Khemissa is a town and commune in Souk Ahras Province in north-eastern Algeria. It is the location of Thubursicum Numidarum, a well-preserved Roman theater
Guelma is the capital of Guelma Province and Guelma District, located in north-eastern Algeria, about 65 kilometers from the Mediterranean coast. Its location corresponds to that of ancient Calama. Though Guelma was settled from early prehistory, it was first established as a town under the Phoenicians, who called it Malaca a Phoenician word meaning "salt"; the Romans settled the area and renamed it Calama, part of the Roman province of Numidia. Calama prospered during the rise of Christianity; the Vandal invasion devastated the area until the coming of the Byzantines, who settled the area and built city walls to protect it from further invasions. It was located in the Byzantine Exarchate of Africa. However, after the successful Islamic conquest of Algeria, the area was abandoned as a formal settlement later, during Ottoman rule. Guelma was re-established as a formal settlement during the French invasion of Algeria, after seven centuries of abandonment; the annexation of the area began with the advancing of the French Army going to Constantine from Annaba who discovered the ruins of Calama from 10–15 November 1836 under the command of general Bertrand Clausel.
Guelma was established as a city in 1836. Its communal constitution dates from 17 June 1854. A modern city developed around the Roman ruins, first inside the restored Byzantine city walls also outside the walls, which continued to function during these times, near the railroad which crossed the city from the west to the east; the Roman theater of Guelma was restored in 1905 under the rule of mayor M. Joly; the city had a high percentage of European settlers during these times, supported by the French colonial policy. Its civilians suffered during the Sétif massacre of 8 May 1945. Guelma's oldest still-operating religious building is the El-Atik Mosque, or "The Great Mosque Of Guelma". Guelma has had a synagogue, which served the local Jews as well as a church on the place de Saint Augustin for the European settlers. After the Independence of Algeria, both the European settlers and the indigenous Jews left, the synagogue and the church were converted into mosques; the population of Guelma grew at a rapid pace.
Guelma is situated at the heart of a major agricultural region, 290 m above sea level and surrounded by mountains. The region is fertile because of the Seybouse River and a large dam that provides a vast irrigation scheme, it occupies a strategic geographic position as a crossroads in north-eastern Algeria, linking the coast of Wilaya of Annaba, El Taref and Skikda to inland areas such as Wilaya of Constantine, Oum El Bouagui and Souk-Ahras. Guelma has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate. In winter there is more rainfall than in summer; the average annual temperature in Guelma is 17.2 °C. About 557 mm of precipitation falls annually; the city's industries include the manufacture of cycles and mopeds, sugar refinement, ceramics and semolina milling. Guelma is known for some traditional industries such as knitting and pottery. Nearby tourist attractions include hot springs, Hammam Debagh, Hammam Ouled Ali, which contains two resorts and provides services for tourists. Local hotels include: Hotel Mermoura, Hotel Tarik, Hotel Chelala, Hotel la Couronne, the tourist complex of El Baraka, the tourist complex of Bouchahernie.
The city has various sports facilities: the Olympic Stadium, Municipal Stadium, an Olympic swimming pool and a multi-sports hall. Football is the most popular sport in the city, as in all the cities of the country. Guelma has several football clubs: Espérance Sportive de Guelma known as ES Guelma The Olympic Football Guelma L'Ettardji Sarri Madinet Guelma There are no local TV channels or newspapers in Guelma, Radio Algérie operates a radio channel in Guelma. Chafaa Abdelmajid, author and teacher.
Pinus halepensis known as the Aleppo pine known as Jerusalem's oren, is a pine native to the Mediterranean region. Its range extends from Morocco and Spain north to southern France, Croatia, Montenegro and east to Greece, all over Malta and northern Tunisia, with an outlying population in Syria, southern Turkey, Jordan and Palestinian territories. Pinus halepensis is found at low altitudes from sea level to 200 m, but can grow up to 1,000 m in southern Spain, well over 1,200 m on Crete, up to 1,700 m in the south, in Morocco and Tunisia; the tree is able to colonize open and disturbed areas. It can grow on all substrates and in all bioclimates in the Mediterranean. Pinus halepensis is a small to medium-sized tree, 15–25 m tall, with a trunk diameter up to 60 cm, exceptionally up to 1 m; the bark is orange-red and fissured at the base of the trunk, thin and flaky in the upper crown. The leaves are slender, 6–12 cm long, distinctly yellowish green, produced in pairs; the cones are narrow conic, 5–12 cm long and 2–3 cm broad at the base when closed, green at first, ripening glossy red-brown when 24 months old.
They open over the next few years, a process quickened if they are exposed to heat such as in forest fires. The cones open 5–8 cm wide to allow the seeds to disperse; the seeds are 5–6 mm long, with a 20-mm wing, are wind-dispersed. The Aleppo pine is related to the Turkish pine, Canary Island pine, maritime pine, which all share many of its characteristics; some authors include the Turkish pine as a subspecies of the Aleppo pine. Brutia Holmboe, but it is regarded as a distinct species, it is a nonvariable species, in that its morphological characteristics stay constant over the entire range. The resin of the Aleppo pine is used to flavor the Greek wine retsina. From the pine nuts of the Aleppo pine is made a pudding called asidet zgougou in the Tunisian dialect. Aleppo pine are used for bonsai. In its native area, P. halepensis is planted for its fine timber, making it one of the most important forestry trees in Algeria and Morocco. In Israel, the Aleppo pine, along with Pinus brutia, has been planted extensively by the JNF.
It proved successful in Yatir Forest in the northern Negev, where foresters had not expected it to survive. Many Aleppo pine forests are used for recreational purposes. Although it is a local species, some argue that the historical replacement of natural oak maquis shrubland and garrigue with tall stands of pine has created "ecological deserts" and has changed the species assemblage of these regions. In Israel natural patches of Aleppo pine forests can be found in the Galilee regions; the species produces timber, valued for its hardness and unproblematic seasoning. Seasoned timber is inclined to tear out with planing, but this can be avoided by using sharp blades or adjusting the sharpening angle of tools; the Aleppo pine is considered an invasive species though useful in South Africa. Pinus halepensis is a popular ornamental tree, extensively planted in gardens and private and agency landscapes in hot dry areas such as Southern California and the Karoo in South Africa, where the Aleppo pine's considerable heat and drought tolerance, fast growth, aesthetic qualities, are valued.
Paul Cézanne had an Aleppo pine in his garden at Aix-en-Provence. As of 2005, the tree is still growing in Cézanne's garden. Media related to Pinus halepensis at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Pinus halepensis at Wikispecies Gymnosperm Database: Pinus halepensis Pinus halepensis - distribution map, genetic conservation units and related resources. European Forest Genetic Resources Programme
A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary in size, spanning regions or counties, several municipalities, subdivisions of municipalities, school district, or political district. A municipal utility district is a special-purpose district or other jurisdiction that provides services to district residents. Local residents may vote to establish a municipal utility district, represented by a board of directors elected by constituents; as governmental bodies, they are nonprofit. In the US, public utility districts have similar functions to Municipal utility districts, but are created by a local government body such as a city or county, have no authority to levy taxes, they provide public utilities to the residents of that district. PUDs are created by a local government body, such as county, or metropolitan service area; the districts are non-profit. PUDs are governed by a commission, which may be appointed or elected.
In Afghanistan, a district is a subdivision of a province. There are 400 districts in the country. Electoral districts are used in state elections. Districts were used in several states as cadastral units for land titles; some were used as squatting districts. New South Wales had several different types of districts used in the 21st century. In Austria, the word Bezirk is used with different meanings in three different contexts: Some of the tasks of the administrative branch of the national and regional governments are fulfilled by the 95 district administrative offices; the area a district administrative office is responsible for is although informally, called a district. A number of statutory cities 15, are not served by any district administrative office, their respective municipal bureaucracies handle the tasks performed by the district administrative office. The cities of Vienna and Graz are divided into municipal districts, assisting the respective municipal governments. In Vienna, the constituents of each district elect a district council.
Although the city vests its districts with a limited amount of budgetary autonomy, district councils and chairpersons have little real responsibility. In particular, they do not legislate. Most of the districts of Vienna were independent municipalities at some point. From the point of view of the judiciary of Austria, the country is subdivided into 115 judicial districts, each corresponding to one of the country's 115 lowest-level trial courts. Bangladeshi districts are local administrative units. In all, there are 64 districts in Bangladesh. There were 21 greater districts with several subdivisions in each district. In 1984, the government made all these subdivisions into districts; each district has several sub districts called Upazila in Bengali. In Belgian municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants, on initiative of the local council, sub-municipal administrative entities with elected councils may be created; as such, only Antwerp, having over 460,000 inhabitants, became subdivided into nine districts.
The Belgian arrondissements, an administrative level between province and municipality, or the lowest judicial level, are in English sometimes called districts as well. Bhutanese districts are local administrative units consisting of village blocks called gewog; some have subdistricts called dungkhag. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, a district is a self-governing administrative unit. Brčko District in northeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina is formally part of both the Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina; the Assembly of the Brčko District has 29 seats. Brazilian municipalities are subdivided into districts. Small municipalities have only one urban district, which contains the city itself, consisting of the seat of the local government, where the municipality's prefeitura and câmara de vereadores are located; the rural districts and groups of urban districts may present a sub local Executive body, named subprefeitura. A district is known locally as daerah and it is the first-level administrative division of Brunei.
There are four districts in the country, namely Brunei-Muara, Tutong and Temburong. Each district is administered by a Jabatan Daerah, headed by a Pegawai Daerah. All district offices are government departments under the Ministry of Home Affairs. In Alberta, the municipal districts and improvement districts are types of rural municipalities, they are recognized as census subdivisions by Statistics Canada, which form parts of census divisions. In the province of British Columbia, there are several kinds of administrative districts by that name; the usual usage is a reference to district municipalities, which are a class of municipality in the same hierarchy as city, town, or village. Most are styled, e.g. "District of Mission" or "District of Wells", though some are styled, e.g. "Corporation of Delta" or "Township of Langley". Within the area of municipal powers, regional districts – which
Algeria the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. The capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north of the country on the Mediterranean coast. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, the world's largest Arab country, the largest in Africa. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, to the north by the Mediterranean Sea; the country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 1,541 communes. It has the highest human development index of all non-island African countries. Ancient Algeria has known many empires and dynasties, including ancient Numidians, Carthaginians, Vandals, Umayyads, Idrisid, Rustamid, Zirid, Almoravids, Spaniards and the French colonial empire. Berbers are the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria. Algeria is a middle power.
It supplies large amounts of natural gas to Europe, energy exports are the backbone of the economy. According to OPEC Algeria has the 16th largest oil reserves in the world and the second largest in Africa, while it has the 9th largest reserves of natural gas. Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria has one of the largest defence budget on the continent. Algeria is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, OPEC, the United Nations and is a founding member of the Arab Maghreb Union. On 2 April 2019, president Abdelaziz Bouteflika resigned after nearly 20 years in power, following pressure from the country’s army after mass protests against Bouteflika's campaign for a fifth term; the country's name derives from the city of Algiers. The city's name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazā'ir, a truncated form of the older Jazā'ir Banī Mazghanna, employed by medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found.
Neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant. Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques. Tools of this era, starting about 30,000 BC, are called Aterian; the earliest blade industries in North Africa are called Iberomaurusian. This industry appears to have spread throughout the coastal regions of the Maghreb between 15,000 and 10,000 BC. Neolithic civilization developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean Maghreb as early as 11,000 BC or as late as between 6000 and 2000 BC; this life, richly depicted in the Tassili n'Ajjer paintings, predominated in Algeria until the classical period. The mixture of peoples of North Africa coalesced into a distinct native population that came to be called Berbers, who are the indigenous peoples of northern Africa. From their principal center of power at Carthage, the Carthaginians expanded and established small settlements along the North African coast.
These settlements served as market towns as well as anchorages. As Carthaginian power grew, its impact on the indigenous population increased dramatically. Berber civilization was at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing and political organization supported several states. Trade links between Carthage and the Berbers in the interior grew, but territorial expansion resulted in the enslavement or military recruitment of some Berbers and in the extraction of tribute from others. By the early 4th century BC, Berbers formed the single largest element of the Carthaginian army. In the Revolt of the Mercenaries, Berber soldiers rebelled from 241 to 238 BC after being unpaid following the defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War, they succeeded in obtaining control of much of Carthage's North African territory, they minted coins bearing the name Libyan, used in Greek to describe natives of North Africa. The Carthaginian state declined because of successive defeats by the Romans in the Punic Wars.
In 146 BC the city of Carthage was destroyed. As Carthaginian power waned, the influence of Berber leaders in the hinterland grew. By the 2nd century BC, several large but loosely administered Berber kingdoms had emerged. Two of them were established behind the coastal areas controlled by Carthage. West of Numidia lay Mauretania, which extended across the Moulouya River in modern-day Morocco to the Atlantic Ocean; the high point of Berber civilization, unequaled until the coming of the Almohads and Almoravids more than a millennium was reached during the reign of Masinissa in the 2nd century BC. After Masinissa's death in 148 BC, the Berber kingdoms were reunited several times. Masinissa's line survived until 24 AD, when the remaining Berber territory was annexed to the Roman Empire. For several centuries Algeria was ruled by the Romans. Like the rest of No
Aurès is an Amazigh language-speaking natural region located in the mountainous area of the Aurès range in eastern Algeria. The region includes the Algerian provinces of Batna, Khenchela, Oum El Bouaghi, Souk Ahras and Biskra; the Awras or Aurès region is characterized both by its mountain terrain and by the Berber Chaoui ethnic group that has inhabited the area. The rugged terrain of the Aurès made that the region became one of the less developed areas in the Maghreb. Traditionally the women of the region wore tattoos, it was in the Aurès region that the Algerian War of Independence was started by Berber independence fighters such as Mostefa Ben Boulaïd who were operating from the area. A district of Algeria that existed during and after the War of Independence, from 1962 to 1974, was named after this region. Chakhchoukha Algeria - Ethnic Groups and Languages Les Aurès - Algérie
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.