History of film
The history of film began in the 1890s, when motion picture cameras were invented and film production companies started to be established. Because of the limits of technology, films of the 1890s were under a minute long, the first decade of motion picture saw film moving from a novelty to an established large-scale entertainment industry. The films became several minutes long consisting of several shots, the first rotating camera for taking panning shots was built in 1898. The first film studios were built in 1897, special effects were introduced and film continuity, involving action moving from one sequence into another, began to be used. In the 1900s, continuity of action across successive shots was achieved, most films of this period were what came to be called chase films. The first use of animation in movies was in 1899, the first feature length multi-reel film was a 1906 Australian production. The first successful permanent theatre showing only films was The Nickelodeon in Pittsburgh in 1905, by 1910, actors began to receive screen credit for their roles, and the way to the creation of film stars was opened.
Regular newsreels were exhibited from 1910 and soon became a way for finding out the news. Overall, from about 1910, American films had the largest share of the market in Australia, New film techniques were introduced in this period including the use of artificial lighting, fire effects and low-key lighting for enhanced atmosphere during sinister scenes. Genres began to be used as categories, the division was into comedy and drama. During the First World War there was a transition for the film industry. The exhibition of films changed from short programs to feature films. Exhibition venues became larger and began charging higher prices, by 1914, continuity cinema was the established mode of commercial cinema. One of the advanced continuity techniques involved an accurate and smooth transition from one shot to another, D. W. Griffith had the highest standing among American directors in the industry, because of the dramatic excitement he conveyed to the audience through his films. By the 1920s, the United States reached what is still its era of greatest-ever output, producing an average of 800 feature films annually, during late 1927, Warners released The Jazz Singer, with the first synchronized dialogue in a feature film.
By the end of 1929, Hollywood was almost all-talkie, with several competing sound systems, Sound saved the Hollywood studio system in the face of the Great Depression. The desire for wartime propaganda created a renaissance in the industry in Britain. The onset of American involvement in World War II brought a proliferation of films as both patriotism and propaganda, the House Un-American Activities Committee investigated Hollywood in the early 1950s
The process usually takes place on a dub stage. After sound editors edit and prepare all necessary tracks, the mixer or mixers proceed to balance all of the elements. In the past, dubbing was practiced primarily in musicals when the actor had a singing voice. Today, dubbing enables the screening of material to a mass audience in countries where viewers do not speak the same language as the performers in the original production. Films and sometimes video games are dubbed into the local language of a foreign market. In foreign distribution, dubbing is common in theatrically released films, television films, television series, the insertion of voice actor performances for animation, such as computer-generated imagery or animated cartoons, is often referred to as ADR although it generally does not replace existing dialogue. In conventional film production, a sound mixer records dialogue during filming. During post-production, a sound editor, or ADR supervisor, reviews all of the dialogue in the film. ADR is recorded during an ADR session, which place in a specialized sound studio.
The actor, usually the original actor from the set, views the scene with the original sound, over the course of multiple takes, the actor performs the lines while watching the scene, the most suitable take becomes the final version. The ADR process does not always take place in a post-production studio, the process may be recorded on location, with mobile equipment. Sometimes, a different actor than the actor on set is used during ADR. One famous example is the Star Wars character Darth Vader portrayed by David Prowse, in post-production and it provides a more precise guide for the actors and technicians, and can be used to complement the traditional ADR method. The rythmo band is projected in the studio and scrolls in perfect synchronization with the picture, Studio time is used more efficiently, since with the aid of scrolling text and audio cues, actors can read more lines per hour than with ADR alone. With ADR, actors can average 10–12 lines per hour, while rythmo band can facilitate the reading of 35-50 lines per hour, the preparation of a rythmo band is a time-consuming process involving a series of specialists organized in a production line.
VideoDubber, a startup company from Israel, developed an automated dubbing SaaS platform that enables automated dubbing of video content to over 40 languages using digitized voices. It was the first to dub a full TV channel using this technology for a Spanish cable provider in July 2015, Media Movers, Inc. a dubbing company, has developed a piece of proprietary software that can automatically sync ADR/dubbed tracks with pre-defined algorithms. TM Systems received Emmy awards in 2002 and 2007 for their dubbing and subtitling software, Dubbing is often used to localize a foreign movie
A television studio is an installation in which video productions take place, either for the recording of live television to video tape, or for the acquisition of raw footage for post-production. The design of a studio is similar to, and derived from, movie studios, a professional television studio generally has several rooms, which are kept separate for noise and practicality reasons. These rooms are connected via intercom, and personnel will be divided among these workplaces, the studio floor is the actual stage on which the actions that will be recorded and viewed take place. The on-screen talent themselves, and any guests - the subjects of the television show, a floor manager, who has overall charge of the studio area stage management, and who relays timing and other information from the television director. One or more camera operators who operate the video cameras. Master control is the hub of a broadcast operation common among most over-the-air television stations. Master control is distinct from a PCR in television studios where the such as switching from camera to camera are coordinated. A transmission control room is smaller in size and is a scaled-down version of centralcasting.
The master control room houses equipment that is too noisy or runs too hot for the control room. It makes sure that coax cable and other wire lengths and installation requirements keep within manageable lengths and this can include the actual circuitry and connections between The master control room in a US television station is the place where the on-air signal is controlled. The term studio usually refers to a place where a local program is originated. If the program is broadcast live, the signal goes from the PCR to MCR, a television studio usually has other rooms with no technical requirements beyond broadcast reference monitors and studio monitors for audio. Among them are, one or more make-up and changing rooms a reception area for crew and visitors, commonly called the green room
Post-production, or postproduction, is part of the process of filmmaking, video production, and photography. It occurs in the making of pictures, television programs, radio programs, audio recordings, photography. It is a term for all stages of production occurring after shooting or recording individual program segments, traditional post-production has been eroded away by video editing software that operates on a non-linear editing system. Post-production is many different processes grouped under one name and these typically include, Video editing the picture of a television program using an edit decision list Writing and editing the soundtrack. Adding visual special effects - mainly computer-generated imagery and digital copy from which release prints will be made, sound design, sound effects, ADR, and music, culminating in a process known as sound re-recording or mixing with professional audio equipment. Transfer of colour motion picture film to video or DPX with a telecine, the process of editing a movie is seen as the second directing because through post-production it is possible to change the intention of the movie.
Furthermore, through the use of color grading tools and the addition of music and sound, for instance, a blue-tinted movie is associated with a cold atmosphere and the choice of music and sound increases the effect of the shown scenes to the audience. Post-production was named a dying industry by Phil Izzo, the once exclusive service offered by high-end post-production facilities have been eroded away by video editing software that operates on a non-linear editing system. As such, traditional services are being surpassed by digital. In television, the phases of post-production include, video editing, sound editing and visual effects insertions, viewing and it is imperative that post-production executes and oversees the preparation until the final product is completely ready. Professional post-producers usually apply a certain range of image editing operations to the raw image format provided by a photographer or an image-bank, there is a range of proprietary and free and open-source software, running on a range of operating systems available to do this work.
The first stage of post-production usually requires loading the RAW images into the post-production software, if there is more than one image, and they belong to a set, ideally post-producers try to equalize the images before loading them. After that, if necessary, the step would be to cut the objects in the images with the Pen Tool for a perfect. The next stage would be cleaning the image using tools such as the tool, clone tool. The next stages depend on what the client ordered, if its a photo-montage, the post-producers would usually start assembling the different images into the final document, and start to integrate the images with the background. In advertising, it usually requires assembling several images together in a photo-composition, types of work usually done, Advertising that requires one background and one or more models. Fashion photography that usually requires a really heavy post-production for editorial and/or advertising, techniques used in music post-production include comping and pitch correction, and adding effects.
This process is referred to as mixing and can involve equalization
The majority of firms in the entertainment industry have never owned their own studios, but have rented space from other companies. The largest film studio in the world is Hengdian World Studios, in Zhejiang and he distributed these movies at vaudeville theaters, penny arcades, wax museums, and fairgrounds. The pioneering Thanhouser film studio was founded in New Rochelle, New York in 1909 by American theatrical impresario Edwin Thanhouser, the company produced and released 1,086 films between 1910 and 1917, successfully distributing them around the world. The first film ever, Million Dollar Mystery, was released by the Thanhouser company in 1914. In the early 1900s, companies started moving to Los Angeles, although electric lights were by widely available, none were yet powerful enough to adequately expose film, the best source of illumination for motion picture production was natural sunlight. Some movies were shot on the roofs of buildings in Downtown Los Angeles, early movie producers relocated to Southern California to escape Edisons Motion Picture Patents Company, which controlled almost all the patents relevant to movie production at the time.
The first movie studio in the Hollywood area was Nestor Studios, in the same year, another 15 independents settled in Hollywood. Other production companies eventually settled in the Los Angeles area in such as Culver City, Burbank. Five large companies, 20th Century Fox, RKO Pictures, Paramount Pictures, smaller studios operated simultaneously with the majors. Together with smaller outfits such as PRC TKO and Grand National, the Big Fives ownership of movie theaters was eventually opposed by eight independent producers, including Samuel Goldwyn, David O. Selznick, Walt Disney, Hal Roach, and Walter Wanger. In 1948, the government won a case against Paramount in the Supreme Court. This decision, reached after years of litigation, hastened the end of the studio system. By the 1950s, the components of a typical major film studio had become standardized. Movement in and out of the studio is normally limited to specific gates, Studio premises generally feature multiple sound stages along with an outside backlot, as well as offices for studio executives and production companies.
There is normally a studio commissary, which is the term in the film industry for what other industries call a company cafeteria. With the growing diversification of studios into such fields as video games, theme parks, home video and publishing, instead the studios transformed into financing and distribution entities for the films made by their affiliated production companies. With the decreasing cost of CG and visual effects, many studios sold large chunks of their once massive studio spaces or backlots to private real-estate developers. Century City in Los Angeles was once part of the 20th Century Fox backlot, in most cases portions of the backlots were retained and are available for rental by various film and television productions
A film, called a movie, motion picture, theatrical film or photoplay, is a series of still images which, when shown on a screen, creates the illusion of moving images due to the phi phenomenon. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed rapidly in succession, the process of filmmaking is both an art and an industry. The word cinema, short for cinematography, is used to refer to the industry of films. Films were originally recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process, the adoption of CGI-based special effects led to the use of digital intermediates. Most contemporary films are now fully digital through the process of production, distribution. Films recorded in a form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. It runs along a portion of the film exclusively reserved for it and is not projected, Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures. They reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them, Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, and a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens.
The visual basis of film gives it a power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into the language of the viewer, some have criticized the film industrys glorification of violence and its potentially negative treatment of women. The individual images that make up a film are called frames, the perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called phi phenomenon. The name film originates from the fact that film has historically been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for a motion picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture, photoplay. The most common term in the United States is movie, while in Europe film is preferred. Terms for the field, in general, include the big screen, the screen, the movies, and cinema. In early years, the sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film, sets, production, actors, storyboards, much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène.
Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images, the magic lantern, probably created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, which was achieved by various types of mechanical slides
The Albert R. Broccoli 007 Stage is one of the largest sound stages in the world. It is located at Pinewood Studios, Iver Heath, England, the stage was originally conceived in 1976 by production designer Ken Adam to house the set he had designed for the interior of the Liparus supertanker in the James Bond film The Spy Who Loved Me. The stages construction cost $1.8 million, the stage was christened the 007 Stage on 5 December 1976 during a ceremony attended by former British Prime Minister Harold Wilson. In contrast to the crater set Adam had built for You Only Live Twice in 1966. The 1976 stage measured 102 m by 41 m and was 12.5 m high and it had a maximum 4,220 m² floor space. The stage featured a tank measuring 91 m by 22.5 m by 2.7 m, according to 007stage. com, the water tank was an existing studio feature and the stage was created by constructing a building to completely enclose the tank. Technically, because it had no soundproofing, it was a silent stage, the 007 Stage burnt to the ground on 27 June 1984 towards the end of filming of Ridley Scotts Legend.
It was rebuilt, and reopened in January 1985, with the new name, Albert R. Broccoli 007 Stage, another fire occurred on 30 July 2006. The fire occurred just after production ended on the Bond film Casino Royale while the Venetian piazza set was being dismantled, eight fire engines took 90 minutes to bring the fire under control, a spokesman for the local fire brigade said gas canisters may have exploded inside the building. Filming had been completed on the several days before and it was being dismantled. The damage to the building was extensive causing the roof of the building to collapse, on 31 July 2006, Pinewood issued a statement indicating that the stage will need to be demolished and rebuilt and that there had been no casualties in the incident. The fire-damaged stage was demolished on 13–14 September, construction on the new stage began on 18 September and was completed in under 6 months. The new stage is 374 feet long,158 feet wide and 41 to 50 feet high, the stage is the biggest in Europe around 59,000 sq ft.
Mamma Mia. Jack Ryan, Shadow Recruit, Water-filled Wall Street vent facility, anecdotal reports that parts of Supergirl and Batman were filmed on the 007 stage are unsubstantiated. Official page on 007 Stage The Pinewood Studios Group Pinewood Studios 007 Stage