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Soundproofing is any means of reducing the sound pressure with respect to a specified sound source and receptor. There are several basic approaches to reducing sound: increasing the distance between source and receiver, using noise barriers to reflect or absorb the energy of the sound waves, using damping structures such as sound baffles, or using active antinoise sound generators. There are 5 elements in sound reduction The "Absorption" aspect in soundproofing should not be confused with Sound Absorbing Panels used in acoustic treatments. "Absorption" in this sense only refers to reducing a resonating frequency in a cavity by installing insulation between walls, ceilings or floors. Acoustic Panels can play a role in a treatment only after walls or ceilings have been soundproofed, reducing the amplified reflection in the source room. Two distinct soundproofing problems may need to be considered when designing acoustic treatments—to improve the sound within a room, reduce sound leakage to/from adjacent rooms or outdoors.

Acoustic quieting and noise control can be used to limit unwanted noise. Soundproofing can suppress unwanted indirect sound waves such as reflections that cause echoes and resonances that cause reverberation. Soundproofing can reduce the transmission of unwanted direct sound waves from the source to an involuntary listener through the use of distance and intervening objects in the sound path. Sound absorbing material controls reverberant sound pressure levels within a cavity, enclosure or room. Synthetic Absorption materials are porous. Fibrous absorption material such as cellulose, mineral wool, sheep’s wool, are more used to deaden resonant frequencies within a cavity, serving dual purpose for their thermal insulation properties. Both fibrous and porous absorption material are used to create acoustic panels, which absorb sound reflection in a room, improving speech intelligibility. Porous absorbers open cell rubber foams or melamine sponges, absorb noise by friction within the cell structure.

Porous open cell foams are effective noise absorbers across a broad range of medium-high frequencies. Performance can be less impressive at lower frequencies; the exact absorption profile of a porous open cell foam will be determined by a number of factors including the following: Cell size Tortuosity Porosity Material thickness Material density Resonant panels, Helmholtz resonators and other resonant absorbers work by damping a sound wave as they reflect it. Unlike porous absorbers, resonant absorbers are most effective at low-medium frequencies and the absorption of resonant absorbers is always matched to a narrow frequency range. Damping means to reduce resonance by absorption or redirection. Absorption will reduce the overall sound level, whereas redirection makes unwanted sound harmless or beneficial by reducing coherence. Damping can reduce the acoustic resonance in the air, or mechanical resonance in the structure of the room itself or things in the room. Creating separation between a sound source and any form of adjoining mass, hindering the direct pathway for sound transfer.

Decoupling a wall involves the use of Resilient Isolation Clips or Sound Damping Pads. The clips should be staggered; the Resilient Isolation Channel clicks into the Resilient Clips, resulting in a 1 5/8” gap between the stud and drywall. Fine thread screws are used to screw the dry wall into the Resilient Channel. Screws should be the correct length in order to not pierce a stud, this will compromise the efficiency of the decoupled wall; the energy density of sound waves decreases as they become farther apart, so that increasing the distance between the receiver and source results in a progressively lesser intensity of sound at the receiver. In a normal three-dimensional setting, with a point source and point receptor, the intensity of sound waves will be attenuated according to the inverse square of the distance from the source. Adding dense material to a treatment in order to stop sound waves from exiting a source wall, ceiling or floor. Use of Mass Loaded Vinyl, Soundproof Sheetrock, Plywood, MDF, Concrete or Rubber.

Different widths and densities in soundproofing material reduces sound within a variable frequency range. Use of multiple layers of material is essential to the success in any treatment.. When sound waves hit a medium, the reflection of that sound is dependent on dissimilarity of the surfaces it comes in contact with. Sound hitting a concrete surface will result in a much different reflection than if sound were to hit a softer medium such as fiberglass. In an outdoor environment such as highway engineering, embankments or panelling are used to reflect sound upwards into the sky. If a specular reflection from a hard flat surface is giving a problematic echo an acoustic diffuser may be applied to the surface, it will scatter sound in all directions. This is effective to eliminate pockets of noise in a room. Noise cancellation generators for active noise control are a modern innovation. A microphone is used to pick up the sound, analyzed by a computer. Residential Sound Programs aims to eliminate the effects of exterior noise.

The main focus of residential sound program in existing structures is the doors. Solid wood doors are a better sound barrier than ho

Old Permic script

The Old Permic script, sometimes called Abur or Anbur, is a "highly idiosyncratic adaptation" of the Cyrillic script once used to write medieval Komi. The script was introduced by a Russian missionary, Stepan Khrap known as Saint Stephen of Perm in 1372; the name Abur is derived from the names of the first two characters: An and Bur. The script derived from Cyrillic and Greek, with Komi "Tamga" signs, the latter being similar in the appearance to runes or siglas poveiras because they were created by incisions rather than by usual writing; the inclusion of the latter aided the script to greater acceptance among the medieval Permic speakers of the time. The script was in use until the 17th century. Abur was used as cryptographic writing for the Russian language. April 26, the saint's day of Stephen of Perm, is celebrated as Old Permic Alphabet Day; the Abur inscriptions are among the oldest relics of the Uralic languages. Only one of them has earlier documents: Hungarian, written using the Old Hungarian script first before the Latin script was used after 1000.

For comparison, Finnish as a written language appeared only after the Reformation in 1543. However, an isolated birch bark letter, found in 1957 in Novgorod and written in a Finnic language, has been dated to the beginning of the 13th century. Lytkin's 1952 work is considered the authoritative source of documentation for this script. There are 24 primary characters, along with 10 secondary characters that are subordinate to the primary characters. There are some combining marks that may have been used for phonological purposes, in addition to some combining letters from Latin and Cyrillic that have been found as well. Spaces, middle dots, semi-apostrophes have been seen as punctuation in documents. A Cyrillic combining titlo is used to indicate numerals. Old Permic was added to the Unicode Standard in June 2014 with the release of version 7.0. "Abur at Minority languages of Russia on the Net". "Abur".

Privacy policy

A privacy policy is a statement or a legal document that discloses some or all of the ways a party gathers, uses and manages a customer or client's data. Personal information can be anything that can be used to identify an individual, not limited to the person's name, date of birth, marital status, contact information, ID issue, expiry date, financial records, credit information, medical history, where one travels, intentions to acquire goods and services. In the case of a business it is a statement that declares a party's policy on how it collects and releases personal information it collects, it informs the client what specific information is collected, whether it is kept confidential, shared with partners, or sold to other firms or enterprises. Privacy policies represent a broader, more generalized treatment, as opposed to data use statements, which tend to be more detailed and specific; the exact contents of a certain privacy policy will depend upon the applicable law and may need to address requirements across geographical boundaries and legal jurisdictions.

Most countries have their own legislation and guidelines of, covered, what information can be collected, what it can be used for. In general, data protection laws in Europe cover the private sector as well as the public sector, their privacy laws apply not only to government operations but to private enterprises and commercial transactions. California Business and Professions Code, Internet Privacy Requirements mandate that websites collecting Personally Identifiable Information from California residents must conspicuously post their privacy policy. In 1968, the Council of Europe began to study the effects of technology on human rights, recognizing the new threats posed by computer technology that could link and transmit in ways not available before; as well, in 1969 the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development began to examine the implications of personal information leaving the country. All this led the council to recommend that policy be developed to protect personal data held by both the private and public sectors, leading to Convention 108.

In 1981, Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data was introduced. One of the first privacy laws enacted was the Swedish Data Act in 1973, followed by the West German Data Protection Act in 1977 and the French Law on Informatics, Data Banks and Freedoms in 1978. In the United States, concern over privacy policy started around the late 1960s and 1970s saw the passage of the Fair Credit Reporting Act. Although this act was not designed to be a privacy law, the act gave consumers the opportunity to examine their credit files and correct errors, it placed restrictions on the use of information in credit records. Several congressional study groups in the late 1960s examined the growing ease with which automated personal information could be gathered and matched with other information. One such group was an advisory committee of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, which in 1973 drafted a code of principles called the Fair Information Practices.

The work of the advisory committee led to the Privacy Act in 1974. The United States signed the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines in 1980. In Canada, a Privacy Commissioner of Canada was established under the Canadian Human Rights Act in 1977. In 1982, the appointment of a Privacy Commissioner was part of the new Privacy Act. Canada signed the OECD guidelines in 1984. There are significant differences between US data privacy laws; these standards must be met not only by businesses operating in the EU but by any organization that transfers personal information collected concerning citizens of the EU. In 2001 the United States Department of Commerce worked to ensure legal compliance for US organizations under an opt-in Safe Harbor Program; the FTC has approved TRUSTe to certify streamlined compliance with the US-EU Safe Harbor. In 1995 the European Union introduced the Data Protection Directive for its member states; as a result, many organizations doing business within the EU began to draft policies to comply with this Directive.

In the same year, the U. S. Federal Trade Commission published the Fair Information Principles which provided a set of non-binding governing principles for the commercial use of personal information. While not mandating policy, these principles provided guidance of the developing concerns of how to draft privacy policies; the United States does not have a specific federal regulation establishing universal implementation of privacy policies. Congress has, at times, considered comprehensive laws regulating the collection of information online, such as the Consumer Internet Privacy Enhancement Act and the Online Privacy Protection Act of 2001, but none have been enacted. In 2001, the FTC stated an express preference for "more law enforcement, not more laws" and promoted continued focus on industry self-regulation. In many cases, the FTC enforces the terms of privacy policies as promises made to consumers using the authority granted by Section 5 of the FTC Act which prohibits unfair or deceptive marketing practices.

The FTC's powers are statutorily restricted in some cases. In some cases, private parties enforce the terms of privacy policies by filing class action lawsuits, which may result in settlements or judgments. However, such lawsuits are not an option, due to arbitration cla

Oh No (Bro'Sis song)

"Oh No" is a song by German pop group Bro'Sis. It was written by Marc Mozart and Andy Love and produced by the former along with John Eaton for the band's second studio album Days of Our Lives. Released as the album's lead single on April 7, 2003 on double A-side with their German Football Association hymn "Never Stop", the latin pop-influenced uptempo track became the group's sixth and final top ten entry on the German Singles Chart, peaking at number seven, it marked the band's final release with Indira Weis who would announce her departure from Bro'Sis the following month. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

1999 Chamoli earthquake

The 1999 Chamoli earthquake occurred on 29 March in the Chamoli district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The earthquake was the strongest to hit the foothills of the Himalayas in more than ninety years. 103 people died in the earthquake. The Himalaya Range has been undergoing crustal shortening along the 2,400 km long northern edge of the Indian Plate which resulted in the formation of several thrust faults including the Main Central Thrust, the Main Boundary Thrust and the Main Frontal Thrust; the MCT consists of three sub-thrusts: MCT I, MCT II and MCT III. Many earthquakes have occurred along these thrust faults, it is thought. The magnitude of the earthquake was 6.8 on the Richter scale. Apart from the Chamoli district, the quake affected five other districts of Uttar Pradesh viz. Rudraprayag, Tehri Garhwal, Bageshwar and Pauri Garhwal. Among these and Rudraprayag were the most affected districts. Aftershocks continued and most of the aftershocks occurred in the east of Chamoli. Officials from Pakistan reported that the quake was felt in Lahore and Gujranwala.

The earthquake was felt in the Nanda Devi mountain region, in Kanpur, Delhi, Sirmour, Saharanpur, Bijnor, Meerut and Srinagar and in the Baitadi District, Dadeldhura District, Darchula District and Kanchanpur District in Mahakali Zone in Nepal. Severe ground deformations resulted from the earthquake. Formation of ground fissures were reported from many areas. Landslides and changes in the groundwater flow were reported. Well-developed ground cracks were seen in Gopeshwar and Bairagna. Cracks were observed in asphalt roads at several locations. Landslips cut off parts of many major roads; the death toll was 103. Several hundred people injured and 50,000 houses were damaged. Over 2,000 villages were affected by the earthquake. Electricity, water supply and communication were severely affected by the earthquake in the Chamoli town and Okhimath region of Rudraprayag district. According to Mike Wooldridge, correspondent for the BBC News, Chamoli suffered most damage and all the houses and shops built on slopes in the lower part of the town were destroyed.

The bridge deck of a pedestrian suspension bridge situated near Bairagna developed lateral buckling and the cables of the bridge were loosened. Water pipelines in Chamoli and Gopeshwar towns were damaged affecting water supply due to landslides caused by the quake; the concrete-lined canals of the irrigation network in the affected region sustained some cracks. In Delhi, many buildings sustained non-structural damage. According to Dr B. L. Wadhera, who filed a public interest litigation in the Delhi High Court, cracks developed in the Shastri Bhavan in Delhi which houses several Union Ministries. Damage occurred in several buildings in Dehradun also. A few old buildings of the Survey of India sustained collapse of gable masonry, cracks developed along the junctions between the pitched roof and the masonry walls. Rescue operations were hampered by landslides, loss of electrical power and the loss of communication links with Chamoli. Many road workers became involved to clear landslide debris from a 16 km stretch of road leading to the worst-affected area.

Local people carried out rescue operations. Rescue efforts were led by the Indian Army and Paramilitary personnel were called-in to aid; the army used helicopters to ferry in supplies. Food and other necessary supplies were air-dropped to villages which lacked motorable roads and where roads were damaged due to landslides. Locals organized a committee to make sure. List of earthquakes in 1999 Earthquake hazard zoning of India List of earthquakes in India Kayal, J. R.. ReliefWeb's main page for this event

Revolutionary song

Revolutionary songs are political songs that advocate or praise revolutions. They are used to boost morale, as well as for political agitation. Amongst the most well-known revolutionary songs are "La Marseillaise" and "The Internationale". Many protest songs can be considered revolutionary - or become canonized as revolutionary songs following a successful revolution. On the other hand, once a revolution is established, some of the aspects of protest song may be considered counter-revolutionary. Revolutionary songs are a notable part of propaganda; the singing of such songs is considered as a demonstrative or revolutionary action. Such songs have been known to lend solidarity to disjointed political communities; some revolutionary songs have appeared spontaneously. Revolutionary songs are targeted at certain governments. Music was part of the cultural support of the earliest revolutions, institutionalized as a genre of socialist or workers' music in countries including the Soviet Union, its former Eastern European satellites, Vietnam and North Korea, as well as less permanent revolutionary movements in other countries.

During the French Revolution notable songs, beyond La Marseillaise, included Chant du départ, Carmagnole, Ah! ça ira, ça ira, ça ira, Allons Français au Champs de Mars, L'aristocratie en déroute, Aux bons citoyens, Le bonnet de la liberté, many more. Songs during the American Revolutionary War with revolutionary lyrics and propaganda purposes include songs such as "Dying Redcoat", "Free America", "Poor Old Tory", "Jefferson and Liberty"; the successful Greek War of Independence between 1821 and 1832, generated not only revolutionary songs in Greece, but wide artistic and musical support from other western nations. The Revolutions of 1848 in Europe generated a wide range of revolutionary and patriotic popular song; this tapped into earlier support for the Napoleonic revolutions. The current Romanian national anthem "Deșteaptă-te, române!" is a revolutionary song of 1848. Many revolutionary songs appeared during the Spanish Civil War and subsequent social revolution amongst members of the anarcho-syndicalist trade union, the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo.

The most famous of these, "A Las Barricadas", remains popular for anarchist militants to this day. In post-World War II Europe, revolutionary songs were taught in schools and sung at celebrations and official functions. Revolutionary songs were a prominent part of the popular culture of the People's Republic of China during the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, during the Cultural Revolution. One of the more popular Chinese revolutionary songs was "Nanniwan", a 1943 song lauding the exploits of the Chinese Red Army in a gorge in Shaanxi province near the revolutionary base of Yan'an. Revolutionary songs of Communist China served to glorify the 1949 revolution and to present an image of unity amongst China's 56 ethnic groups and its various regions. Songs such as "The Sky Above the Liberated Zone" and "Osmanthus Flowers Blooming Everywhere in August", a Red Army folk song from the Sichuan province, are among the best-known revolutionary songs from the wartime and Maoist periods in China. Nhạc đỏ, "Red Music," is the common name of the revolutionary music genre in Vietnam.

Composers during the struggle against the French include Đinh Nhu songwriters of Vietnamese popular music such as Văn Cao. Cuba's national anthem "La Bayamesa" dates to 1868, but many new songs were generated by the revolution; the key focus is on the rural people. "Hasta siempre" was written. Another well known Latin American song, "El pueblo unido jamás será vencido", is not a revolutionary song, but a Chilean protest song in support of Salvador Allende. Cuban government sponsored revolutionary Nueva trova is similar to Nueva canción, Latin American protest songs. Following the Iranian revolution musicians were obliged to create music different from the pre-revolutionary music both in terms of rhythm and content. Iranian revolutionary songs are epic ballads, composed during the Islamic Revolution in Iran in support of the revolution and in opposition to the Pahlavi dynasty. Before the success of the revolution, these chants were made by various political supporters- many of them recorded on cassette tapes in underground and home studios.

On the anniversary of the revolution, many of the songs were broadcast by Iranian state television. In schools the songs have been sung by students as part of the celebrations Fajr for decades; some revolutionary songs intentionally mimic folk songs to make them palatable in non-political settings. An example of this type of song is a lullaby from Hungary, which starts off as a lullaby but shifts into more direct propaganda toward the end: The bunch of little bears sleeping And the pool sleeps on a soft pillow The swing sleeps too, the night will be their good blanket Dream, my little one, soft dream flies It flies to your eyes Be silent, little baby Our dreams were hushed away by the grim despotism And only our hunger sung our song. Another example is "Tomorrow Belongs to Me", performed by a young man in the movie Cabaret, it starts off as a sweet folk song about nature, it becomes apparent that the young man is a member of the Hitlerjugend. Soon the song changes into a marching song, the lyrics became a fascist propaganda about "rising