Athletics at the 2000 Summer Olympics – Men's 110 metres hurdles
The Men's 110 metre Hurdles at the 2000 Summer Olympics as part of the athletics programme were held at Stadium Australia on Sunday 24 September and Monday 25 September 2000. The top four runners in each of the initial six heats automatically qualified for the second round; the next eight fastest runners from across the heats qualified. Those 33 runners competed in 4 heats in the second round, with the top three runners from each heat qualifying for the semifinals. There were two semifinals, only the top four from each heat advanced to the final. After a false start eliminated nobody, on the second try the field started even. Anier Garcia accelerated his first few steps better and gained a few centimeter lead over the first barrier, which he rattled. Fast starting Terrence Trammell was just awkward on his second step losing a slight amount of ground. Defending champion Allen Johnson was close to Garcia, after clobbering the first two hurdles, he was pulling even; the entire lead group hit the third hurdle, by now Johnson and Garcia had a clear lead, with Trammell a clear third place.
Johnson continued to hit hurdles, losing ground to Garcia, while Mark Crear was emerging ahead of world record holder Colin Jackson by not touching his hurdles while Jackson hit hurdle 4 awkwardly enough to pull him out of contention. Johnson hit the ninth hurdle with is lead heel, not close to getting over the hurdle; the awkwardness of riding the last hurdle down to the ground lost his forward momentum. Garcia had a metre and a half lead at the finish over Trammell, while Crear did hit the last hurdle he was able to beat Johnson to the line for bronze. World and Olympic records prior to the Games. All times shown are in seconds. Q denotes qualification by place in heat. Q denotes qualification by overall place. DNS denotes did not start. DNF denotes did not finish. DQ denotes disqualification. NR denotes national record. OR denotes Olympic record. WR denotes world record. PB denotes personal best. SB denotes season best. Source: Official Report of the 2000 Sydney Summer Olympics available at https://web.archive.org/web/20080522105330/http://www.la84foundation.org/5va/reports_frmst.htm
Ernst van Dyk
Ernst Francois van Dyk OIS is a South African wheelchair racer and handcyclist. He has won a record 10 wheelchair titles in the Boston Marathon, he was awarded the Laureus World Sports Awards for Sportsperson with a Disability of the year for 2006. At the 2000 Summer Paralympics in Sydney, he won a bronze medal in the 400 metres. At the 2004 Summer Paralympics in Athens, he won a silver medal in the 800 metre race, another silver in the 1500 metres, a bronze in the 5000 metres. At the 2008 Summer Paralympics in Beijing van Dyk won gold in the handcycling road race as well as bronze in the wheelchair marathon. Other handcycling achievements include: Obtaining a silver and bronze medal at the 2009 UCI Para-cycling Road World Championships held in Italy and taking double gold at the 2007 UCI Para-cycling Road World Championships held in Bordeaux. Van Dyk was born with congenital absence of both legs, his parents, two provincial-level athletes, recognized his athletic abilities and encouraged sports participation.
At first he went to school in Graaff-Reinet. He attended the Elizabeth Conradie School for disabled children in Kimberley, he competed as a swimmer nationally in his teens. In 1992 he enrolled in Stellenbosch University and competed in the Barcelona Paralympics as a swimmer and wheelchair athlete. Thereafter, he concentrated on wheelchair athletics, his ninth win in the 2010 Boston Marathon was a record for that event in any class. As of 21 April 2014 he has won ten. On 20 April 2010 the South African government announced that van Dyk will be awarded the Order of Ikhamanga in silver for his achievements in sport. Van Dyk's company, Enabled Sport, deals in equipment for athletes with disabilities, he lives in Western Cape with his wife and daughter. Official website
Australia at the 2000 Summer Olympics
Australia was the host nation for the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney. Australian athletes have competed in every Summer Olympic Games. 628 competitors, 341 men and 276 women, took part in 270 events in 34 sports. Australia won its first Olympic gold medal in the sport of archery in Sydney. Simon Fairweather defeated all six archers he faced, including a comfortable seven-point victory in the final. Men Women KeyNote–Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only Q = Qualified for the next round q = Qualified for the next round as a fastest loser or, in field events, by position without achieving the qualifying target NR = National record N/A = Round not applicable for the event Bye = Athlete not required to compete in round Men Track and road eventsField eventsCombined events – DecathlonWomen Track and road events Field eventsCombined events – Heptathlon MenWomenMixed The Australians' second appearance in the Olympic baseball tournament resulted in the team moving up one place in the rankings, from seventh to sixth.
They defeated Korea and South Africa but lost to the five other teams in competition to finish outside the top four and find themselves eliminated after the preliminaries. Preliminary Round Robin Lost to Netherlands Defeated Korea Lost to Japan Defeated South Africa Lost to Cuba Lost to Italy Lost to United States → did not advance Team Roster Craig Anderson Grant Balfour Tom Becker Shayne Bennett Mathew Buckley Adam Burton Clayton Byrne Mark Ettles Paul Gonzalez Mark Hutton Ronny Johnson Grant McDonald Adrian Meagher Michael Moyle Michael Nakamura David Nilsson Glenn Reeves Brett Roneberg Chris Snelling Brad Thomas Rodney van Buizen David White Gary White Glenn Williams Head Coach: Jon Deeble Preliminary Round Lost to Canada Lost to Yugoslavia Defeated Russia Defeated Angola Defeated Spain Quarterfinals Defeated Italy Semi-finals Lost to France Bronze Medal Match Lost to Lithuania Team Roster Andrew Gaze Chris Anstey Mark Bradtke Martin Cattalini Ricky Grace Shane Heal Luc Longley Sam Mackinnon Brett Maher Paul Rogers Jason Smith Andrew Vlahov Head Coach: Barry Barnes Preliminary Round Defeated Canada Defeated Brazil Defeated Slovakia Defeated Senegal Defeated France Quarterfinals Defeated Poland Semi-finals Defeated Brazil Final Lost to United States → Silver Medal Team Roster Sandy Brondello Michelle Brogan Carla Boyd Jo Hill Kristi Harrower Shelly Sandle Annie la Fleur Trisha Fallon Lauren Jackson Rachael Sporn Michele Timms Jenny Whittle Head Coach: Tom Maher Men MenWomen MenWomen PursuitSprintTime trialPoints raceKeirin Australia entered divers in all of the events, won two bronze medals.
MenWomen Seven fencers, five men and two women, represented Australia in 2000. MenWomen Coach: Raul Blanco *Over-aged player Preliminary Round Lost to Germany Tied with Sweden Lost to Brazil Quarter Finals Did not qualify Team Roster Dianne Alagich Sharon Black Bryony Duus Alicia Ferguson Alison Forman Heather Garriock Kelly Golebiowski Peita-Claire Hepperlin Sunni Hughes Kate McShea Julie Murray Cheryl Salisbury Bridgette Starr Anissa Tann Leanne Trimboli Sacha Wainwright Tracey Wheeler Amy Wilson Head Coach: Chris Tanzey TeamIndividual events Preliminary Round Lost to Sweden Lost to Spain Lost to Slovenia Lost to Tunisia Lost to France Quarterfinal Did not qualify Classification Match 11th/12th place: Lost to Cuba → 12th and last place Team Roster Peter Bach Christian Bajan Vernon Cheung Russell Garnett David Gonzalez Kristian Groenintwoud Darryl McCormack Rajan Pavlovic Taip Ramadani Brendon Taylor Lee Schofield Dragan Sestic Sasa Sestic Milan Slavujevic Karim Shehab Head Coach: Zoltán Marczinka Preliminary Round Lost to Brazil Lost to Norway Lost to Denmark Lost to Austria Quarterfinal Did not qualify Classification Match 9th/10th place: Lost to Angola → 10th and last place Team Roster Janni Bach Petra Besta Rina Bjarnason Raelene Boulton Kim Briggs Mari Edland Sarah Hammond Fiona Hannan Vera Ignjatovic Jana Jamnicky Lydia Kahmke Marina Kopcalic Jovana Milosevic Shelley Ormes Katrina Shinfield Head Coach: Christoph Mecker Preliminary Round Australia — Poland 4-0 Australia — India 2-2 Australia — Spain 2-2 Australia — Argentina 2-1 Australia — South Korea 2-1 Semi Finals Australia — The Netherlands 0-0 Bronze Medal Game Australia — Pakistan 6-3 Team Roster Michael Brennan Adam Commens Stephen Davies Damon Diletti Lachlan Dreher Jason Duff Troy Elder James Elmer Paul Gaudoin Stephen Holt Brent Livermore Daniel Sproule Jay Stacy Craig Victory Matthew Wells Michael York Head Coach: Terry Walsh Preliminary Round Australia — Great Britain 2-1 Australia — Spain 1-1 Australia — Argentina 3-1 Australia — South Korea 3-0 Medal Round Australia — New Zealand 3-0 Australia — The Netherlands 5-0 Australia — China 5-1 Final Australia — Argentina 3-1 Team Roster Kate Allen Alyson Annan Renita Farrell Juliet Haslam Rechelle Hawkes Nikki Hudson Rachel Imison Clover Maitland Claire Mitchell-Taverner Jenny Morris Alison Peek Katrina Powell Lisa Powell Angie Skirving Kate Starre Julie Towers Head Coach: Rick Charlesworth MenWomen Coaches: Anthony Klarica, John Olsen, John Gilman, Scott Arnold, Russel Johnston MenWomen Australia competed in all of the sailing events at the 2000 Olympics.
They won 1 silver and 1 bronze. MenMen's Double Handed Dinghy Tom King and Mark Turnbull Race 1 — 5 Race 2 — 1 Race 3 — 2 Race 4 — Race 5 — 7 Race 6 — 10 Race 7 — 8 Race 8 — 1 Race 9 — 2 Race 10 — Race 11 — 2 Final — 38
The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet". Its distinctive hump upper deck along the forward part of the aircraft has made it one of the most recognizable aircraft, it was the first wide-body airplane produced. Manufactured by Boeing's Commercial Airplane unit in the United States, the 747 was envisioned to have 150 percent greater capacity than the Boeing 707, a common large commercial aircraft of the 1960s. First flown commercially in 1970, the 747 held the passenger capacity record for 37 years; the quadjet 747 uses a double-deck configuration for part of its length and is available in passenger and other versions. Boeing designed the 747's hump-like upper deck to serve as a first–class lounge or extra seating, to allow the aircraft to be converted to a cargo carrier by removing seats and installing a front cargo door. Boeing expected supersonic airliners—the development of, announced in the early 1960s—to render the 747 and other subsonic airliners obsolete, while the demand for subsonic cargo aircraft would remain robust well into the future.
Though the 747 was expected to become obsolete after 400 were sold, it exceeded critics' expectations with production surpassing 1,000 in 1993. By July 2018, 1,546 aircraft had been built, with 22 of the 747-8 variants remaining on order; as of January 2017, the 747 has been involved in 60 hull losses. The 747-400, the most common variant in service, has a high-subsonic cruise speed of Mach 0.85–0.855 with an intercontinental range of 7,260 nautical miles. The 747-400 can accommodate 416 passengers in a typical three-class layout, 524 passengers in a typical two-class layout, or 660 passengers in a high–density one-class configuration; the newest version of the aircraft, the 747-8, is in production and received certification in 2011. Deliveries of the 747-8F freighter version began in October 2011. In 1963, the United States Air Force started a series of study projects on a large strategic transport aircraft. Although the C-141 Starlifter was being introduced, they believed that a much larger and more capable aircraft was needed the capability to carry outsized cargo that would not fit in any existing aircraft.
These studies led to initial requirements for the CX-Heavy Logistics System in March 1964 for an aircraft with a load capacity of 180,000 pounds and a speed of Mach 0.75, an unrefueled range of 5,000 nautical miles with a payload of 115,000 pounds. The payload bay had to be 17 feet wide by 13.5 feet high and 100 feet long with access through doors at the front and rear. Featuring only four engines, the design required new engine designs with increased power and better fuel economy. In May 1964, airframe proposals arrived from Boeing, General Dynamics and Martin Marietta. After a downselect, Boeing and Lockheed were given additional study contracts for the airframe, along with General Electric and Pratt & Whitney for the engines. All three of the airframe proposals shared a number of features; as the CX-HLS needed to be able to be loaded from the front, a door had to be included where the cockpit was. All of the companies solved this problem by moving the cockpit above the cargo area. In 1965 Lockheed's aircraft design and General Electric's engine design were selected for the new C-5 Galaxy transport, the largest military aircraft in the world at the time.
The nose door and raised cockpit concepts would be carried over to the design of the 747. The 747 was conceived; the era of commercial jet transportation, led by the enormous popularity of the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8, had revolutionized long-distance travel. Before it lost the CX-HLS contract, Boeing was asked by Juan Trippe, president of Pan American World Airways, one of their most important airline customers, to build a passenger aircraft more than twice the size of the 707. During this time, airport congestion, worsened by increasing numbers of passengers carried on small aircraft, became a problem that Trippe thought could be addressed by a larger new aircraft. In 1965, Joe Sutter was transferred from Boeing's 737 development team to manage the design studies for the new airliner assigned the model number 747. Sutter initiated a design study with Pan Am and other airlines, to better understand their requirements. At the time, it was thought that the 747 would be superseded by supersonic transport aircraft.
Boeing responded by designing the 747 so that it could be adapted to carry freight and remain in production if sales of the passenger version declined. In the freighter role, the clear need was to support the containerized shipping methodologies that were being introduced at about the same time. Standard shipping containers are 8 ft square at the front and available in 40 ft lengths; this meant that it would be possible to support a 2-wide 2-high stack of containers two or three ranks deep with a fuselage size similar to the earlier CX-HLS project. In April 1966, Pan Am orde
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
2000 Summer Olympics
The 2000 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event, held between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It was the second time that the Summer Olympics were held in Australia, the Southern Hemisphere, the first being in Melbourne, Victoria, in 1956. Sydney was selected as the host city for the 2000 Games in 1993. Teams from 199 countries participated; the Games’ cost was estimated to be A$6.6 billion. The Games received universal acclaim, with the organisation, volunteers and Australian public being lauded in the international media. Bill Bryson from The Times called the Sydney Games "one of the most successful events on the world stage", saying that they "couldn't be better". James Mossop of the Electronic Telegraph called the Games "such a success that any city considering bidding for future Olympics must be wondering how it can reach the standards set by Sydney", while Jack Todd in the Montreal Gazette suggested that the "IOC should quit while it's ahead.
Admit there can never be a better Olympic Games, be done with it," as "Sydney was both exceptional and the best". In preparing for the 2012 Olympic Games in London, Lord Coe declared the Sydney Games the "benchmark for the spirit of the Games, unquestionably" and admitting that the London organising committee "attempted in a number of ways to emulate what the Sydney Organising Committee did." These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch. These were the second Olympic Games to be held in spring and is to date the most recent games not to be held in its more traditional July or August summer slot; the final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by Russia and China with host Australia at fourth place overall. Several World and Olympic records were broken during the games. With little or no controversies, the games were deemed successful with the rising standard of competition amongst nations across the world. Sydney won the right to host the Games on 24 September 1993, after being selected over Beijing, Berlin and Manchester in four rounds of voting, at the 101st IOC Session in Monte Carlo, Monaco.
The Australian city of Melbourne had lost out to Atlanta for the 1996 Summer Olympics four years earlier. Beijing lost its bid to host the games to Sydney in 1993, but was awarded the 2008 Summer Olympics in July 2001 after Sydney hosted the previous year, it would be awarded the 2022 Winter Olympics twenty-two years in 2015. Although it is impossible to know why members of the International Olympic Committee voted for Sydney over Beijing in 1993, it appears that an important role was played by Human Rights Watch's campaign to "stop Beijing" because of China's human rights record. Many in China were angry at what they saw as U. S.-led interference in the vote, the outcome contributed to rising anti-Western sentiment in China and tensions in Sino-American relations. The Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimates the outturn cost of the Sydney 2000 Summer Olympics at USD 5 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 90% in real terms; this includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost for Sydney 2000 compares with a cost of USD 4.6 billion for Rio 2016, USD 40–44 billion for Beijing 2008 and USD 51 billion for Sochi 2014, the most expensive Olympics in history. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is USD 5.2 billion, average cost overrun is 176%. In 2000, the Auditor-General of New South Wales reported that the Sydney Games cost A$6.6 billion, with a net cost to the public between A$1.7 and A$2.4 billion. Many venues were constructed in the Sydney Olympic Park, which failed in the years following the Olympics to meet the expected bookings to meet upkeep expenses. In the years leading up to the games, funds were shifted from education and health programs to cover Olympic expenses, it has been estimated that the economic impact of the 2000 Olympics was that A$2.1 billion has been shaved from public consumption.
Economic growth was not stimulated to a net benefit and in the years after 2000, foreign tourism to NSW grew by less than tourism to Australia as a whole. A "multiplier" effect on broader economic development is not realised, as a simple "multiplier" analysis fails to capture is that resources have to be redirected from elsewhere: the building of a stadium is at the expense of other public works such as extensions to hospitals. Building sporting venues does not add to the aggregate stock of productive capital in the years following the Games: "Equestrian centres, softball compounds and man-made rapids are not useful beyond their immediate function." In the years after the games, infrastructure issues have been of growing concern to citizens those in the western suburbs of Sydney. Proposed rail links to Sydney's west have been estimated to cost in the same order of magnitude as the public expenditure on the games. Although the Olympic Games Opening Ceremony was not sc