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South African Air Force

The South African Air Force is the air force of South Africa, with its headquarters in Pretoria. The South African Air Force was established on 1 February 1920; the Air Force has seen service in the Korean War. From 1966 the SAAF was involved in providing infantry support in a low intensity war in Angola, South-West Africa and Rhodesia; as the war progressed, the intensity of air operations increased until in the late 1980s, the SAAF were compelled to fly fighter missions against Angolan aircraft in order to maintain tactical air superiority. On conclusion of the Border War in 1990, aircraft numbers were reduced due to economic pressures as well as the cessation of hostilities with neighbouring states. Today the SAAF has a limited air combat capability and has been structured towards regional peace-keeping, disaster relief and maritime patrol operations. During the apartheid era, it was known by its Afrikaans name of Suid-Afrikaanse Lugmag, a moniker which has since been depreciated. After a visit to observe the 1912 military manoeuvres in Europe, Brig. Gen. C.

F. Beyers gave an positive report on the future use of aircraft for military purposes to General Smuts. Smuts initiated an arrangement with private fliers in the Cape and established a flying school at Alexandersfontein near Kimberley, known as the Paterson Aviation Syndicate School, to train pilots for the proposed South African Aviation Corps. Flying training commenced in 1913 with students who excelled on the course being sent to the Central Flying School at Upavon in Great Britain for further training; the first South African military pilot qualified on 2 June 1914. At the outbreak of World War I, the Union Defence Force had realised the urgent need for air support which brought about the establishment of the South African Aviation Corps on 29 January 1915. Aircraft were purchased from France while the building of an airfield at Walvis Bay commenced in earnest in order to support operations against German forces in German South West Africa. By June 1915 the SAAC was deployed to its first operational airfield at Karibib in German South West Africa in support of Gen. Botha's South African ground forces.

The SAAC flew reconnaissance and leaflet dropping missions from Karibib and from Omaruru, where improvised bombing missions were added when pilots started dropping hand grenades and rudimentary bombs by hand. On 9 July 1915, the German forces capitulated and most of the pilots and aircraft of the SAAC were sent to Britain in support of the Imperial war effort. Although the SAAC remained active, its activities were limited to ground training at the Cape Town Drill Hall, while the pilots, detached to the Royal Flying Corps were grouped to form No. 26 Squadron RFC and becoming an independent squadron on 8 October 1915. No. 26 Squadron was equipped with Henri Farman F-27's and B. E.2c's and was shipped to Kenya in support of the war effort in German East Africa, landing in Mombasa on 31 January 1916. The squadron flew reconnaissance and observer missions throughout the campaign until February 1918 when the squadron returned to the UK via Cape Town and arrived at Blandford Camp on 8 July 1918 and was disbanded the same day.

While the SAAC were engaged in German South West Africa and 26 Sqdn RFC in East Africa, many South Africans traveled to the United Kingdom to enlist with the Royal Flying Corps. The number of South Africans in the RFC reached 3,000 men and suffered 260 active-duty fatalities over the Somme during the war. Forty-six pilots became fighter aces. On conclusion of the First World War, the British Government donated surplus aircraft plus spares and sufficient equipment to provide the nucleus of a fledgling air force to each of its Dominions; as part of this donation, to become known as the Imperial Gift, South Africa received a total of 113 aircraft from both the British Government as well as from other sources. On the 1 February 1920 Colonel Pierre van Ryneveld was appointed as the Director Air Service with the task of forming an air force, the date is used to mark the founding of the South African Air Force. In December 1920 the South African National insignia was added to aircraft for the first time.

An Orange, Green and Blue roundel was added to an Avro 504K for trial purposes but the colours were found to be unsuitable and were replaced with a Green, Lemon and Blue roundel in December 1921. These colours remained until 1927 when they were replaced with the Orange and Blue roundels; the first operational deployment of the newly formed Air Force was to quell internal dissent, when in 1922 a miner's strike on the Johannesburg gold mines turned violent and led to the declaration of martial law. 1 Squadron was called to bombard the strikers' positions. Sorties in support of the police amounted to 127 flight hours between 10 and 15 March and this inauspicious start for the SAAF led to two pilot losses, two wounded and two aircraft lost to ground fire; the SAAF was again deployed to suppress the Bondelzwart Rebellion at Kalkfontein between 29 May and 3 July 1922. At the outbreak of war, South Africa had no naval vessels and the UDF's first priority was to ensure the safety of the South African coastal waters as well as the strategically important Cape sea-route.

For maritime patrol operations, the SAAF took over all 29 passenger aircraft of South African Airways: 18 Junkers Ju 86Z-ls for maritime patrols and eleven Junkers Ju 52s for transport purposes. SAAF maritime patrols commenced on 21 September 1939 with 16 Squadron flying three JU-86Z's from Walvis Bay. Ha

Bellerophon (genus)

Bellerophon is a genus of extinct paleozoic marine molluscs of uncertain position in the family Bellerophontidae. The genus was named after the ancient Greek hero. Bellerophon is the type genus of the family Bellerophontidae; the genus is characterised by a shell, globose and planispiral. The shell of Bellerophon superficially resembles that of a miniature cephalopod, except that septa are lacking; the shell of Bellerophon is a couple of centimeters in maximum dimension. The external surface is smooth, ornamented only by growth lines. There is a low ridge running along the midline of the shell. Many specimens of Bellerophon show something resembling a "waterline" about halfway up the shell, suggesting that a large amount of the mantle and foot were exposed and covered the outside of the shell, as in the extant Cypraeidae and Naticidae; these animals were quick moving, relying on speed to avoid predators and, when this was not possible, withdrawing into the shell. The genus occurs worldwide, is known from the Silurian to the Early Triassic periods.

Although classified as a primitive gastropod, there is a minority view that the Bellerophontida represented a more primitive, untorted type of mollusk, which evolved a spiral shell independently. Another view is that some Bellerophontids, including Bellerophon, were torted gastropods, but that others were untorted forms. Species within the genus Bellerophon include: subgenus Bellerophon Bellerophon needlensis - from Late Mississippian from Utah Bellerophon welshi - from Late Mississippian from Utahsubgenus? Bellerophon bicarenus Lévillé from early Carboniferous Bellerophon graphicus Moore from the late Pennsylvanian of Kansas Bellerophon regularis from the Permian of India Bellerophon vasulites Montfort - the type species, from the Middle Devonian of Germany and others P. D. de Montfort. 1808. Conchyliologie systématique, et classification méthodique des coquilles. Coquilles univalves, cloisonnées 1 Moore, R. C. Lalicker, C. G. and Fischer, A. G. 1952, Invertebrate Fossils, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York.

Vasily Demut-Malinovsky

Vasily Ivanovich Demuth-Malinovsky was a Russian sculptor whose works represent the quintessence of the Empire style. He entered the Imperial Academy of Arts at the age of six and studied under Mikhail Kozlovsky for fifteen years. Upon the death of his teacher, he won a competition to design his tomb and departed for Rome to study with Canova. Success came to him with two colossal statues for the Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg. In the aftermath of the Russian victory over Napoleon, Demuth-Malinovsky executed a number of patriotic pieces, including a tomb and a large statue of Barclay de Tolly in Estonia. Alexander I assigned to him the task of preparing bas-reliefs symbolizing the Neva and the Volga for the Alexander Column on Palace Square. Demuth-Malinovsky designed statuary and decorations for other St Petersburg churches and public monuments those designed by Carlo Rossi: the General Staff Building, the Bourse, the Admiralty, the Mining Institute, the Egyptian Gate, the Narva Gate, the Mikhailovsky Palace.

С. Н. Кондаков. Юбилейный справочник Императорской Академии художеств. 1764-1914. 2. P. 251