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Soule is a former viscounty and French province and part of the present day Pyrénées-Atlantiques département. It is divided into two cantons of the arrondissement of Oloron-Sainte-Marie, a part of the canton of Saint Palais, its provincial capital is Mauléon, which fused with Licharre in 1841 to form "Mauléon-Licharre", but today is known as "Mauléon-Soule". Soule is the smallest province of the Basque Country, its population has been decreasing. The territory is named Xiberoa in Souletin Basque, Zuberoa in standard Basque, Sola in Gascon and Soule in French. Subola comes from the name the Romans gave to the Aquitani tribe that inhabited the region by the time of their arrival, the Suburates called Sibusates by Julius Caesar in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico and Sybillates by Pliny the Elder. Soule has been continuously inhabited since the last glaciation, there are several deposits from the neolithic as well as fifteen protohistoric settlements; the first text written in Soule dates from the 7th century.

The territory was inhabited in the Middle Paleolithic. At the end of the Neolithic the population had extended and assimilated knowledge from other peoples. There are protohistoric settlements that show a simple material life and a lifestyle dominated by migration. Rests of coins and other monetary artifacts have been found, proving the existence of an exchange economy in Soule, which likely worked as an access point between Aquitaine—Novempopulania—in the north and the southern side of the Pyrenees. At the time of the Roman arrival in the 1st century, Soule was inhabited by an Aquitani tribe named Suburates, who spoke the Aquitanian language; as with other peoples in Aquitaine, the Romans had a somewhat important influence in the territory, although Soule kept its language and culture and was unimportant during the times of the Roman Empire, due to its isolation. The only evidence of Roman influence in Soule exists in Tardets. Soule is first mentioned as a territory in a text from the 7th Century.

In 636 the Frankish army led by the Duke Arembert was ambushed and defeated by the Basques in a place named "vallis subola". This valley is included in the territory of the "Wascones", whicn included intermittently lands to either side of the western and central Pyrenees, it was referred to as Gascony. The region of Soule may have developed a primeval political structure before the 11th century with a strong influence of the Kingdom of Pamplona, established in the year 824. However, it would be in 1023 when Sancho VI Duke of Gascony would name Guillaume Fort as first Viscount of Soule, his descendants would inherit the title for around two centuries. The Viscounts of Soule had their base in the fortress of Mauléon, a strategic region that controlled the pass from Aquitaine to the Iberian peninsula; the viscounts of Soule took advantage of their territory. Despite being small in size, it held a strategic position between the Kingdom of Navarre to the south and the Duchy of Aquitaine to the north.

In the year 1152 Eleanor of Aquitaine married Henry II of England, thus the Duchy of Aquitaine joined the Crown of England. In 1261, after ten years of conflict, the last viscount of Soule, Auger III, surrendered the castle of Mauléon to Edward I of England, as a result the territory of Soule was administered by the crown of England. At this time the current network of roads between the Souletin villages was constructed; the English Soule was under direct authority of the Duke of Aquitaine, the King of England. Control over the territory was delegated to a lord, who kept the castle of Mauléon and collected the taxes; the lord of Soule had fourteen captains, of whom only one was English, the rest being either locally-born or Gascons. The ex-viscount Auger III allied with the Kingdom of Navarre, taking advantage of the war between Philip IV, king of Navarre, Edward I of England, retook his fortress at Mauléon in 1295, but he was forced to hand it back after Aquitaine was formally declared English is 1303.

The Hundred Years' War kept. In 1449, an army led by Gaston IV, the Count of Foix and Viscount of Béarn, took possession of the castle in the name of the French king ending the English presence in Soule. In the mid 15th century, Soule recognizes the King of France as its own, with the Basque district becoming the smallest province and exclave of the kingdom and the most distant from the centre of power, Paris, it came to be surrounded by the sovereign Kingdom of Navarre on the south and west and the independent principality of Viscounty of Béarn on the east. In 1511, King Francis I of France urged the Souletins to set down their institutional and legal framework on paper, which they did in Bearnese, the administrative written language up to that point. In 1539, an amendment to their region specific laws went on to be written in French, the new official language as decreed by King Francis I. Despite numbering more than fifty towns and villages, Soule was populated by fewer than 4,000 people; the only town was Mauléon, with a population totalling fewer than 350 people.

As of 1512, given its proximity to France and its particular geographic situation surrounde

Peter Clinch

Peter Clinch is Chairperson of Science Foundation Ireland. He is the former Chair of the National Competitiveness Council of Ireland, he an economist, Jean Monnet Full Professor and Chair of Public Policy at University College Dublin. He is a former Vice-President of University College Dublin UCD where he had responsibility for Innovation and Corporate Partnerships, his academic specialisms are sustainable economic growth and environmental economics. In 2002, he co-authored After the Celtic Tiger with Brendan Walsh and Frank Convery pointing out fragilities in the Irish economy in advance Ireland's economic crisis, he was a critic of Irish government decisions on planning policy and decentralisation during the Irish Celtic Tiger boom describing the latter as “totally inconsistent with the National Spatial Strategy" and was said to be unenthusiastic about Ireland's social partnership model. He was subsequently employed as Special Adviser to the Taoiseach of Ireland between June 2008 and January 2011 where he advised on medium-term economic policy, enterprise policy and environmental policy which included drafting the productivity growth plan “Building Ireland’s Smart Economy” published by the Government in December 2008.

He was a participant in the first Irish Global Economic Forum in September 2009. His academic specialism is sustainable economic growth and he has over 100 publications. Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences Lifetime Honorary Member of the Royal Town Planning Institute

California Civil Code

The Civil Code of California is a collection of statutes for the State of California. The code is made up of statutes which govern the general obligations and rights of persons within the jurisdiction of California, it was based on a civil code prepared by David Dudley Field II for the state of New York. It is one of the 29 California Codes and was among the first four enacted in 1872. Though the Code is organized in a manner similar to many civil law civil codes, many of its provisions are codifications of well-established common law principles. For example, it contains a definition of consideration, a principle in the common law of contracts which has no direct equivalent in civil law systems, it codifies the mailbox rule that communication of acceptance is effective when dropped in the mail, a feature unique to the common law. First adopted in 1872 and signed into law by Governor Newton Booth, the Civil Code is divided – to its civil law analogues – into four divisions: "the first relating to persons".

Division One contains laws which govern personal rights while Division Two contains laws which govern property rights. Division Three codifies the substantive contract law of the State of California as well as various regulations relating to agency, unsecured loans, extensions of credit, other areas of California law. Division Four defines remedies available in lawsuits, what constitutes a nuisance, various maxims of jurisprudence, other miscellaneous provisions which relate "to the three preceding divisions." Although revolutionary for its time, the California Civil Code was the third enacted codification of the substance of the common law. The first was the Code of Georgia of 1861, the ancestor of today's Official Code of Georgia Annotated. Dakota Territory beat California to the punch by becoming the first jurisdiction to enact Field's civil code in 1866. David Dudley Field II's audacity in trying to codify all of the general principles of the common law into general statutory law in the form of a civil code was controversial in the American legal community, both in his time and since.

Most U. S. states declined to pursue such an aggressive codification. The Restatements of the Law were developed in the 20th century as a compromise between those who felt the common law was a disorganized mess and those who valued the flexibility and richness of the common law. Only California, North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana enacted all of Field's civil code, while Idaho enacted the contract sections but omitted the tort sections. Guam borrowed much of the California Civil Code for its own legal system. Justice Stephen Johnson Field, praised the California Codes as "perfect in their analysis, admirable in their arrangement, furnishing a complete code of laws," while English jurist Sir Frederick Pollock attacked the Civil Code as "about the worst piece of codification produced" and called it "the New York abortion". Over the years, the Civil Code has been amended by legislation and initiative measures. A significant change to the Civil Code occurred in June 1992 when nearly all of the Civil Code's provisions relating to marriage, community property, other family law matters were removed from the Civil Code and re-enacted in the form of a new Family Code.

The California Family Code went into effect on January 1, 1994. Most statutes that deal with civil procedure are codified in a separate code, the California Code of Civil Procedure. California Code of Civil Procedure Law of California California Civil Code

A. Shanboganahalli

A. Shanboganahalli is a village in the southern state of Karnataka, India, it is located in the Nagamangala taluk of Mandya district in Karnataka. 150 families live in Shanboganahalli, where the main source of income is through agriculture. Both incense sticks and coconuts are exported from this village to the city of Mysore. Institutions within the village include the milk dairy, the co-operative bank, the incense factory and the women's self-help group, central to the community; the village has several village leaders, with the most senior being Diwakar. 90% of the families who live in Shanboganahalli have their own toilet. In Autumn 2012 a group of volunteers from the UK came to this village to build 10 new eco-sanitation units for the community; the volunteers lived in Shanboganahalli for 2 months and during this time delivered health and hygiene education to children in the village. Shanboganahalli has water available through three hand pumps in two water tanks. Electricity is available for a few hours every day.

A popular meeting place for locals is a small corner shop ran by one of Veena. In the shop a small selection of sweets and toiletries are available. Volleyball is a popular sport in the village. Many farm animals including cows and sheep are found outside the houses in Shanboganahalli. Mandya Districts of Karnataka Government of India website showing A. Shanboganahalli

Arthur Riscoe

Arthur Riscoe MC was a British stage and film actor. He was born Arthur Charles Boorman on 19 November 1896 in Sherburn-in-Elmet near Leeds, but at the age of 15 moved to Tasmania as a farm worker; when 18, he joined the Australian Imperial Forces. He served as a lieutenant during World War I and was awarded the Military Cross for his actions on the Western Front in August 1918, he was part of an AIF entertainment troupe. His stage career began in 1919 with a part in The Lilac Domino, he returned to the UK in 1920 building popularity till the 1930s when he was well established in light comedy, had significant film roles, he appeared as Widow Twankey at the Adelphi Theatre in 1937. He married Olive Raymond, their daughter Maureen Riscoe was an actress and casting director, he died of a heart attack on 6 August 1954 at his home in London. Horatio's Deception For the Love of Mike For Love of You Public Nuisance No. 1 Paradise for Two Kipps Arthur Riscoe on IMDb "Arthur Riscoe and Slater 1938" at British-Pathe

Michael Quinlan (civil servant)

Sir Michael Edward Quinlan, GCB was a distinguished former British defence strategist and former Permanent Under-Secretary of State at the British Ministry of Defence, who wrote and lectured on defence and matters of international security nuclear weapon policies and doctrine, on concepts of ‘Just War’ and related ethical issues. Quinlan was born on 11 August 1930 in Hampton, England to Gerald and Roseanne Quinlan, he was educated at the Jesuit boys' high school. From 1948 to 1952 he attended Merton College, graduating with a Double First in Classics, he completed his national service in the RAF between 1952 and 1954. In 1954, Quinlan joined the Air Ministry as a civil servant, he was Private Secretary to two Chiefs of the Air Staff: Sir Thomas Pike from 1962 to 1963, Sir Charles Elworthy from 1963 to 1965. He was Deputy Secretary at the Ministry of Defence from 1977 to 1981, he was Permanent Under-Secretary at the MOD from 1988 to 1992. These years saw the collapse of the Soviet Union. Outside the Ministry of Defence he was Permanent Department of Employment.

He retired from the Civil Service in 1992. On retirement, Quinlan became Director of the Ditchley Foundation, holding the position until 1999. In 2001, he became Chairman of publisher of the Catholic newspaper The Tablet, he was one of the world's foremost experts in deterrence theory, contributing to debate and books in this field. He wrote his own book on this matter shortly before his death, his contributions were recognised by Gordon Brown, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, in a speech given on 17 March 2009. Historian of government Peter Hennessy called him the leading in-house defence intellectual MOD has possessed since World War II, he died on 26 February 2009. As part of the 1991 New Year Honours, Quinlan was appointed Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath. Quinlan married Mary Finlay in 1965, with whom he had four children including actress and comedy writer Carrie Quinlan, he was a devout Roman Catholic. Charles Guthrie and Michael Quinlan. Just War: The Just War Tradition: Ethics in Modern Warfare.

Walker. ISBN Richard Norton-Taylor. "Immoral victories". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 September 2012. Michael Quinlan. Thinking About Nuclear Weapons: Principles, Prospects. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199563944. Michael Quinlan and Tanya Ogilvie-White. On nuclear deterrence: the correspondence of Sir Michael Quinlan. Routledge. ISBN 9780415521659. Biography on the website of the International Institute for Strategic Studies. Another biography at the website of the Oxford Leverhulme Programme on the ‘Changing Character of War’. Tam Dalyell. "Sir Michael Quinlan: Civil servant and defence strategist who explored the concept of the Just War". The Independent. Retrieved 1 March 2009. "Sir Michael Quinlan". Daily Telegraph. 1 March 2009. Retrieved 1 March 2009. Sue Cameron. "British civil servant who led Europe to cut its nuclear arsenals". Financial Times. Retrieved 15 March 2009