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Soundgarden was an American rock band formed in Seattle, Washington, in 1984 by singer and rhythm guitarist Chris Cornell, lead guitarist Kim Thayil, bassist Hiro Yamamoto. Matt Cameron became the band's full-time drummer in 1986, while bassist Ben Shepherd became a permanent replacement for Yamamoto in 1990; the band dissolved in 1997 and re-formed in 2010. Following Cornell's suicide in 2017 and a year of uncertainty of the band's future, Thayil declared in an October 2018 interview with Seattle Times that they would not continue as Soundgarden. Soundgarden was one of the seminal creators of grunge, a style of alternative rock that developed in Seattle, was the first of a number of grunge bands to sign to the record label Sub Pop. Soundgarden was the first grunge band to sign to a major label, though they did not achieve commercial success until they popularized the genre in the early 1990s with Seattle contemporaries Alice in Chains, Pearl Jam, Nirvana. Soundgarden achieved its biggest success with the 1994 album Superunknown, which debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 and yielded the Grammy Award-winning singles "Spoonman" and "Black Hole Sun".

In 1997, the band broke up due to internal strife over its creative direction. After more than a decade of working on projects and other bands, Soundgarden reunited in 2010, Republic Records released their sixth and final studio album, King Animal, two years later; as of 2012, Soundgarden sold more than 10.5 million records in the United States, an estimated 25 million worldwide. VH1 ranked Soundgarden at number 14 in their special 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock. Soundgarden's origins began with a band called the Shemps, which performed around Seattle in the early 1980s, featured bassist Hiro Yamamoto and drummer and singer Chris Cornell. Following Yamamoto's departure, the band recruited guitarist Kim Thayil as its new bassist. Thayil moved to Seattle from Park Forest, with Yamamoto and Bruce Pavitt, who would start the independent record label Sub Pop. Cornell and Yamamoto stayed in contact, after the Shemps broke up Cornell and Yamamoto started jamming together, were joined by Thayil. Soundgarden formed in 1984 and included Cornell and Thayil.

The band named themselves after a wind-channeling pipe sculpture titled A Sound Garden, on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration property at 7600 Sand Point Way, next to Magnuson Park in Seattle. Cornell played drums while singing, but in 1985 the band enlisted Scott Sundquist to allow Cornell to concentrate on vocals; the band traveled around playing various concerts with this lineup for about a year. Their first recordings were three songs that appeared on the 1986 compilation album for C/Z Records called Deep Six—"Heretic", "Tears to Forget" and "All Your Lies", it featured songs by fellow grunge pioneers Green River, Skin Yard, the U-Men, the Melvins. In 1986, Cornell's then-girlfriend and future wife, Susan Silver started managing Soundgarden. In the same year, Sundquist left the band to spend time with his family and was replaced by Skin Yard's drummer, Matt Cameron. A Soundgarden performance one night impressed KCMU DJ Jonathan Poneman who said: "I saw this band, everything rock music should be."

Poneman offered to fund a release by the band, so Thayil suggested he team up with Bruce Pavitt. Poneman offered to contribute $20,000 in funding for Sub Pop turning it into a full-fledged record label. Soundgarden signed to Sub Pop, the label released "Hunted Down" in 1987 as the band's first single; the B-side of "Hunted Down," "Nothing to Say," appeared on the KCMU compilation tape Bands That Will Make Money, distributed to record companies, many of whom showed interest in Soundgarden. Through Sub Pop, the band released the Screaming Life EP in 1987, the Fopp EP in 1988, a combination of the two, Screaming Life/Fopp, in 1990. Though major labels were courting the band, in 1988 they signed to the independent label SST Records for their independent album, Ultramega OK, released on October 31, 1988. Cornell said the band "made a huge mistake with Ultramega OK" because they used a producer suggested by SST who "didn't know what was happening in Seattle". According to Steve Huey of AllMusic, Soundgarden demonstrates, a "Stooges/MC5-meets-Zeppelin/Sabbath sound" on the album.

Mark Miremont directed the band's first music video for "Flower," which aired on MTV's 120 Minutes. Soundgarden supported Ultramega OK on a tour in the United States in the spring of 1989, a tour in Europe, which began in May 1989—the band's first overseas tour. Ultramega OK earned the band a Grammy Award nomination for Best Metal Performance in 1990. After touring in support of Ultramega OK the band signed with A&M Records, which caused a rift between Soundgarden and its traditional audience. Thayil said, "In the beginning, our fans came from the punk rock crowd, they abandoned us when they thought we sold out the punk tenets, getting on a major label and touring with Guns N' Roses. There were fashion issues and social issues, people thought we no longer belonged to their scene, to their particular sub-culture." The band began work on its first album for a major label, but personnel difficulties caused a shift in the band's songwriting process, according to Cornell: "At the time Hiro excommunicated himself from the band and there wasn't a free-flowing system as far as music went, so I ended up writing a lot of it."

On September 5, 1989, the band released its debut major-label album, Louder Than Love, which saw it take "a step towar

Emanuele Concetti

Emanuele Concetti is an Italian footballer goalkeeper. Concetti started his professional career at Lazio. In mid-2000, he was loaned to Arezzo. During the 2002–03 season, he was a backup for Angelo Peruzzi and Luca Marchegiani, although he played once for Lazio in the UEFA Cup, against FC Red Star Belgrade. In June 2003, he joined Perugia but loaned to Catania at the start of season, as Lorenzo Squizzi's backup. In January 2005, he left for Lodigiani and in January 2006 for Sambenedettese, replacing Antonio Rosati and compete the first choice with Domenico Di Dio. In mid-2006, he joined Monza of Serie C1, as the first choice goalkeeper, ahead Fabio Carrara. In January 2007, he was loaned to Chievo, replacing Mattia Passarini, again as Lorenzo Squizzi's backup. In mid-2007, he joined Crotone which he won promotion to Serie B in 2009, he lost his starting place to Vid Belec during 2010–11 Serie B and was released by Crotone in June 2011, which Giacomo Bindi succeeded his backup role. LazioUEFA Cup Winners' Cup: 1998–99 UEFA Super Cup: 1999 Serie A: 1999–2000 Coppa Italia: 1999–2000 Supercoppa Italiana: 2000 2006-07 La Gazzetta dello Sport Profile Profile at

Trainer Refinery

Trainer Refinery is an oil refining facility located in Trainer, Delaware County, Pennsylvania. The facility is about downstream from the Port of Chester and fifteen miles southwest of Philadelphia along the Delaware River. Stoney Creek is along its northern perimeter; the Trainer Refinery is owned by LLC, a subsidiary of Delta Air Lines. Monroe Energy acquired the facility in June 2012. Since that time, the company has focused on producing high-quality transportation fuels at the refinery. In addition to jet fuel, the facility produces gasoline and home heating oil. In 1891, the Union Petroleum Company leased 17 acres in Marcus Hook, from the Reading Company; the first plant, constructed of wood, burned down in 1912. Union Petroleum Company was bought out by Sinclair Oil Corporation, which purchased the original lease and an additional 242 acres of land adjacent to Trainer, Pennsylvania. On March 17, 1925, Sinclair Oil opened its new $7 million state-of-the-art facility with a projected gasoline production of 6,000 gallons per day.

In the late 1940s, Sinclair went through a number of expansions, notably the installation of a fluid catalytic cracking unit. In 1955, the company installed two new crude stills. According to the 1955 Sinclair Oil Annual Report, these expansions gave the plant an estimated crude processing capacity of 120,000 BPD. ARCO acquired the company in 1969 and, shortly thereafter, sold the refinery to BP, which transferred the formal ownership to SOHIO; these transactions were a part of deals for the Alaskan Pipeline. The refinery underwent a modernization expansion at an estimated cost of $200 million. BP took total ownership of the refinery after absorbing SOHIO in 1987. In 1996, BP sold several refining assets, including the refinery at Marcus Hook, to Tosco Corporation, which shuttered the refinery after negotiations broke down with union employees. In 1997, Tosco reopened the facility as the Trainer Refinery, operating as part of Bayway Refining Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of Tosco. In 2001, the refinery became part of Phillips Petroleum Company after its acquisition of Tosco.

In 2002, Conoco merged with Phillips to become ConocoPhillips. The plant shut down in late September 2011, due to a low profit margin. In 2012, downstream assets of ConocoPhillips were spun off to the newly formed Phillips 66. In 2012, Phillips 66 sold the refinery to Monroe Energy, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Delta Air Lines. Delta stated that it considered the purchase of the refinery an "innovate approach" towards managing fuel expenses; the 185,000 barrel-per-day refinery restarted production in September 2012. Delta spent around $100 million to transition 40% of production to jet fuel for its commercial fleet. Under the leadership of Delta CEO Richard Anderson, the Trainer Refinery committed to procuring more oil from domestic companies. In July 2014, it announced a five-year deal with Texas logistics firm, Bridger LLC, to supply 65,000 barrels of domestic crude a day, or about one-third of the crude oil refined at Trainer. Monroe Energy website


Duxelles is a finely chopped mixture of mushrooms or mushroom stems, onions or shallots, herbs such as thyme or parsley, black pepper, sautéed in butter and reduced to a paste. Cream is sometimes used as well, some recipes add a dash of madeira or sherry, it is a basic preparation used as a garnish. Duxelles can be filled into a pocket of raw pastry and baked as a savory tart. Duxelles is made depending on the recipe. Duxelles made with wild porcini mushrooms will have a much stronger flavor than those made with white or brown mushrooms. Duxelles is said to have been created by the 17th-century French chef François Pierre La Varenne and to have been named after his employer, Nicolas Chalon du Blé, marquis d'Uxelles, maréchal de France. Many classical cookbooks define duxelles as dehydrated fungi, used as stuffings and pastry fillings. According to Auguste Escoffier, the mushrooms were dehydrated in order to enhance flavor and minimize water content; when fresh mushrooms are cooked, they let off enormous amounts of vapor in relation to their size.

Fresh mushrooms used as stuffings or pastry fillings could therefore build up pressure inside the dish or pastry, causing it to crack or explode. Sautéed mushrooms List of mushroom dishes Mushroom Duxelles: Intense and Refined Mushroom Duxelle

Yuri Velykanovych

Yuri Dmytrovych Velykanovych was a participant in the Spanish Civil War, Ukrainian interbrigadist, member of the Communist Party of Western Ukraine. Yuri Velykanovych was born in a family of teachers Emilia and Dnytro Velykanovych in the village of Ilnyk where he graduated from school. Since 1920 he studied in the Ukrainian grammar school in Lviv, he entered the Faculty of Philology at the Jan Kazimierz University. Being a student he joined the Communist Party of Western Ukraine. Since the summer of 1936, he is a fighter of the International Brigades in Spain during the Civil War. Since July 1937, he is a member of the Company named after Taras Shevchenko composed of Ukrainian communists from Galicia and Volhynia. In the interbrigadist press Velykanovych publishes his articles and correspondence in Polish and Ukrainian about Taras Shevchenko's life and creativity, about the battle way of the company. On September 4, 1938, he was mortally wounded in the battle of the Ebro river. During the Soviet era, in 1982, a monument to Yuri Velykanovych was erected in Lviv.

In addition a street received the name of Velykanovych. On that street there was a school with deep learning of Spanish. In May 2015, the vandals cut off the head of the statue; the monument was dismantled for restoration, returned to its place. At night on December 2, 2017, members of the neo-Nazi group C14 threw the sculpture to the ground, drew the slogan "Down with the communist!" on the pedestal, left the signature of their gang. Anger as statue of Spanish civil war hero vandalised - the International Brigade Memorial Trust has condemned the desecration of a monument to a Ukrainian who died in the Spanish

Triangular decomposition

In computer algebra, a triangular decomposition of a polynomial system S is a set of simpler polynomial systems S1... Se such that a point is a solution of S if and only if it is a solution of one of the systems S1... Se; when the purpose is to describe the solution set of S in the algebraic closure of its coefficient field, those simpler systems are regular chains. If the coefficients of the polynomial systems S1... Se are real numbers the real solutions of S can be obtained by a triangular decomposition into regular semi-algebraic systems. In both cases, each of these simpler systems has a triangular shape and remarkable properties, which justifies the terminology; the Characteristic Set Method is the first factorization-free algorithm, proposed for decomposing an algebraic variety into equidimensional components. Moreover, the Author, Wen-Tsun Wu, realized an implementation of this method and reported experimental data in his 1987 pioneer article titled "A zero structure theorem for polynomial equations solving".

To put this work into context, let us recall what was the common idea of an algebraic set decomposition at the time this article was written. Let K be an algebraically closed field and k be a subfield of K. A subset V ⊂ Kn is an algebraic variety over k if there exists a polynomial set F ⊂ k such that the zero set V ⊂ Kn of F equals V. Recall that V is said irreducible if for all algebraic varieties V1, V2 ⊂ Kn the relation V = V1 ∪ V2 implies either V = V1 or V = V2. A first algebraic variety decomposition result is the famous Lasker–Noether theorem which implies the following. Theorem. For each algebraic variety V ⊂ Kn there exist finitely many irreducible algebraic varieties V1... Ve ⊂ Kn such that we have V = V 1 ∪ ⋯ ∪ V e. Moreover, if Vi ⊈ Vj holds for 1 ≤ i < j ≤ e the set is unique and forms the irreducible decomposition of V. The varieties V1... Ve in the above Theorem are called the irreducible components of V and can be regarded as a natural output for a decomposition algorithm, or, in other words, for an algorithm solving a system of equations in k.

In order to lead to a computer program, this algorithm specification should prescribe how irreducible components are represented. Such an encoding is introduced by Joseph Ritt through the following result. Theorem. If V ⊂ Kn is a non-empty and irreducible variety one can compute a reduced triangular set C contained in the ideal ⟨ F ⟩ generated by F in k and such that all polynomials g in ⟨ F ⟩ reduces to zero by pseudo-division w.r.t C. We call the set C in Ritt's Theorem a Ritt characteristic set of the ideal ⟨ F ⟩. Please refer to regular chain for the notion of a triangular set. Joseph Ritt described a method for solving polynomial systems based on polynomial factorization over field extensions and computation of characteristic sets of prime ideals. Deriving a practical implementation of this method, however and remains a difficult problem. In the 1980s, when the Characteristic set Method was introduced, polynomial factorization was an active research area and certain fundamental questions on this subject were solved recentlyNowadays, decomposing an algebraic variety into irreducible components is not essential to process most application problems, since weaker notions of decompositions, less costly to compute, are sufficient.

The Characteristic Set Method relies on the following variant of Ritt's Theorem. Theorem. For any finite polynomial set F ⊂ k, one can compute a reduced triangular set C ⊂ ⟨ F ⟩ such that all polynomial g in F reduces to zero by pseudo-division w.r.t C. Different concepts and algorithms extended the work of Wen-Tsun Wu. In the early 1990s, the notion of a regular chain, introduced independently by Michael Kalkbrener in 1991 in his PhD Thesis and, by Lu Yang and Jingzhong Zhang led to important algorithmic discoveries. In Kalkbrener's vision, regular chains are used to represent the generic zeros of the irreducible components of an algebraic variety. In the original work of Yang and Zhang, they are used to decide whether a hypersurface intersects a quasi-variety. Regular chains have, in fact, several interesting properties and are the key notion in many algorithms for decomposing systems of algebraic or differential equations. Regular chains have been investigated in many papers; the abundant literature on the subject can be explained by the many equivalent definitions of a regular chain.

The original formulation of Kalkbrener is quite different from that of Yang and Zhang. A bridge between these two notions, the point of view of Kalkbrener and that of Yang and Zhang, appears in Dongming Wang's paper. There are various algorithms available for obtaining triangular decomposition of V both in the sense of Kalkbrener and in the sense of Lazard and Wen-Tsun Wu; the Lextriangular Algorithm by Daniel Lazard and the Triade Algorithm by Marc Moreno Maza together with the Characteristic Set Method are available in various computer algebra systems, including Axiom and Maple. Let k be a field and x1 <... < xn be ordered variables. We denote by R = k the corresponding polynomial ring. For F ⊂ R, regarded as a system of polynomial equations, there are two notions of a triangular decomposition over the algebraic closure of k; the first one is to decompose l