricky and directionally unstable in a dive. Platz lengthened the rear fuselage by one structural bay and added a triangular fin in front of the rudder. Richthofen praised it as the best aircraft of the competition, it was safe and easy to fly. Richthofen's recommendation decided the competition but he was not alone in recommending it. Fokker received a provisional order for 400 production aircraft, which were named D. VII by Idflieg. Fokker's factory was not up to the task of meeting all D. VII production orders and Idflieg directed Albatros and AEG to build the D. VII under license, though AEG did not produce any aircraft; because the Fokker factory did not use detailed plans as part of its production process, Fokker sent a D. VII airframe for Albatros to copy.
Albatros paid Fokker a five percent royalty for every D. VII they built under license. Albatros Flugzeugwerke and its subsidiary, Ostdeutsche Albatros Werke, built the D. VII at factories in Johannisthal and Schneidemühl respectively. Aircraft markings included the type designation and factory suffix before the individual serial number; some parts were not interchangeable between aircraft produced at different factories between Albatros and OAW. Each manufacturer tended to differ in nose paint styles. OAW produced examples were delivered with distinctive green splotches on the cowling. All D. VIIs were produced with either the five-color Fünffarbiger or less the four-color Vierfarbiger lozenge camouflage covering, except for early Fokker-produced D. VIIs, which had a streaked green fuselage. Factory camouflage finishes were overpainted with colorful paint schemes or insignia for the Jasta or for a pilot. In September 1918, eight D. VIIs were delivered to Bulgaria. Late in 1918, the Austro-Hungarian company Magyar Általános Gépgyár commenced licensed production of the D.
VII with Austro-Daimler engines. Production continued with as many as 50 aircraft completed. Many sources erroneously state that the D. VII was equipped with the 120 kW Mercedes D. III engine; the Germans used D. III as a generic term to describe versions of that engine; the earliest production D. VIIs were equipped with 170–180 hp Mercedes D. IIIa. Production switched to the intended standard engine, the higher-compression 134 kW Mercedes D. IIIaü, it appears that some early production D. VIIs delivered with the Mercedes D. IIIa were re-engined with the D. IIIaü. By mid-1918, some D. VIIs received the "overcompressed" 138 kW BMW IIIa, the first product of the BMW firm; the BMW IIIa followed the SOHC, straight-six configuration of the Mercedes D. III but incorporated several improvements. Increased displacement, higher compression and an altitude-adjusting carburettor produced a marked increase in speed and climb rate at high altitude; because the BMW IIIa was overcompressed, using full throttle at altitudes below 2,000 m risked premature detonation in the cylinders and damage to the engine.
At low altitudes, full throttle could produce up to 179 kW for a short time. Fokker-built aircraft with the new BMW engine were called D. VII, the suffix "F" standing for Max Friz, the engine designer. BMW-engined aircraft entered service with Jasta 11 in late June 1918. Pilots clamored for the D. VII, of which about 750 were built. Production of the BMW IIIa was limited and the D. VII continued to be produced with the 134 kW Mercedes D. IIIaü until the end of the war. D. VIIs flew with different propeller designs from different manufacturers. Despite the variations there is no indication. Axial, Wolff and Heine propellers have been noted; the D. VII entered squadron service with Jasta 10 in early May 1918; when the Fokker D. VII appeared on the Western Front in April 1918, Allied pilots at first underestimated the new fighter because of its squarish, ungainly appearance but revised their view; the type proved to have many important advantages over the Albatros and Pfalz scouts. Unlike the Albatros scouts, the D.
VII could dive without any fear of structural failure. The D. VII was noted for its high manoeuvrability and ability to climb, its remarkably docile stall and reluctance to spin, it could "hang on its pr
The Bolsheviks known in English as Bolshevists, were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903. The RSDLP was a revolutionary socialist political party formed in 1898 in Minsk, Belarus to unite the various revolutionary organisations of the Russian Empire into one party. In the Second Party Congress vote, the Bolsheviks won on the majority of important issues, hence their name, they became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The Bolsheviks, or Reds, came to power in Russia during the October Revolution phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and founded the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. With the Reds defeating the Whites and others during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922, the RSFSR became the chief constituent of the Soviet Union in December 1922; the Bolsheviks, founded by Vladimir Lenin and Alexander Bogdanov, were by 1905 a major organization consisting of workers under a democratic internal hierarchy governed by the principle of democratic centralism, who considered themselves the leaders of the revolutionary working class of Russia.
Their beliefs and practices were referred to as Bolshevism. In the 2nd Congress of the RSDLP held in Brussels and London, UK during August 1903, Lenin and Julius Martov disagreed over the membership rules. Lenin wanted members who financially supported the party and participated in it. Martov suggested "by regular personal assistance under the direction of one of the party's organisations". Lenin advocated limiting party membership to a smaller core of active members as opposed to card carriers who might only be active in party branches from time to time or not at all; this active base would develop the cadre, a core of professional revolutionaries, consisting of loyal communists who would spend most of their time organising the party toward a mass revolutionary party capable of leading a workers' revolution against the Tsarist autocracy. A main source of the factions could be directly attributed to Lenin's steadfast opinion and what was described by Plekhanov as his inability to "bear opinions which were contrary to his own".
It was obvious at early stages in Lenin's revolutionary practices that he would not be willing to concede on any party policy that conflicted with his own predetermined ideas. It was the loyalty that he had to his own self-envisioned utopia. Lenin was seen by fellow party members as being so narrow-minded that he believed that anyone who didn't follow him was his enemy. Leon Trotsky, one of Lenin's fellow revolutionaries, compared Lenin in 1904 to the French revolutionary Maximilien Robespierre. Lenin's view of politics as verbal and ideological warfare and his inability to accept criticism if it came from his own dedicated followers was the reason behind this accusation; the root of the split was a book titled What Is To Be Done? that Lenin wrote while serving a sentence of exile. In Germany, the book was published in 1902. In Russia, strict censorship outlawed its distribution. One of the main points of Lenin's writing was that a revolution can only be achieved by the strong leadership of one person over the masses.
After the proposed revolution had overthrown the government, this individual leader must release power to allow socialism to encompass the nation. Lenin wrote that revolutionary leaders must dedicate their entire lives to the cause in order for it to be successful. Lenin said that if professional revolutionaries did not maintain control over the workers they would lose sight of the party's objective and adopt opposing beliefs abandon the revolution entirely. Lenin's view of a socialist intelligentsia showed that he was not a complete supporter of Marxist theory, which created some party unrest. For example, Lenin agreed with the Marxist idea of eliminating social classes, but in his utopian society there would still be visible distinctions between those in politics and the common worker. Most party members considered unequal treatment of workers immoral and were loyal to the idea of a classless society, therefore Lenin's variations caused internal dissonance. Although the party split of Bolsheviks and Mensheviks would not become official until 1903, the differences began to surface with the publication of What Is To Be Done?.
Through the influence of the book, Lenin undermined another group of reformers known as "Economists", who were pushing for economic reform while wanting to leave the government unchanged and who failed to recognize the importance of uniting the working population behind the party's cause. Other than the debate between Lenin and Martov, Lenin felt membership should require support of the party program, financial contributions and involvement in a party organization whereas Martov did not see the need for joining Party organizations, internal unrest rose over the structure, best suited for Soviet power; as discussed in What Is To Be Done?, Lenin believed that a rigid political structure was needed to initiate a formal revolution. This idea was met with opposition from his once close followers including Julius Martov, Georgy Plekhanov, Leon Trotsky and Pavel Axelrod. Plekhanov and Lenin's major dispute arose addressing the topic of nationalizing land or leaving it for private use. Lenin wanted to nationalize to aid in collectivization whereas Plekhanov thought worker motivation would remain higher if individuals were able to maintain their own property.
Those who opposed Lenin and wanted to continue on the Marxist path t
Coventry Ordnance Works
Coventry Ordnance Works was a British manufacturer of heavy guns naval artillery jointly owned by Cammell Laird & Co of Sheffield and Birkenhead, Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company of Govan and John Brown & Company of Clydebank and Sheffield. Its core operations were from a 60-acre site in Stoney Stanton Road in the English city of Coventry, Warwickshire. At the end of 1918 it became a principal constituent of a brand new enterprise English Electric Company Limited. After World War II the works made electricity-generating machinery and heavy machine tools; the company, the Coventry Ordnance Works Limited, was formed in July 1905 by a consortium of British shipbuilding firms John Brown 50%, Cammell Laird 25% and Fairfield 25% with the encouragement of the British government, which wanted a third major arms consortium to compete with the duopoly of Vickers Sons & Maxim and Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Co to drive down prices. The new company bought from Cammell Laird the ordnance business established in the late 1890s by H H Mulliner and F Wigley, moved by them in 1902 from Birmingham to the 60 acre site in Coventry's Stoney Stanton Road.
The ordnance business had been bought from Mulliner and Wigley by Charles Cammell Cammell Laird, in 1903. By 1909 Coventry Ordnance Works had establishments, as well as at Coventry, at Scotstoun for manufacture of ordnance and gun equipment. While to that time the works had been manufacturing the smaller sizes of Naval Guns and Mountings as well as Guns, Gun carriages and other military accessories, they had extended their works since 1906 and had begun the manufacture of Guns and Turrets up to the largest sizes for both Battleships and Cruisers for the Admiralty. At Scotstoun a new factory had been built with a wet dock and machinery for the erection and transhipping of the heaviest guns and mountings and hydraulic barbettes of the firm's own design but it was unused until 1911. A complete factory for the manufacture of Fuzes had been installed in Coventry. To this point Herbert Hall Mulliner had continued as managing director, but after a long series of altercations with the Admiralty he was asked to resign and replaced 3 February 1910 by the 46-year-old rear-admiral R H S Bacon, the Admiralty's Director of Naval Ordnance since August 1907.
By early February with admiral Bacon on board and Mulliner off it the directors could report an order from the British Admiralty for the mountings of all the heavy guns of one of the latest battleships that brought into operation for the first time the most costly and most important part of the company's new plant ending a long difficult period for Coventry Ordnance Works. Early in 1915 Bacon was appointed to the Royal Marines. Coventry Ordnance Works designed and built: the successful QF 4.5 inch Howitzer which entered service in 1910, Coventry Ordnance Works Biplane a 1912 military aircraft the 5.5 inch Naval gun 1913, the 15 inch siege howitzer completed 1914 for the British Army. Their C. O. W. 37mm gun was the first modern autocannon developed in 1917. At their Annual General Meeting four days after the armistice Dick Kerr & Co Limited announced a provisional agreement for amalgamation with Coventry Ordnance Works Limited. Subsequently English Electric Company Limited was formed at the end of 1918 to own all the shares of Coventry Ordnance Works, Phoenix Dynamo Manufacturing Company and Dick Kerr & Co together with the United Electric Car Company and Willans & Robinson.
It was anticipated that the new combine would be one of the three principal electrical manufacturing concerns in the country. It was intended that its business would be in large schemes such as the electrification of railways, the construction of large central power stations and the development of hydro-electric installations, it struggled in the recession after the end of World War I which affected Britain's arms industry and closed in 1925. Harland and Wolff, who took over the Scotstoun, works from Coventry Ordnance Works in 1920, converted it for diesel engine manufacture. Little investment was made and the firm had to seek civil engineering contracts away from shipbuilding in order to minimise losses. In 1927 the factory was put on a maintenance basis; the beginning of a national rearmament programme in 1936 prompted the re-commissioning of the works to make gun mountings. After the war, they continued to build naval guns into the late 1960s, building the "standard" 4.5" turrets for the County class destroyers and other classes.
Barrels were brought in from Vickers-Armstrongs but in earlier times they were made locally at Beardmores in Parkhead. Work was switched to the manufacture of hydro-electric plant for the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board, Notable examples are the turbines for Cruachan power station and the Snowy Mountains scheme in Australia, and to'Danly' steel presses for the motor industry. These were supplied to British Pressed Steel at Linwood, Longbridge and Liverpool. and gas engine driven compressors. In 1969 the works was sold to Albion Motors, whose main factory had been situated on the opposite side of South Street; this factory had some of the largest machine tools in the UK. One, a vertical boring mill had a turntable 36' in diameter, used for machining the gun turret gear rings; this and other machines lent themselves to the machining of large turbine casing castings for the hydro-electric schemes. The building had three tiers of overhead cranes and could together lift several hundr
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It