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Sorbonne University

Sorbonne University is a public research university in Paris, established in 2018 by the merger of Paris-Sorbonne University, Pierre et Marie Curie University, along with smaller institutions. The date 1257 on its logo refers to the founding of Collège de Sorbonne by Robert de Sorbon, part of the university's early legacy. With 32 Nobel Prize and Fields Medal winners, Sorbonne University has a long tradition of academic excellence. In 2010, some of the direct successors of the faculties of the University of Paris created the Sorbonne Universities Association; the following universities, members of the group, have decided to merge into Sorbonne University in 2018: Paris-Sorbonne University a constituent part of the faculty of humanities of the University of Paris. Pierre et Marie Curie University a constituent part of the faculty of science and of the faculty of medicine of the University of Paris. At the same time, Sorbonne Universities Association was renamed to Sorbonne University Association and groups the following institutions for academic cooperation: University of Technology of Compiègne.

As part of the reforms of French Higher Education, on 19 March 2018, the international jury called by the French Government for the "Initiative d’Excellence" confirmed the definite win of Sorbonne University. Sorbonne University won an endowment of 900 Mio euros with no limit of time; this is the first higher education institution in Paris region to win such an endowment. The university was established by a 21 April 2017 decree, taking place on 1 January 2018. Sorbonne University has 3 faculties. Letters are the more ancient teachings of the humanity faculty. History, Languages, Philosophy are part of this faculty; the Faculty of Science of Sorbonne University is a major research institution in France. It can be considered the successor in direct line to the Faculty of Science of the University of Paris, it has more than 125 laboratories, most of them in association with the Centre national de la recherche scientifique. Some of its most notable institutes and laboratories include the Institut Henri Poincaré, Institut d'astrophysique de Paris, LIP6, Institut des systèmes intelligents et de robotique, Institut de mathématiques de Jussieu and the Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel.

The faculty of Medicine is located in two teaching hospitals, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital and Hôpital Saint-Antoine. There is no Law school as such in Sorbonne University. In 1971, most of the law professors from the Faculty of Law and Economics of the University of Paris decided to restructure it as a university, called Panthéon-Assas University. Panthéon-Assas now provides Law teachings for Sorbonne University as an independent university. Sorbonne University's historical campus is in the historic central Sorbonne building, located at 47 rue des Écoles, in the Latin Quarter; the building is the undivided property of the 13 successor universities of the University of Paris, managed by the Chancellerie des Universités de Paris. Besides the monuments of the Cour d'honneur, the Sorbonne Chapel and the Grand amphitéâtre, the building houses the Academy of Paris Rectorat, the Chancellerie des Universités de Paris, part of the Universities Panthéon Sorbonne, New Sorbonne, Sorbonne University, Paris Descartes, the Ecole Nationale des Chartes and the Ecole Pratique de Hautes Etudes.

Before the 19th century, the Sorbonne occupied several buildings. The chapel was built in 1622 by the then-Provisor of the University of Paris, Cardinal Richelieu, during the reign of Louis XIII. In 1881, politician Jules Ferry decided to convert the Sorbonne into one single building. Under the supervision of Pierre Greard, Chief Officer of the Education Authority of Paris, Henri-Paul Nénot constructed the current building from 1883 to 1901 that reflects a basic architectural uniformity; the integration of the chapel into the whole was Nénot's work with the construction of a cour d'honneur. The Sorbonne building is reserved for undergraduate students in their third year and graduate students in certain academic disciplines. Only students in Semitic studies, regardless of level, take all their classes at the Sorbonne campus; the Library of the Sorbonne is an inter-university library of the Universities Panthéon Sorbonne, New Sorbonne, Sorbonne University, Paris Descartes, Paris Diderot, under the administration of Panthéon Sorbonne.

It is open to undergraduate students in their third year and graduate students. With the former archives of the now-defunct University of Paris, 2,500,000 books, 400,000 of them ancient, 2,500 historical manuscripts, 18,000 doctoral dissertation papers, 17,750 past and current French and international periodicals and 7,100 historical printing plates, the Library of the Sorbonne is the largest university library in Paris and was refurbished in 2013; the largest of Sorbonne University's campuses is Jussieu Campus named “Pierre and Marie Curie campus”. It houses the Faculty of Science; the first buildings are from 1957. The main part of th

Philip Meyer Journalism Award

The Philip Meyer Journalism Award has been awarded since 2005 to recognize the best journalism done using social science research methods. The Philip Meyer Journalism Award is a joint program of the National Institute for Computer-Assisted Reporting and Arizona State University's Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication; the award is named for Philip Meyer, a groundbreaking journalist and professor who has championed the use of scientific methods in the media. It is presented at the annual conference held by the National Institute for Computer-Assisted Reporting. Thomas Hargrove, Fred Schulte and David Donald are the only reporters to have won the award twice. "2005 Philip Meyer Award winners". Investigative Editors. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved October 20, 2012. "2006 Philip Meyer Award winners". Investigative Editors. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved October 20, 2012. "2007 Philip Meyer Award winners". Investigative Editors. Archived from the original on May 5, 2012.

Retrieved October 20, 2012. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown "2008 Philip Meyer Award winners". Investigative Editors. Archived from the original on May 5, 2012. Retrieved October 20, 2012. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown "2009 Philip Meyer Award winners". Investigative Editors. Archived from the original on May 5, 2012. Retrieved October 20, 2012. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown "2010 Philip Meyer Award winners". Investigative Editors. Archived from the original on May 5, 2012. Retrieved October 20, 2012. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown "2011 Philip Meyer Award winners". Investigative Editors. Archived from the original on June 14, 2012. Retrieved October 20, 2012. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown "2012 Philip Meyer Award winners announced". Investigative Editors. Retrieved January 9, 2012. "2013 Philip Meyer Award winners". Investigative Editors. Retrieved January 13, 2014. "2014 Philip Meyer Award winners". Investigative Editors. Retrieved February 1, 2015.

"2015 Philip Meyer Award winners". Investigative Editors. Retrieved January 21, 2016. "2016 Philip Meyer Award Winners Announced". Investigative Editors. Retrieved January 23, 2017. "2017 Philip Meyer Award winners announced". Investigative Editors. Retrieved January 22, 2018. "2018 Philip Meyer Award winners announced". Investigative Editors. Retrieved February 11, 2019. "2019 Philip Meyer Award winners announced". Investigative Editors. Retrieved January 18, 2020. Philip Meyer Awards

Operation Pacific

Operation Pacific is a 1951 black-and-white World War II submarine war drama from Warner Bros. Pictures, produced by Louis Edelman, written as well as directed by George Waggner. John Wayne and Patricia Neal star and Ward Bond and Philip Carey play supporting roles. Much of the film is set aboard a Gato Class submarine; the technical advisor was World War II Admiral Charles A. Lockwood, Submarine Forces, Pacific. During World War II, the submarine USS Thunderfish, under the command of CDR John T. "Pop" Perry, while on a special mission to the Philippines takes charge of a group of nuns and children, including a newborn infant nicknamed "Butch", transporting them to Pearl Harbor. On their way, the sub sights a Japanese aircraft carrier and attacks, but its torpedoes malfunction, exploding halfway to the target. Pursued by the carrier's escorting destroyers, Thunderfish manages to escape. While in Pearl Harbor, the ship's Executive Officer, LCDR Duke E. Gifford goes to visit Butch at the base hospital, runs into his ex-wife, LTJG Mary Stuart, a Navy nurse, they kiss passionately.

Mary is now romantically involved with Navy pilot LTJG Bob Perry, Pop's younger brother. Duke is sent to sea again before anything is settled; as the sub returns from the patrol, they spot a Japanese freighter, but again their torpedoes fail to explode. The enemy ship raises the white flag, Thunderfish surfaces and approaches; the freighter turns out to be a armed Q-ship that opens fire on the sub. Mortally wounded, Captain Perry orders the boat to crash dive, knowing that he will not be able to get below before she submerges. With the sub now under Duke's command, he takes the offensive against the Q-ship, he notifies the crew that the boat will "battle surface" after moving into position to attack the ship. Upon surfacing the Lieutenant Commander orders the boat's deck guns and anti-aircraft guns, as well as numerous portable light and mountable heavy machine guns operated by the deck crew, to fire at will. After the Q-ship's engines are disabled and deck on fire, Duke orders flank speed, ramming the boat into the Japanese ship, holing the engine room and sinking the Q-ship.

Thunderfish, with her forward torpedo room damaged but flooding contained, limps back to port. Back at Pearl Harbor, Bob Perry believes that Duke's order to dive the boat killed his brother, he refuses to listen to Duke's explanation. Mary tries to comfort Duke, but he rejects her attempts, declaring he only did his duty and feels no regret. Working with the sub base's torpedo specialists and the crew of the Thunderfish undertake an investigation to find out why the torpedoes are not exploding; when they discover the answer, Duke goes to Mary to celebrate, but she rejects him. Since he wouldn't let her into his life when he was at his lowest, she feels that they cannot have a real relationship, her superior, Cmdr. Steele, overhears the conversation and castigates Mary for throwing away her chance for happiness with Duke. Once again, Thunderfish heads out to sea, this time finding a Japanese fleet heading for Leyte to savage the American invasion force there. Though it will reveal their presence, Duke broadcasts the fleet's position.

Once Pearl Harbor acknowledges the message, Duke salvoes his torpedoes and makes a run for it, throwing the attacking Japanese warships into chaos. Despite enduring a battering from Japanese depth charges, Thunderfish manages to sink a Japanese aircraft carrier. In the battle's next phase, American carrier aircraft arrive and attack the Japanese fleet. Thunderfish, now assigned to lifeguard duty, helps to rescue shot down American flyers, does so while under attack from Japanese fighters. While rescuing LT Bob Perry, the Chief of the Boat and Junior, a seaman from a Navy family, are killed and Duke is wounded by a strafing Japanese Zero; when the Thunderfish returns to Pearl Harbor after the patrol, Mary is waiting for Duke. The two, head to the hospital, intending to adopt Butch. John Wayne and Patricia Neal did not get along during filming. Nearly fourteen years however, they worked together on In Harm's Way where she noted that he had mellowed a lot because he was ill with lung cancer at the time.

The film's opening foreword and dedication states: "When the Pacific Fleet was destroyed by the Japanese sneak attack on Pearl Harbor, it remained for the submarines to carry the war to the enemy. In the four years that followed, our undersea craft sank six million tons of Japanese shipping including some of the proudest ships of the Imperial Navy. Fifty-two of our submarines and thirty-five hundred officers and men were lost, it is to these men and the entire Silent Service that this picture is humbly dedicated". The special mission shown at the beginning of the movie, in which Navy submarines ran war supplies into the Philippines and evacuated civilians, while idealized is a matter of historic record. By the time of the invasion of the Philippines in 1944, these supply runs had enabled American and Philippine Army officers who had refused to surrender to build a military organization in the islands, the size of an army corps; the numerous problems with the Mark 14 torpedo and its Mark VI exploder depicted in the film are accurate.

A poorly designed and tested firing pin could malfunction on a good hit. Poor hits could produce more reliable explosions. Diagnosing the problem did occur in a similar manner after 20 months of repeated failures in combat. Submarine crews were involved in the testing, al